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THE TELEGRAPHER: 



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PUBLISHED BY THE 



Jfateal SMeraltk Stem, 



volume v. 



FROM 



AUGUST 29, 1868, O AUGUST 22, 1869. 



\ 



Hem Jjerk: 



RUSSELLS' AMERICAN STEAM PRINTING HOUSE, 28, 30, 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y. 



1868—1869, 






^u(f> a 



\ues 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME V. 



EDITORIALS. 

An Intelligent Correspondent 12 

Apologetic and Explanatory 20 

A Call from an Inventor 31 

A New "Way to Pay Old Debts 32 

A New Department 48 

Aiding Deception. 72 

Another Telegraph Institute Swindle 73 

A Testimonial 80 

A New Engineering Journal 88 

A Gold Medal Awarded 89 

A New Cable across the Mississippi 104 

Apology 113 

A Telegrapher as a Boniface 120 

A Queer Argument 136 

Arithmetical Problem 136 

A New District 136 

A New Paper 159 

A Deserved Compliment 159 

A Grand Ball 159 

An Interesting Work 168 

A Good Appointment 168 

A Good Example 176 

A New and Valuable Work 176 

An Unanswerable Argument 184 

A Protest 184 

A Congressman and his Hobbies 192 

Annual Ball of the N. Y. Telegraphers 192 

A Liberal Offer 208 

Another Chance for Permanent Investments 223 

Anxiously Looked For 223 

An Error 232 

A Mean Scoundrel 240 

An Energetic Friend 248 

An Item of Telegraphic History 256 

A Valuable Collection of Telegraphic Documents 264 

A Wonderful Observation 271 

A Telegraphic Consul 272 

A New Double Transmitter 272 

A Brilliant Auroral Display 279 

An Interesting Work 280 

A Valuable Correspondent 287 

Albany (N. Y.) District N. T. U 296 

Another Pacific Telegraph 303 

A Liberal Offer 303 

Another Auroral Demonstration 311 

Another Heavy Verdict against the W. U. Telegraph Co 820 

Another Telegrapher in Luck 328 

Automatic Telegraphing 352 

Another Impracticable Telegraph Scheme 352 

A Singular Coincidence 352 

Another Disclaimer 367 

Attempt to Galvanize a Still-born Telegraph Co 368 

Another Liberal Premium Offer 368 

A Good Appointment — Chas. H. Haskins 368 

A Permanent In vestment— No Dividends 384 

An Explanation 334 

A New Metropolitan Telegraph Co 384 

Another Telegrapher Happy 392 

Another Resignation 392 

A Printers' Festival 392 

ANewFirm — Gray k Barton 399 

An Agency Accepted 399 

A Visit to Boston 400 

Another Reduction of Cable Tolls 408 

Army Telegraph Reminiscences 408 

An Unmitigated Falsehood 415 

Another Volume Completed 416 

Becoming Famous 4 

Bliss, Tillotson & Co., of Chicago 73 

Balata Insulation 231 

Boston Public Library 256 

Brooks' Improved Insulators 320 360 



Courteous 12 

Commendable 31 

Courtesy 39 

Chester, Partrick & Co 80, 343 

Congress and the Telegraph 136 

Cheaper than the Cheapest 136 

Careless Omissions 160 

C. T. & J. N.Chester 168 

City Telegraphy 184 

Complimentary 231 

Cheap Telegraphing 248, 287 

Canada Afflicted 264 

Complimented 280 

Correction 360 

Caution to Telegraph Operators 384 

Conference of Telegraph Sup'ts 392 

Don't Forget the Telegraphers' Ball 176 

Distinguished Arrivals 216 

Demise of a Telegraph Institute 271 

Dominion Telegraph Company 319, 320 

Editorial Abuse 56 

Excessive Amiability 128 

Edison's Double Transmitter 128 

Education of Telegraphers 208 

Electrical Phenomena 216 

Explanatory 224 

Every Telegrapher a Reporter 288 

Electrical Organ Action 303 

Electricity Among the Stock Brokers 312 

Errors in Telegraphic Management 336 

Enterprise and Quick Results 416 

Free Telegraphic Instruction 192 

Give us the Names 88 

Going into Business 95 

Guess Again 103 

GladtoHear it 152 

Good Cause for Action 207 

Gone Home 224 

Gone to Europe. — W. F. Smith. 287 

Government Purchase of English Lines 336 

Hear Both Sides 128 

Honors to Prof. Morse 128 

Holiday Goods 137 

How Operators are Poisoned and Suffocated 256 

Highly Complimentary 352 

Has the Morse Patent Expired? 360 

Home Again — W. H. Heiss 383 

Is Damp Air a Conductor ? 21 

It is Well 248 

Important to Inventors and Patentees 319 

Impecunious, but Hopeful 360 

Important Business Change — S. C. Bishop 368 

Insolvent 415 

Justice 31 

Knox in Siberia 12 

Keep Us Posted 200 

Knox and Shain 280 

Lewis' Telegraphic Manual 41 

L. G. Tillotson & Co 160 

More Science in High Places 73 

Meeting of the N. Y. District 80 

Modesty and Ability 224 

More Encouragement Needed 272 

More Humbugging 335 

Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph, 

200, 264, 272, 288, 304, 312, 328, 344, 408 

More Trouble for the Western Union Co 376 

No Use , 31 

Not a Superintendent 271 

Not in the Postal Telegraph Ring 328 

" Operators Must Submit" 96 

Ocean Telegraphy 120, 216 

Our Advertising Columns 168 

Our New Premium 216 






Packard's Monthly 41, 80, 185, 216, 287, 328, 351, 384, 415 

Prospering 64 

Phelps' Printing Telegraph Instrument 103, 144 

Phelps' Instruments 144 

Professor Morse Feasted 152 

Philadelphia Manufacturers 168 

Patronize Old Friends 184 

Premature 248 

Probably Another Telegraph Swindle 288 

Promoted — A. S. Brown 303 

Private Telegraph Lines 338 

Paying Dear for the Whistle 360 

Prof. Morse 392 

Probable result of the Landing of the New Cable 400 

Query 04 

Requirement of Excessive Labor from Operators 20 

Removal of Chester, Partrick 4 Co 48 

Reciprocal Obligations 64 

Removal 128 

Review of Sabine's History and Progress of the Telegraph.. 255 

Removal 2 64 

Removed — D. Van Nostrand 280 

Reduction of Cable Tolls 287, 295, 407 

Removal Western Union Machine Shops 304 

Reduction of Telegraphic Charges 408 

Special Notice 12 

Scientific Knowledge in High Places 20 

Satisfactory and Encouraging 48 

Still Prospering 67 

Stand from Under 95 

Still Another 104 

Sloan's Telegraph Institute Humbug 112 

Sir Charles Bright 128 

Statement of Atlantic Cable Business 136 

Still They Come 231 

Superior Electrical Instruments 240 

Special Notice 248 

Support your Organ 303 

Still Poverty Stricken 376 

Severe Accident to Prof. Morse 384 

Singular Coincidences 392 

Steel Wire for Telegraph Lines 416 

The Future of the Telegraph 4 

The New Volume 4 

The Index to Volume IV 4 

The Annual Convention 12 

The Telegbapheb Enlarged 12 

The Sixth Annual Convention N. T. U 30 

To our Correspondents and Contributors 31 

The Duty of Telegraph Employes 40 

To the Members of the New York District 40 

The Teleqbapheb Supplement 40 

The Insurance Bureau 48 

The Franco-American Cable 48. 256, 344, 352 

To District Secretaries 48 

The New York District 48 

The Labor Question Again 56 

The Three Essentials 64 

Telegraph Books 64 

The American Compound Wire 64, 224 

The True Policy 72 

The Science and Practice of the Telegraph 72 

The National Telegraphic Union 80 

The Chicago Western Union Office Outdone 80 

The Telegraph Destitute Swindle 88 

The Monopoly Don't Like it 88 

To Advertisers 89 

The Western Hotel 89 

Telegraph Construction 95 

The Rapid Extension of Competing Lines 96 

The Bishop Gutta Percha Company 96 

The United States Postal Telegraph Co 104, 112 

The Boston Board of Trade and the Postal Telegraph 104 

The Telegbatheb Agency 112 



\2>\s 



CONTENTS. 



The Boston Telegraphers' Annual Ball 112 

The Postal Telegraph Co 112 

The Telegraph Institute Swindles Again 120 

The Prem urn Offer 120 

The United States Postal Telegraph Project 120 

The Government Telegraph 128 

Telegraphers as Editors 128 

The Holidays 144 

The N. T. Herald and the Government Telegraph 144 

TheSecond Cuba Cable 144 

To our California Subscribers 144 

Telegraphic Progress in 1 868 152 

Telegraphers' Ball at Chicago 152, 176 

The Parafflne Insulators 159 

The Government and the Telegraph 160 

Thanks 160 

Telegraphers' Ball 160, 168 

The National Telegraphic Union 168 

The Manufacturer and Builder 168, 303, 415 

The Pacific Telegraph 168 

The Last Device 176 

To District Officers 176 

The People, Press, and Congress Opposed to it 184 

The Great Metropolis. — A Mirror of New York. 192 

The Landing of the Franco- American Cable 200 

Tillotson & Co 200 

To Subscribers 2C0 

The Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph 207 

Trouble in Chicago Office 208 

Telegrapher — Vol. 1 217 

The Dominion Telegrapher 223 

The Postal Telegraph Schemes 224 

The Metropolitan Telegraph Company 232 

The Sunday Labor Question 240 

The Atlantic & Pacific Telg. Co 240 

Telegraphic Manufacturers on the Pacific Coast 240 

The English Telegraph Companies 248 

The Journal des Telegraphes 255 

Tillotson's Sounders 272 

The Canadian Telegraph Institutes 279 

The Reason Why 280 

The New Telegraph Work 295 

Telegraphic Engineers Needed 296 

Telegraphic Competition 304 

The Pacific Railroad Finished 3C4 

The Telephone 309 

Telegraphic Resignations— M. L. Wood, J. B. Stearns 311 

The Telegrapher and Telegraph Companies 312 

The Bishop Gutta Percha Co 319 

The New Postal Telegraph Ring 320 

The Right to Land Telegraph Cables 336 

The Typographical Union and the Postal Telegraph 344 

To the Members of the N. T. District 344 

The Auroral Discussion 344 

To our Correspondents 351 

The Engineering and Mining Journal 367 

The late Albert Wyeth 367 

To the Friends of the Telegrapher 376 

The French Cable landed 376 

The Government and the French Cable 383 

The New Atlantic Cable completed 392 

The Great Telegraphic Event 392 

To Canadian Telegraphers 392 

To our Southern Friends 416 

Union Among Telegraphers 328 

Unavoidably Postponed 392 

Van Nostrand's Eclectic Engineering Magazine 160, 209 

Volume VI 408 

Wanted, Particularly 31 216 

Worthy of Imitation 72 

Worthy of Mention 80 

Wholesome Refreshments Furnished 95 

Wanted, Back Numbers 121 

Who is he ? 144 

What does it Mean? 208 

Wanted to Complete Files 328 

What is the Matter ? 376 

Worthy of Attention . . .-. 416 

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS. 

American Compound Telegraph Wire 61 

A Poem by Telegraph 134 

An 111 Wind. — Sudden Removal of a Telegraph Office 149 

A Dream 189 

A Telegraph Supt. in a Dilemma 205 

An Eminent Electrician 269 



An Absurd Theory 325 

A Reminiscence of Army Telegraphy 405 

Baby is Dead 149 

*Charles Durant's Patent Nonpareil Relay 93 

Com'ort for the Afflicted 134 

Electrical and Telegraphic Manufacturers in Philadelphia.. 17 

Early Telegraphic Experiences 37 

Electro-Specific Gravity 157 

Electro-Motive Force of Batteries 261 

New Telegraphic Recording Apparatus 77 

New Western Union Telegraph Office at Clinton, Iowa 325 

On a Standard Wire Gauge 45 

On the Use of a Hydrometer for Batteries 317 

Reorganization of the Boston District, N. T. U 101 

♦Science and Practice of the Electric Telegraph 68, 85, 133 

The Future of the Electric Telegraph.— F. L. Pope 1 

*The Invention of the Inverted Cup, or Umbrella Insulator 117 

The Russo- American Telegraph 125 

The Revision of Telegraphic Rates 141 

The Postmaster General and the Telegraph 165 

Testing Telegraph Lines 197 

The Recovery of the Second Cuba Cable 229 

The Equipment of Short Lines 261 

The Velocity of the Electric Impulse 277 

The Employment of Lead as the Negative Metal in Daniell's 

Battery 317 

The Probability of Improvement in our Telegraphic System 413 

Waifs 2, 109 

Wails 11.9 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

A Good Appointment 3 

Complaint from Indianopolia 3 

An Intelligent Superintendent 18 

A Fleet Telegrapher 38 

A Correction 39 

A Correction 46 

An Appeal for the Union 46 

A Correction 55 

Another View of the Labor Question 63 

A Raking Fire. — Comparative Statement, etc 70 

Assumes t. e Responsibility 79 

A Drove of Bulls 86 

An Injustice Corrected 94 

A Busy Time — " Wholesome Refreshments" at Chicago 94 

An Operator's Experience on the U. P. R. R 110 

A Voice from up the River 110 

An Appeal for Justice 118 

A Reply to June 150 

An Unanswerable Objection 150 

A Presentation 159 

An Appeal for the Union and The Telegbapheb 198 

A Nuisance Abated 206 

A Reply to Relay 230 

A Joke 238 

A Stock Train— Forty Rams 254 

A Military Telegraph Line 262 

An Important Question Settled 270 

A Bull. —Owen and the Mule 271 

A Sharp Trick Exposed 278 

A Correction 278 

A Disappointed Crowd 278 

A Great Evil— Can it not be Remedied?. 294 

An Honest Telegraph Co.— Superintendent Wanted 294 

A Reply to " So" 302 

A Plan for Sick Relief 302 

Auroral and Electrical Phenomenon 310 

A Hot Bull 318 

Another Bull 318 

A Visit to the New Chicago Office 326 

A Reply to Induction 334 

Auroras and Magnetic Storms 342 

A Letter from Clinton, Iowa 342 

A Correction 342 

Another Magnificent W. U. Teli graph Office 351 

A Zealous employe. — Pertinent Queries 358 

A Reply to P— lug 366 

A Western Bull 406 

Bucket retoits 142 

Bulls 206 

Complimentary Resolutions, Peoria District, to G. S. Walker 47 

Commendatory 70 

Chicago Operators have Rivals at Pittsburg 78 

Courtesy of the Western Union 78 

Caning Extraordinary 158 

Christmas Presentation to Superintendent Coleman 166 



Catawi8sa Railroad District 166 

Congress and the Telegraph 158, 166, 174, 182, 190, 198, 206, 

214, 222, 231, 238, 245, 254, 262, 271 

Curiosities of the Telegraph 254 

Classification of Operators 286 

Cheap Telegraph Construction 286 

Compliment to a Retiring Manager, Cleveland, 310 

Duty of Telegraphers, Politically and Electrically 46 

Discouraged and L emoralized 54 

Dead Beats 182 

Duration of the Grove Battery 358 

Duties of Operators.— Pope's Modern Practice 358 

Demoralization of the Baltimore Telegraphers 374 

Election in Chicago District 3 

Excitement in Chicago (W. U. ) Office 10 

Election in Corry, Pa. , District 10 

Excitement of Western Union Officials at Pittsburg 102 

Explanatory.— The Franklin Telegraph Management 158 

Extension of the Police Telegraph, Washington 167, 174 

Electrical Phenomena 231, 254 

Election Washington District Postponed— Increase of Tariff "598 

Election of Delegites.— Base Ball Club Organization, Wash- 1 . n ~ 

ington, D. C } * 06 

From the Union Pacific R. R 246 

Gratified Officials.— The Labor and Pay Subjects Again 86 

Grumblers. — Good Resolutions. 182 

Highly Important Changes in Chicago Office 3 

How The Telegrapher is Received 64 

Honor to Whom Honor is Due 150 

How Abuses can be Remedied 174 

Hard Times and Hard Fare en the U. P. R. R 238 

He has a Frank 254 

Is it a Swindle ? 10 

Inconsistency 38 

Illiberal Compensation 70 

Intelligence and Politeness 135 

Intelligent 159 

It's Going to Burst 182 

Interesting Telegraphic Information 246 

InjusticeW. U.Tel. Co. in Correcting Errors 270 

Interesting Facts 350 

Justice to the Frauklin Co. Managers 142 

Justice to Baltimore Operators 398 

Letter from Brady's Island, Nebraska 38 

Letter from Bitter Creek 63 

Letter from Washington, D. C 86 

More Excitement in Western Union Chicago Office 18 

More Grievances 18 

Marriage of an Old Friend 38 

More Intelligence in High Places 65 

Misstatement Corrected 118 

More Liberality 118 

Mississippi Valley National Tel. Co 214 

Magnetic Storm 318 

Modern Practice and The Telegrapher in the West 350 

M. & St. Paul Railway. — Interesting Personals 850 

Movement* of Telegraphers 374 

Not so Bad as Stated 94 

No Thanksgiving. — A Telegraphic Problem 126 

New Telegraph Offices at Washington, D. C 198 

No Vacancy. — Telegraphic Items 262 

Operators Unnecessarily Waste Time 31 

Officers Elected, Peoria District 47 

Operators must Submit 87 

Operators Should Sustain the Union 174 

Obituary— J. Frauk Stevens 246 

Observations in New Amsterdam 366 

Obituary— T. P. Miller 382 

Premiums Received.— Good Wishes 11 

Personal and Telegraphic 94 

Presentation to an ex-Superiutendent 110 

Proposed Improvement in the Morse Alphabet 174 

Progress of the Union 2C 6 

PettyTyrauny 278 

Presentation to Thos. H. Sherman 286 

Personals.— C. B. and Q. R. R-, Eastern Division 334 

Personal Attacks 342 

Presentation to D. P. Shepherd, Houston, Texis 382 

Prescott on Electrical Tension 390 

Quicker Work *> a 



Queries. 



94 



Queer Messages 24 6 

Recruit for the Union 18 

Relay De-Magnetized 174 

Removal of Washington Office.— A Plea in Abatement 302 

Repairing the Wrong Wire 366 



CONTENTS. 



Revival Washington District, N. T. U 390 

Scientific Congress 3 

Success of The Telfgbapheb.— An Excellent Appointment. 8 

Suggestions t • the Delegates 10 

Shrewdness of the Monopoly 62 

Sabbath Labor 166 > 238 

Suit Against the Franklin Co. Settled 326 

Sharp on Horace.— A Few Bull9 3*0 

Suicide of dn Operator Explained 366 

Steel Telegraph Wire.— A Reply to Bear Valley 414 

Squibs ±1* 

Telegraphic Experiences on Union Pacific R. R 62 

The Union.— A Sugg' stion for Consideration 3 

The Alphabet Used on Peruvian Lines 10 

Telegraphic Base Ballists at Cincinnati 10, 11, 326, 334 

Telegraph Matters in Texas 18 

The Over-working Policy 31 

Telegraphic Notes 32 

The Labor Question.— The Great Moguls in Council 38 

The Anti-Trunnion Key 39 

The Reason Why. — Progress of Competition 46 

The I. O. Telegraph.— An Attache i Young' Man 64 

Telegraphic Competition .jT. 64 

Telegraph Extension in Canada . S. 78 

The Washington District 78, 142 

Telegraph Matters in Texas 78 

The Expenses of Living at Omaha 94 

Telegraphing on the U. P. R. R 102 

The Washington District. — Telegraphic. — Personal 102 

The Telegrapher Appreciated. — Telegraphic Items 103 

The Grumblers Censured 110 

Too Smart for His Position 110 

The Telegraph in California 118 

Telegraphic Personals 118 

The Chicago Office and Officials Vindicated 126 

The Telegraph in Congress. — New Line Proposed 134 

Telegraphing on the Union Pacific Railway, E. D 134 

Telegraph and Express Fraternization 150 

The Chicago Office and Operators 158 

Telegraphic Personals 158 

Telegraph Matters on the Pacifio Coast 166 

The Telegraph on the Isthmus j 190 

The Telegraph on the Pacific Coast .. . ./. 190, 246, 294, 382 

The Telegraph in the Provinces.. i^.. 190 

The Sabbath Labor Question 191 

The Pittsburg and Chicago Operators 198 

Telegraph Office Burned 198 

The Telegrapher Appreciated 214 

The Policy of the Union 214 

The South Waking Up..: 214 

Telegraphic Expe:ience on the U. P. B. R 222 

The Electric Phenomena Explaiued 222 

The Death of J. Frank Stephens 230 

The Telegraph in Oregon 254 

The Mineral Range Telegraph Line 262 

Telegraph Extension in Texas 270 

Telegraph Anecdotes 269 

Taken by Surprise 278 

The Chicago Operators Subdued 286 

Telegraphers' Base Ball Clubs 318 

The True Policy of Competing Companies 326 

Telegraphic Personals — Chicago 326 

Telegraphic Changes— Washington, D. C 342 

That Mischievious Operator Again 350 

The Great Western Telegraph Line 350 

The French Cable —The Franklin Co 358 

Telegraph Matters in ttie Northwest 374 

The Tole.do, Wabash and Western R. R. Telegraph Line. . . . 374 

The Death of Mr. Wyeth 374 

The Telegrapher Appreciated 374 

The Union Syncoped.— Washington Tel. Base Ball Club 382 

The Floods in Texas. — Te'. Communication Suspended 398 

Telegraphers' Base Ball Match — White House, N. J 398 

The Night Owls of Cincinnati Defeated 398 

Telegraph Matters at the Sou h 406 

The Terre Haute and Indianapolis Line 406 

The A. & P. States Line 406 

Unrequited Labor 54 

Up the River 150, 406 

Up the River. — A Snoggy Wager 246 

Waiting for the Verdict 70 

Washington District, N. T. U 126 

Was not Sent to Troy 182 

What it Does Mean 234 

Why do they Die bo Fast? 414 



TO CORRESPONDENTS.' 



Beta 

Brian Boru. ... 
C. R. Hosmer. 
C. H. S. Pld... 



19 

39 

79 

263 

Cleveland Operators 302 

C 326 

C. H. B., Panama 391 

D.F.H 247 

D. N., Baltimore 898 

G. M. L. Sherman 398 

H. D., of Ho 118 

H. A. K 118 

Harry B 135 

Horace 302, 350 

Indignant Reader 71 

Interested 158 

J.E.M 118 

J. R. D 118 

J. W.Thompson, Ireka.Cal 294 

J. C. F., Allegany 310 

K., Savannah 214 



Local '71 

Martha 79 

Manipulator 310 

Operators, Chicago . 32 

P., Prov 19 

P— lug 342 

R. J. H 142 

Relay 191 

Repairer, Lawrence, Ks.. 382 

R.J.H 406 

S. McA., Panama 191 

Static 254 

Spy & Co 406 

To Correspondents, 

39, 94, 126, 182, 222 

W.R. M. Pictou 94 

W. S. T 158 

W C, Mechanicsville.N.Y. 206 

Western Subscriber 278 

W. B. Rice, Salem, Oregon 398 



POETRY. 

An O'er True Tale 198 

Lines Suggested by the Death of J. Frank Stevens 230 

Mioplaced (Telegraphic) Affection 189 

Midnight Reflections of an "Owl" 254 

The Telegram 214 

FACETIJE. 

AU the Same 11 

A Bull 39, 135 

A Conundrum 61 

A Lady's Message 189 

A Postal Milk Bureau 191 

An Amusing Incident 231 

A Bothered Telegrapher 361 

A Big Swear 383 

A City Line Bull 41 5 

Bulls 247 

Can Travel Like "Pizen" 37 

Deeply Affected 467 

Electricity did Her no Good 343 

Fish vs. Fishooper 61 

It Can't Carry Cotton Bales 175 

In a Tight Place 199 

Mrs. Smith all Right 119 

Peter's Telegram 119 

Plugs not all Dead Yet 399 

Rather Mixed 151 

Rev. Ben Fenton 207 

The Telegraph in Russia 213 

Telegraph Anecdotes 247 

The Course of the French Atlantic Cable 375 

Telegraphic Blunders 406 



Adams, Freeman' 
Burhaus, W. W. 
Barrett, J. C. 
Butler, J. K. 
Coons, H. 
Curtiss, S. B. 
Duff, Kennedy 
Fuller, Geo. E. 
Flagg, Geo. W. 
Findley, D. L. 
McConnell, J. T. 
Martin, H. S. 
McGenty, W. T. 
Northrop, Chas. W. 
Phillips, Walter P. 
Pat sons, W. H. 
Parker, Frank 
Rugg, Norman H. 
Bedding, M. H. 
Bice, S. O. 
Wentz, Geo. D. 
Wood, Wm. B. 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, DEATHS. 
BORN. 

to — a daughter 217 

" a son 383 

" a son 399 

" a son 399 

" a daughter 1j 

" a son 399 

" a son 271 

" a son 5 

" a son 223 

" a daughter 399 

" a daughter 169 

" a daughter 209 

" a son 255 

" a son 255 

" a son 103 

" a son 231 

" a son 255 

" a son 57 

" a daughter 66 

" a daughter 255 

" a son 159 

" a daughter 409 



MABRIED. 

Adgate — Lamson 13 

Brayton— Shields 21 



Bloomer— Atwill 41 

Bascon — Tyson 57 

Burhans — Reilay 67 

Betts— Phillips 89 

Bathrick — Chamberlin 96 

Boyle — Vallandingham 177 

Brown— Wild 303 

Billings — Maldonado 393 

Childs — Brown 5 

Curtis— Fay 21 

Childs — Conover 143 

Carr — Green 151 

Cameron — White 185 

Cogswell — Alexander 271 

Davis— Schatt 21 

Demoll— Bowns 89 

Dyer— Wilson 303 

Degraw — Bostwick 311 

Durant— Smith 853 

Dyer — Paynter 417 

Findley — Muneret 65 

Fon da— McNeil 89 

Falconer— Flenner 185 

Fish— Morse 287 

Farrell— Gibbons 361 

Farrell— Ryan , 393 

Graves— Clark 128 

Hinchmau — Orvis 41 

Howe— Campbell 81 

Hutchinson — Williams 89 

Hunter— Bates 287 

Hodskin— Butler 303 

Johnson— Hill 271 

Lyle— Wallace 311 

Malin— Hardcastle 73 

McClelland— Davidson 169 

Mills— Pettit 311 

Newell — Powles 41 

Pope— Judson 113 

Prichard — Leas 343 

Bobinson— Stead 33 

Roosa — Cox 271 

Russell— McCullough 353 

Smith— Curtis 13 

Suesman — Hutchinson 21 

Thresher— Ingersoll 73 

Trissle— Keys 177 

Towne — Ayer 201 

Valentine— DeReimer 383 

Wellerton— Dole 185 

DIED. 

Curtis, W. C 49 

Calahan, Ellen 151 

Churchill, Mrs. F. C 216 

Coolidge, Burney 216 

Dameron, C. B 89 

Eckert, Mrs. EmeliDe Dore 95 

Gay, Richard, Jr., Albany, N. Y 57 

Gibson, Matt., Warren, HI 209 

Gamble, J. Martin, Shell Creek, Nevada . : 217 

Hay, James R 13 

Hall, Wm. C , 263 

Hann, Jas. W 327 

MacDermott, James L 399 

Norton, Miss M. E 129 

Newell, Laura Powless 399 

O'Calluhan, B 21 

Pierce, Joseph B 159 

Roberts, Florence Griffith 33 

Strickland Lewis J 177 

Smith, Mary E 217 

Stevens, J. Frank 222 

Squires, Mrs. L. A. Watson 239 

Swift, E. B 295 

White, William 57 

Winnie, John T 121 

OBITUARIES. 

HaU, Wm. C 271 

MacDermott, James L 399 

Rubbetu, Joseph 21 

Swift, E. B 318 

Wyeth, Albert 360 



6 



CONTENTS. 



NEW PATENTS. 
Automatic Transmitting Telegraphic Apparatus — C. West- 

bbook 255, 263 

Application of an Electrical Current to Steam Boilers — 

Moses G. Farmer 263 

Apparatus for Perforating Paper for Telegraphing— Geo. 

Little 343 

Apparatus for Perforating Paper for Automatic Transmitter 

— Geo. Little aud M. Lefferts 343 

Automatic Signal Box for Fire Alarm Telegraph— Moses G. 

Crane and Edwin Rogers 365 

Compound for Insulating Telegraph and Electric Wires — 

Bishop 73 

Compositio i Insulator for Telegraph and other Electrical 

Conductors— Hall 285 

Connection for Drawbridge Signals — Hall 327 

Device for Stretching Telegraph Wires— Thompson 73 

Electro-Maguetic Alarm — Crane 5 

Electro-Magnetic Printing Telegraph — Dujardin 57 

Electro-Magnetic Relay Instrument — Durant 137 

Electro-Magnetic Engine — Chas. B. Gaune 248 

Electro-Magnetic Telegraph — Samuel F. Day 255 

Electric Organ Action — H. L. Roosevelt 269 

Electro-Magnetic Eugine — C J. B. Gacne 285 

Electric Sigual for Railroads — Thos. Hall 285 

Electro- Magnetic Car Brake — Jos. Olmstead 285 

Electric Alarm — Charles F. Mason 311 

Electographic Vote Recorder — T. A. Edison 327 

Electro- Magnetic Motor — L. T. Tuisley 359 

Electro-Magnetic Alarm — John G. Butler 365, 375 

Electrical Railroad Signal — Phelps & Stewart 401 

Electrical Machine — H. Julius Smith 409 

Electro-Magnetic Machine — Jerome Kidder 409 

Electric Fire and Burglar Alarm — Eugene Fontaine 417 

Fire Alarm Telegraph — Smiley 239, 285 

Fire Alarm— Dion 263 

Galvanic Battery— C. T. Chester 327 

Magnetic Telegraph — Farmer 21 

Mode of Preserving Telegraph Poles — Robbins 285 

Mode of Protecting Insulated Telegraph Wire— D. Spill. . . 343 
" " " " " — E. D. W. 

Whitehouse 343 

Machine for Making Compound Telg. Wire— A. Gary 343 

Printing Telegraph Instrument — Boyle 41 

Printing Telegraph — George M. Phelps 31 1 

Printing Telegraph— Thos. A. Edison 353 

Printing Telegraph — Geo. M. Phelps 353 

Pneumatic Telegraph— A. M. & M. A. Wieb 353, 359 

Printing Telegraph — Geo. M. Phelps 359 

Recent English Patents 41, 383 

Reflecting Galvanometer — Wm Thomson 365 

Self- Adjusting Telegraphic Relay — Reynolds 57 

Sub-Marine Telegraph Cable — A. Faucaut 311 

Switch Alarm Connection — Thos. S. Hall 327 

Self-Closing Telegraph Key— John H. McElroy 359 

•' " " — James H. McElroy 417 

Telegraphic Instrument — Day 63 

Telegraph Instrument — King 121 

Telegraph Apparatus — J. E. Seldon 255, 263 

Telegraph Punching Apparatus — E. A. Calahan 269 

Telegraphic Switch Board — C . S. Jones 311 

Telegraph Insulator — W. Edgar Simonds 343 

Telegraph Wire — Alanson Cary 343 

Telegraph Insulator — W. Edgab Simonds 359 

Telegraph Sounder — Wm. Edward Davis 365, 375 

Telegraph Key — Wm. Edward Davis 365, 375 

Telegraph Insulator — John W. Fry 365, 375 

Telegraph Fire Alarm — J. B. Frantz 383 

Voltaic Battery — Palmer 73 

Voltaic Pile — J. J. Geigeh 327 

THE TELEGRAPH. 

A New Private Line 5 

Additional Facilities 11 

A New Cable to America 19 

A Wonderful Discovery — Perhaps 19 

A Camp-Meeiing Telegraph Line 29 

Aiditional Facilities 39 

An Excellent Combination 39 

A New Submarine Cable Laid 55 

A New General Office 55 

Another New Cable to Europe 71 

A Tough Job 87 

A Telegraph Line Purchased 87 

Another New Line Proposed 96 

A New River Cable Ill 



A Liberal Charter 119 

A Festival Line 135 

Annual Election Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company. . 183 

A Boston Notion 183 

A New Wire 185 

A New Cable Project 206 

Annual Election California State Telegraph Company 207 

A New Railway Telegraph Line 253 

Annual Election of M. V. N. Telegraph Company 271 

A Telegraphic Feat 287 

Annual Meeting P. & A. Telegraph Company 302 

A New Electric Railway Signal 302 

A Superintendent Appointed 311 

Atlantic and Pacific Brooklyn Extension 327 

An Improved Battery 335 

Annual Meeting W. D. Telegraph Company 351 

An Encouraging Movement 351 

A Private Telegraph Line 351 

A New Line, Fishkill to Washington Hollow, N. Y 383 

A New German Atlantic Cable 391 

Another Cable Project 399 

Another Atlantic Cable 399 

An Important Telegraphic Enterprise 407 

Business of the Western Union Tel. Co., July, 1868 11 

" " " " Aug., " 55 

" Sept., '• 89 

•• " " «« Oct., " 127 

" •' " Nov., " 167 

" " " " Dec, " 206 

" " " " Jan., 1869 239 

" " '« " Feb., " 263 

" " " " March," 295 

«' " " " Apl., " 327 

'• " " " May, " 383 

" " " " June, " 415 

Brief Telegraphic Notes 127, 135 

British Military Telegraph 287 

Business ol the Anglo-American Cable Co., July, '66, to June 

30, '69 397 

" " for July, '69, 407 

Cable Way Stations 103 

Cheap Telegraphing West 207 

Cables Broken 223 

Change— W. B.French, Albany, N. Y 311 

Constitutional Rights of Foreign Telegraph Cos. under 

State Grants — Opinion Att'y-General Hoar 833 

Cheap Substitute for Copper in Daniell's Battery 335 

Condition and Practical Working of the New Cable 391 

Complimentary Despatches by the French Cable 392 

Cheap Cell for Daniel's Battery 413 

Duxbury, Mass., not the Terminus 119 

Dividend declared 127 

Domestic Telegraphy Ifc9 

Extension of the Atlantic and Pacific Company's Wires 71 

Extension of Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph 79 

Effect of Competition 19, 87, 104 

Extension of the A. & P. Company's Lines 117 

Ekctric Telegraphs in the United Kingdom 151 

Electric Repeaters for Railway Stations 157 

Extension of the Montreal Telegraph Lines 367 

Extension of the Great Western Company 367 

Election of Officers W. U. Telegraph Co 275 

Fire Alarm Telegraph Superintendent, New Haven, Conn. . 5 

" " " at Canton, Ohio 29 

Free School for Women in Telegraphy 207 

Financial Exhibit of the W. U. Telegraph Co 143, 351 

Facsimile Telegraph 343 

Foreign Telegraphic Items by Cable 407 

Going Ahead— M. V. N. T. Co 09 

Great Improvement in Telegraphing 343 

Heavy Verdicts against the Western Union Telegraph Co. 295, 311 

How the Atlantic Cable is worked 365 

Increasing Facilities ] 1 

Lnproved Telegraph Facilities 47 

Interesting Foreign Telegraph Ditelligence 61 

International Ocean Telegraph 127 

Injunction Dissolved 167 

Iuduction iu the Atlantic Cable 173 

Increase of Facilities 83 

Improved Facilities.. 191 

Insulation of the Atlantic Cable 271 

Important Ruling 295 

Immersion and Recovery of Cables 343 

Djcrease of Facilities A. & P. Co 352 

Important Reduction in Cable Charges 407 

Landing of the Franco- American Cable 191 



Laying of the Franco- American Cable 389 

Mr. Hubbard's Scheme Endorsed 118 

Miss Valley National Telegraph Co 319 

New Office at Spencer, Mass 5 

New Railroad Telegraph Line .- 6 

New Line in New Hampshire 11 

New Western Union Offices 11 

New Railway Signal and Indicator 11 

New Automatic Telegraphic Apparatus 17 

New Office 39 

Not a New Idea 55 

New Offices opened, P. and A. Co 67 

New Cable across the East River 95 

New Kailroad Telegraph Line Ill 

Novel but Effective 119 

New Telegraphic Arrangements in Europe 127 

Nova Scotia Electric Telegraph Co 223 

New Telegraph Battery 247 

New W. U. Chicago Office 263 

New Telegraph Line to Ladia 319 

New Submarine Telegraphs 327 

New Cable from Brest to England 415 

Opting of the A. and P. Co. at Chicago 87 

Ocean Telegraph Terminus Ill 

Ocean Telegraphy Litigation 119 

Opening New San Francisco Fire Alarm Telegraph Office. . . 287 

Ocean Telegraphy 327 

Official Action in Regard to the French Cable 375 

On the Construction of Telegraph Lines 381, 397 

Official Appreciation of the New Cable 391 

Official Correspondence Relative to Landing of the French 

Cable 405 

Private Lines in Illinois 11 

Private Lines between Stamford and New Britain, Conn 17 

Proposed Telegraph Extension 63 

Progress of the M. V. N. T. Co 87 

Postal Telegraph System 103 

Progress of the Atlantic and Pacific Lines 127 

Postal Telegraph 215 

Proposed Improved Fire Alarm Telegraph 245 

Proposed Provincial Telegraph to England 319 

Proposed Telegraph Cable via Iceland 407 

Purchase of the British Telegraph Lines by the Governm't 408 

Quick Cable Telegraphing 79 

Reduction of Cable Tolls 5, 20 

Reduction 63 

Revelations about the Telegraph in France 103 

Reduction Telegraph Rates in Canada 143 

Resigned — Jesse Hoyt 159 

Report Contradicted 199 

Rapid Telegraphing 215 

Railroad Telegraph Line, N. Y. and Oswego Railroad 311 

Resignation Sup't. M. V N. T. Co 353 

Rearrangement 6th District, Eastern Div., W. U. Co 383 

Success of the Santa Fe Line 19 

School Telegraph 29 

Sensible Change 71 

Semaphore and Telegraph 205 

Sub-Marine Telegraphy 215 

St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad Line 223 

Slow Telegraphing 311 

Sup't Appointed, A. & P. Co 344 

The Southern Telegraph Company 11 

The Western Union Monoply in California 11 

Telegraph Line to be Resuscitated 11 

The Telegraph in Alabama n 

Telegraph Connections with the Pacific Coast 20 

The Brooks Paraffine Insulator 29 

The Telegraph in England 32 

The Atlantic Cable — Lower Rates Increase Profits 39 

The Franco-American Cable, 39, 47, 79, 159, 191, 193, 207, 279, 295, 
311, 319, 334, 343, 349, 351, 357, 359, 367, 374, 383, 399 

Telegraphic Extensions West 47 

Telegraph Extension in Texas 55 

" " '* California. 55 

Telegraph Monopoly in California 62 

The Second Atlantic Cable 63 

The Telegraph in Georgia 63 

Telegraphic Extension West 63 

Telegraphic Communication with India 71 

The Paraffine Insulator 71 

The Prince Edwards Island Cable 71 

Telegraphic Extension 87 

Telegraph Extension in Maine 87 

The Telegraph in Minnesota 87 

Telegraph Extensions 93 



CONTENTS. 



IS 



The Great Western Telegraph Co 95 

The Telegraph in India 9 ^ 

Telegraph Extensions and Reductions of Kates 95 

The East India Telegraph Company 95 

The Northwestern Telegraph Company 95 

The New Mediteranean Cable 103 

The Telegraph in England 103 

The Use of the Telegraph Abroad m 

Telegraph Interruption 119 

The Anglo Indian Telegraph H9 

Telegraph Extension in Indiana 119 

Telegraph Construction in Maine 119 

The D'Arlincourt Printing Instrument 125 

The National Board of Trade and the Postal Telegraph 

Project I 27 

The Military Telegraph I 27 

The Fire Alarm Telegraph 127 

The French Cable and the American Minister 151 

Telegraphs in South Australia 151 

The Government Acquisition of the Telegraph 151 

Telegraph Extension 159 

The Chamber of Commerce and the Atlantic Cable 165 

The American Compound Wire Co 167 

The Parafline Insulators. — Letter of Harrison Bro. & Co. . . . 157 

Telegraphic 1-rogress 167 

The International 0. T. Co. Enjoined 175 

Telegraph Extension. — Dominion Co 175 

The American Compound Wire 175 

The New Aerial System of Telegraphing 175 

Telegraphs in Russia 191 

The Telegraph in Washington 191 

The New Officers of the Western Union Co. at Chicago 199 

The Atlantic and Pacific Tel. Co 199 

TheSecond CubaCable 207 

The Telegraph Companies too Shrewd for English Official 
The Postal Telegraph. — Report of House Committee. . . . 

Telegraphic Messages 

The Anglo American Cable 

The First Telegraph Enterprise. — Letter from Amos Ken 
The Telegraph Systems of Great Britain and United Sti •■■= 

Compared 237 

The New System of Telegraphy — Bonelli's Patent 215 

Tests of Telegraph Insulators 247 

The Dano-Anglo-Norwegian Cable 2*7 

The English Telegraph System 247 

Tklkgbaphic Bmyities 143, 150, 159, 167, 175, 183, 199, 215, 

223, 231, 239, 247, 255, 263, 271, 279, 287, 295, 303, 311, 3ly, 
327. 335, 343, 351, 359, 367, 375, 383, 391, 399, 407, 415. 

The Hughes Instrument 247 

The Telegraph in the Sierra Nevadas 256 

The Telegraph in Mexico 264 

The Telegraph in Russia 271 

The Atlantic Telegraph Company 279 

Telegraphic Communication with Nevada 279 

Telegraphs in China 303 

The Telephone 309 

The American Atlantic Cable 310 

Telegraph to National Peace Jubilee 310 

Telegraphic Enterprise 319 

The Rhode Island Cable Company 327 

The China Telegraph Enterprise 327 

The New British Indian Telegraph 343 

The Telegraph in South America 343 

Telegrapu Wires in Chicago River Tunnel 359 

Telegraphic Extension in Texas 359 

The Great Western Telegraph Company 359 

The Maine Telegraph Company . — Annual Meeting. 367 

Telegraph Offices at Saratoga Springs 367 

The Postal Telegraph in England 367 

Tne Western Terminus of the French Cable 373 

The Course of the French Cable 373 

The Telegraph in South America 375 

The Government and the French Cable 381 

The French Cable Celebration at Duxbury, Massachusetts . . 390 

The Telegraph in Brazil 391 

The French Cable 891 

The Franklin Telegraph Office at Boston, Massachusetts. . . 391 

TheNextTask of the Great Eastern 399 

The Marquis of Hartington on Government Purchase of 

Telegraphs 405 

The Cable of 1866 . 407 

The Telegraph in Oregon t 408 

The Indo-European Telegraph. »• 418 

The Metropolitan Telegraph Company 413 

The West India and Panama Telegraph Co 415 

The French Cable Open for Business 415 



The New York Fire Alarm Telegraph 416 

Working Well 5 

Western Union Extension 79 

Western Union Dividend 327 

Western Union Telegraph Co., President's Report 407 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

A Happy Retort 2 

A Deaf Telegraph Operator 13 

A Circuitous Route 13 

An Electrical Organ 21 

Address of the Annual Convention to the Telegraphic Fra- 
ternity 25 

An Electric Safety Lock 37 

Another Suicide 39 

A New Word 49 

A Telegraphic Thermometer 65 

A New Battery 71 

Application of Voltaic Induction 71 

A New Voltaic Pile 71 

A New Voltaic Combination 81 

A New American Engineering Monthly 119 

Allegany Fire Alarm 126 

A Brave Deed 144 

An Electric Clock 149 

A Subscription Repudiated 162 

Accident to Mr. C} rus W. Field 167 

A Telegrapher as a Landlord 167 

A Telegrapher on his Muscle 175 

A Christmas Presentation 183 

AGood Climb 183 

A Timely Book 191 

A Tempest in a Teapot 199 

A Good Law 201 

aiother Telegrapher Complimented 207 

An Army Telegrapher 207 

Another Luuatic 213 

An Insane Telegrapher 215 

AVUeSlander 239 

A sound Argument 240 

A Good Thing for Stockholders 248 

A Good Story 256 

A Telegrapher Sentenced 255 

A New District of the N. T. U 263 

A Few Things that are to be 277 

A Gratifying aud Valuable Testimonial 295 

A Happy Superintendent 295 

A Girdle Round the Earth 317 

A W. U. Commercial Bureau Agent Absconded 319 

An Important Legal Decision at Nashville, Term 327 

An Electric Brake 361 

A Chemist's Medal. — Memorial of Faraday 359 

An Ex-Operator Accidentally Shot 361 

A Telegraph Repairer Killed 375 

A Telegraph Law Suit — Jewitt vs. Cooper, et. al 383 

A Singular Case 391 

A Deserved Testimonial 415 

An Astronomical Clock 415 

Banquet to Prof. Morse in New Jersey 327 

Brooks' Insulator and the C . P. Railroad Telegraph 353 

Base Ball— W. Union., N. Y., vs. Herald Employes 358 

Brooks' Insulator on Western Union Railroad Co 367 

" " Pacific Railroad of Mo 383 

" " Schuylkill Navigation Co 393 

Crystalization of Copper Wire by Intense Currents 13 

Constitution of the N. T. U 27,28 

Culpable Negligence 47 

Constant Galvanic Batteries 53 

Cable vs. Steamer 67 

Cablegram or Calogram 63 

Coming Home 64 

Complimentary , 151 

Complimentary Presentation 191 

Crime and the Telegraph 215 

Complimentary Dinner tendered Sir Chas. T. Bright 223 

Connection Disavowed 323 

Colorless Varnish 277 

Complimentary Testimonial to Jas. L. Mingle 358 

Circular of the Commissioner of Patents 365 

Cable Rates 415 

Defensive Electrical Experiments 173 

Death of a well-known Russian in San Francisco 18 3 

Doubtful 280 

Durant's Nonpareil Relay 295 

Dishonest Telegraph Clerk 391 

Economical 2 



Electricity as a Bleaching Agent 12 

Electrical Novelties 49 

Energetic but not Appreciated 103 

Electrical Gas Lighting 185 

Electrical Sewing Machines 149 

Engraving by Electricity 167 

Electric Gas Signals 173 

Experiments in Electrical Light in Relation to Military 

Operations 183 

Electrical Brake for Railroads 189 

Electrical Effects 201 

Electro-Astronomical Experiments 229 

Electricity and Steam 253 

Effect of Intense Voltaic Currents on Wire 272 

Electric Battery for the Boston Peace Jubilee 333 

Electricity fot Military and Naval Purposes 335 

Electric Phosphorescence 341 

Foreign Telegraphic Notes 6, 28, 33, 39, 49, 57, 79, 293 

Freaks of Electricity 33 

Freaks of Lightning 33 

Fire Damp 143 

Facts and Figures 181 

Fortunate Telegraphers 231 

French Report on the Electrical Unit 263 

Fined for Sending Bogus Despatches 296 

Foreign Electrical Scientific Items 367 

Female Employment in Austria 407 

Gone to Europe 88 

Good 183 

General Raasloff on the Treaty with Denmark 357 

Getting Used to It 359 

Heat of Electric Discharges 65 

Honors to Prof. Morse 89 

Home Again 89 

Honors to Sir Charles Wheatstone 175 

Highly Scientific 256 

Is there Such a Thing as Animal Electricity 19 

Important Telegraphic Decision 64 

Inductive Currents 65 

Important if True 81 

Important to Inventors • • • 87 

Improvement of the Telegraph 201 

Inventors and Improvers 253 

In Memoriam — John W. Burke 367 

Is this So ? 416 

Justice > H9 

Justice to a Cable Promoter 135 

Lightning as a Well Digger 13 

Lignting Streets by Electricity , 285 

Magnetic Notice of Earthquakes 19 

Mower Abroad 96 

Magnetism and Heat 239 

Method of Measuring Electrical Currents of Great Quantity 

286, 293 

Magnetic Storms 391 

Novel Application of the Telegraph 18 

Novel Application of Electricity 46 

No Claim for Damages 79 

Nature of Electricity Unknown 89 

News for the Natives 229 

Novel Use for the Telegraph 231 

New Method of Constructing Induction Coils 341 

Observations on Atmospheric Electricity 89 

Pisksonaus, 4, 11, 19, 29, 39, 47, 55, 63, 71, 79, 87, 95, 103, 111, 118 
126, 135, 142, 160, 159, 167, 175, 183, 191, 199, 206, 215, 223 
239, 246, 255, 263, 270, 278, 286, 294, 302, 310, 318, 826, 334 
342, 350, 358, 366, 374, 382, 391, 398, 407, 414. 

Proceedings of the Annual Convention, N. T. U 25, 26, 27 

Painful Accident 33 

Phenomena of Electrical Induction 48 

Paying a Wager 8t 

Paying Dearly for it 8 7 

Perpetual Motion 88 

Physical Development by Electricity 167 

Petsonal — S. C. Hendrickson. 17 

Paraffined Battery Jars 183 

Princely Dead Heads. 335 

Practical Application of Sensitive Flames 335 

Platinized Lead for Galvanic Batteries 365 

Rapid Telegraphic Communication 46 

Remarkable Method of Working Fire Telegraph Alarms. ... 65 

Review Harris' Treatise on Frictional Electricity »< • < 101 

Reputed Vandalism Contradicted • 135 

Remarkable Electrical Machine < • • 363 

Running Sewing Machines by Electricity 294 

Review of Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph 302 



8 



CONTENTS. 



Return of O. S. Wood to Montreal 303 

Serious Fire 33 

Bupt Brenner, at Augusta, Pleasantly Surprised Ill 

Sixth Annual Ball of the Boston Telegraphers 119 

State Rights and Ocean Telegraph Cables 183 

Specimens of Telegraph Institute Graduates 183 

Singular Phenomenon 2'21 

Scientific Experiments in Galvanic Batteries 237 

Speed of Transmission of Electric Signals 239 

Snow in Canada 255 

Sad Accident 319 

Scotch Papers and the Telegraph 341 

Suicide of James N. Silver 361 

Startling Affair at Burnett Junction 407 

Speed of Electricity 407 

Serious Accident to a Line Repairer 415 

Telegraphing by Code 9 

The Vienna International Telegraph Conference 13 

The Indians and the Telegraph 19 

The Annual Convention 21 

The Telegraph Floating Pen Litigation I*ja3, 79, 93, 103 

The Floating Pen Litigation— Injunction Dissolved.^ 65 



The Electric Light 65 

The Pacific Coast 64 

The Telegraph in Diplomacy 73 

The Registration of Earth Currents at Greenwich 77 

The Electric Light 127 

The Greatness of the Telegraph 135 

THE TtLEGRAPHER 137 

Telegraphic Courtesy 142 

The Watch and the Magnet 144 

The Morse Banquet 151 

The Application of Electricity to inter-communication in 

Railway Trains 152 

Telegraphic Management 159 

The New York District 192 

Teaching Taking Effect 207 

Telegraph Money Order Offices 229 

"Bhe First Telegraph Line between New York & Philadelphia 231 

The Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company 239 

The Dominion Telegraph Company 239 

The Ocean Telegraph Litigation 255 

Telegraphic Yeloclpedists 255 

The New Western Union Washington Office ", . 301 



The New Chicago Office 301 

The Solar Eclipse 303 

The Electric Wand 317 

The Theory of the Aurora 317 

Telegraphers Among the Clouds 328 

Telegraphic Blunders 335 

The Franco-American Cable Banquet 349 

The Boston Peaoe Jubilee -. 369 

The Effect of Heat on the ±.lectrc-motive Force of Batteries 367 

The Freuch Cable 373 

The Electric Lamp 373 

Tne Execution of Albert Wyeth 376 

Unreasonable Prejudice 336 

Vegetable Electro-motors 341 

Wonderful Discovery in Telagraphy 4 

Western Union Telegraph Receipts for August 66 

Word6 that are not Words 149 

Who Pays the Damages ? 375 ' 

Whale Catching by Electricity 383 

Why Duxbu ■ y, Mass , was selected 405 

♦Articles marked with a (*) are illustrated. 



x ^ Y 






/ 




Vol. V.-No. 1. 



New York, Saturday, August 29, 1868. 



Whole No. 111. 



[Written for The Telegrapher.] 

The Future of the Electric Telegraph. 

BY P. L. POPE. 

The remark has often been made, by writers upon the 
Electric Telegraph, that the science, or more properly the 
art of telegraphy, is yet in its infancy. When we reflect, 
however, upon the vigorous growth the system has thus 
far exhibited, and the extent and capacity it has already 
attained, we are forced to the conviction that, in some di- 
rections, under its present organization at least, it has 
nearly reached its limit. 

In the transaction of commercial and financial business 
through the agency of the Telegraph, the first great 
requisite is promptness and the second cheapness; but 
these results must not be obtained through any sacrifice 
of accuracy, for failing in this essential particular, the 
Telegraph becomes worse than useless. 

Promptness in the transmission of messages requires the 
erection of additional wires and a corresponding augmen- 
tation of other facilities, in order to provide for tue gradual 
but irresistible increase in the pressure of business, or, on 
the other hand, an enhanced speed of transmission, so 
that a greater amount of work may be done upon a given 
number of wires. 

-That the amount of business transacted by Telegraph in 
this country will continue to exhibit a future annual in- 
crease nearly corresponding with that of the past, scarcely 
admits of a reasonable doubt, and this increase must be 
provided for in one of the two ways above mentioned. 

From the statistics of past yeara it is possible to calcu- 
late, with a considerable degree of accuracy, what the pro- 
bable extent of our telegraphic system is likely to become. 
The total number of miles of line constructed and work- 
ing throughout the country in 1848 — twenty years since — 
was estimated to be about 12,000. In 1858 this had 
increased to nearly 40,000, and by the close of the pre- 
sent year, '1868, the total mileage of wire will fall but 
little if any short of 120,000 — showing that the rate of 
increase is as nearly as possible three-fold every ten 
years. If we take, as an index of business done, the in- 
crease in the number of wires radiating from New York 
we find that almost exactly the same proportion still holds 
good In 1848 two wires eastward and three south- 
ward were sufficient to accommodate the traffic to and 
from this city. Ten years later there were in use eight 
wires east and ten south. Another decade brings us to 
the present year, when we find that from thirty to thirty- 
five wires are kept constantly busy on each of the above 
routes, although the average working capacity of each 
wire is much greater now than formerly, in consequence 
of the vastly improved condition of the lines. "We have 
not the exact data at hand respecting the lines running 
westward from New York, but their proportionate increase 
is about the same. 

If the future growth of the Telegraph continues at this 
rate, which is as much a matter of certainty as any future 



event can be, it becomes a question of the utmost impor- 
tance in what manner it can be provided for. Even now, 
along every avenue, turnpike, and railway leading away 
from the city of New York, the air is darkenedwith a forest 
of poles, cross-arms and wires ; yet it seems inevitable that 
in ten years' time from ninety to one hundred, instead of 
thirty wires, will be required on each of the three main 
routes leading respectively east, west and south from the 
metropolis. What the number is likely to become twenty 
years hence may be left to the imagination to determine. 
It is found by experience that every addition to the num- 
ber of wires upon a range of poles adds also to the diffi- 
culty of working and the danger of interruptions. In 
severe storms they present such a large and compact 
surface to the gale that their liability to be broken or 
blown down is far greater than that of a small number 
would be. This is especially the case when snow and 
ice adhere to them, as sometimes happens, causing a 
general wreck of the system, accompanied by immense 
oxponeo and rliffipiilty in repairs. From these and other 
reasons not necessary to mention, it is evident that there 
must be some limit to this multiplication of wires, and 
the indications are that we are already rapidly approach- 
ing it. 

In seeking relief from this dilemma by increasing the 
rapidity of transmission, we find that our possibilities in 
this direction are already exhausted. Two thousand 
words per hour is about the highest speed that may be 
reasonably looked for under the present system. Skilled 
operators, it is true, have considerably exceeded this rate, 
both with the Morse and printing instruments, but it 
may be confidently stated that the average will never be 
brought above the amount just mentioned. 

A sweeping reduction in the rate of charges for Tele- 
graphic service has long been a favorite project with a 
certain class of theorists, who argue that the increase of 
business resulting from this step will more than compen- 
sate for the loss on each individual message. They 
assume an analogy between the telegraphic and postal 
service in this particular which is without foundation in 
fact. The reduction of postage increases the number of 
letters, without causing detention. A railway train will 
carry a thousand letters as quickly as one, but a telegraph 
line can carry but one message at a time, and any increase 
in the number must necessarily cause delay. It would 
require too much space to attempt to dispose altogether 
of this popular fallacy within the limits of the present 
article. Every well informed telegraph man knows that 
the rates now charged between all points reached by 
competing lines are, if anything, below the actual cost of 
performing the service, when the depreciation of lines, 
which is seldom or never less than 10 per cent, per 
annum, and other similar elements, are introduced into 
the calculation. The leading item in the expense account 
of telegraph companies is that of labor, and for this they 
must pay the market price. Combinations among differ. 



ent companies may at times cause fluctuations, but in 
the long run the companies will inevitably be forced to pay 
salaries corresponding to those paid in other branches 
of business to men of equal intelligence and skill. It has 
been shown that the amount of work an operator is cap* 
able of performing is limited, and furthermore, that this 
limit has already been nearly or quite reached. It is, 
therefore, impossible, with the appliances now in use, to 
reduce the cost of telegraphing much below its present 
standard. 

By improving the insulation of the wires, so that each 
one may be worked to its full capacity at all times, we 
may yet improve our facilities to a considerable extent, 
without any addition to the number of lines or operators. 
The double transmission system of Frischen and Siemens- 
Halske, which has already been introduced to gome ex- 
tent in this country by Mr. J. B. Stearns, and which, 
was fully described in a recent number of The Tele- 
grapher, is undoubtedly destined to play an important 
part in augmenting the working capacity of our " through" 
wires. With the approximately perfect insulation ob* 
tained by the unrivalled paraffine insulator of BROOKS, it 
is certain that there can be found no practical objection 
whatever to the extended use of this most ingenious and 
beautiful invention. Its adoption in all cases in which 
it is applicable will most probably prove to be the next 
step of importance in the onward march of the Telegraph. 

It is beyond question, however, that the future progress 
of the art depends mainly upon the introduction of more 
rapid methods of transmission. However great our suc- 
cess in this direction may be, the increase of traffic will 
be commensurate with it. The whole matter runs in a 
circle. Increased speed allows of a reduction in working 
expenses, for the same operators and wires do more work. 
Reduction in working expenses is followed by decreased 
tariffs, which, in conjunction with greater promptness, 
creates another increase of business. But the latter calls 
for further augmentation of speed and extension of facili- 
ties, and thus we are brought back to our original starting 
point. 

Having reached the greatest possible limit of manual 
dexterity in telegraphic transmission, it is natural to look 
to the action of automatic machinery for the next step in 
advance. It is now a number of years since Alexander 
Bain brought out his system of automatic telegraphy, 
with the general principle of which the greater portion of 
the profession are doubtless familiar. This method con- 
sists in punching holes through a narrow strip of paper, 
corresponding to the signals to be transmitted, which is 
afterwards passed through an apparatus so arranged that 
the circuit is closed during the length of time a hole in 
the paper is passing, and thus the dots and dashes cut 
out of the paper are transmitted over the line, the perfo- 
rated slip performing the office of the ordinary MORSE 
key, and the record being made upon chemically prepared 
paper' at the receiving station. Various modifications and 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[August 29, 1868. 



improvements have been made in this system, most of 
which relate to the mode of punching the paper. Mr. R. 
S. Cctlet. the engineer of the Electric and International 
Telegraph Company of Great Britain, and Gen. Mabshall 
Leffeets. who holds a similar position in the service of 
the Western Union Company, in the United States, have 
devoted much attention to the development of this system. 
In England the punching apparatus of Sir Charles 
Wkeatstoxe has met with a good degree of success 
under the auspices of Mr. Cclley, and the system may 
now be regarded not merely as an experiment, but as an 
established fact. A gentleman who visited the general 
office in Telegraph Street, London, a short time since, 
states that he saw a message prepared by this instrument 
at the rate of thirty words per minute, and received over 
a long wire at the rate of seventy words per minute. 
Experiments, made some years ago in this city by the 
writer, under the direction of Gen. Leffebts. proved that 
despatches could be transmitted over a line of five hun- 
dred miles at the rate of one hundred and fifty words per 
minute, and this is, probably, by no means the limit of 
the capacity of the system. The perforating apparatus 
used at that time was the invention of Huiiastok. An 
improved apparatus for this purpose has since been per- 
fected by E. A. Calahas, of New York, which performs 
its work in the most satisfactory manner, at a rate equal- 
ing that of ordinary transmission by the printing instru- 
ment, which is from thirty-five to forty words per minute, 
depending upon the skill of the manipulator. 

Mr. C Westbbook, of Harrisburg. Pa., has invented a 
most ingenious method of automatic transmission, in 
which the ordinary embossed strip from a Mobse register 
performs the office of the perforated paper ribbon in the 
Bad." system. Recent experiments have demonstrated 
the entire practicability of this method, which posse- 
the great advantage of dispensing entirely with the com- 
plicated perforating apparatus for preparing the message 

Strip a simple \foneE rogi*t©i- and hoy alone Voing re- 
quired for the purpose. 

But even when the automatic system has been per- 
fected and brought into every day use, there still exists a 
limit beyond which the transmission and reception by 
Telegraph of ordinary words cannot pass. In comment- 
ing upon this subject an able writer in one of the English 
scientific periodicals remarks: "This limit is a function of 
a great many things. Mechanical inertia is one; induc- 
tion on the lines is another ; and a third comes from the 
fact that in dealing with any machinery which is so per- 
fectly arranged as to be able to render anything like a 
fair equivalent of work, by doubling the speed, you quad- 
ruple the expense of it. More generally the expenditure 
of energy, whether in mechanical or mental work, is pro- 
portionate to the square of the speed with which the 
work is done. Xow, this last notion is one which has, 
we believe, never been'taken into account in calculating 
the probable limit of profitable speed, because in most 
branches, as in Telegraphy, the arrangements both for 
mechanical and human work have been so faulty as to 
place the return far short of a just equivalent. So long 
as this is the case, double the energy, more economically 
applied, may double the speed ; but as soon as our ar- 
rangements approach perfection, a different law steps 
in." 

There is but one method of overcoming this final diffi- 
culty, and this lies in the condensation of the work to be 
performed by the instrument, a thing that has thus far 
never been attempted to any great extent in Telegraphy. 
Some system must be adopted that shall perform the same 
service for the Telegrapher that phonography has for the 
reporter. It matters but little whether this system or 
or that of automatic telegraphy is first perfected and 
brought into use for the multiplication of telegraphic 
facilities, for the time is not far distant when the aid of 
both will be required to keep pace with the enormous 



expansion of the business which coming years are des- 
tined to witness. 

A system of " Telegraphing by Code," as it is termed, 
has .recently been brought out in England by Captain 
Fbaxk Boltox, who has made the subject a study for 
years. A full description of it appeared in a recent num- 
ber of Engineering* Captain Boltox's system consists in 
giving each word, as well as each of the phrases and sen- 
tences that are constantly recurring in business and other 
telegrams, a distinctive number. A message, when re- 
ceived, is first translated into this code of numbers by 
clerks, and is sent over the wire in that form in very 
much less time than would be occupied in sending the 
words, being retranslated at the receiving station. The 
details of this plan exhibit a surprising amount of inge- 
nuity and adaptation to the work to be performed. There 
is no doubt whatever that some system of this kind will 
inevitably become one of the leading features in the Tele- 
graph of the future, and that, too, at a day much less re- 
mote than a majority of our readers would imagine. 

In the adoption of this code, or some other device of a 
similar character, lies the future success of city and local 
telegraphy. It will not be disputed by any one thoroughly 
acquainted with the subject, that city telegraphs for local 
business have invariably proved unremunerative and un- 
satisfactory. It is a notorious fact that an answer can be 
procured from Chicago in less time than from Brooklyn, 
and that, telegraphically, Cincinnati is nearer Wall Street 
than Central Park. Low tariffs, instant transmission, and 
an extensive traffic, are the prime requisites of a city 
Telegraph, and these are utterly incompatible under any 
such system as that now in vogue. But this code system 
is peculiarly adapted to this class of business. A large 
proportion of the messages consist of certain stereotyped 
phrases and the answers thereto, rendering it possible, in 
numerous instances, to telegraph an entire despatch by 
the use of a single number, and increasing the carrying 

r>apar>itj- of tKo ^K*oo fivo-£ol<l. 

It may be thought by some that the prospective de- 
velopment of the Telegraph system outlined in this article 
is greatly exaggerated, and that the possibilities set forth 
are destined never to be realized. But there is certainly 
nothing in past experience to render such a supposition 
at all probable, and an impartial observer of the progress 
of events can scarcely escape from the conclusion arrived 
at in this article. The wisest course tor all concerned is 
to make seasonable preparations to meet the exigencies 
which coming years will inevitably thrust upon us. 

* The article referred to will be published in the next issue of 
The Telegeaphee. 

[Written for The Telegrapheb.] 

Waifs. 
My thoughts are scissor-grinder-ward Avast there, 
itinerant propeller of the grindstone ! and tell me what 
mark of your trade is there branded on your brow 
whereby men shall know you when you are not whirz- 
z-z-z-z-z! rasping scissors. Dost thou carry a straw- 
berry, blackberry, raspberry, whortleberry, mulberry, any 
berry on your left arm. or the extremity of thy nosj ? Or, 
art thou one of the triumvirate of mighty necromants, and 
goest thou through the world with vizor down, raising it 
only to frighten nimble but most timorous Telegraphic 
Rosinantes ? or, can anybody tell me how I am to recog- 
nize a scissor-grinder arrayed in the great garb of uni- 
versal equality — Sunday clothes ? The question i3 of im- 
portance to Telegraphers, Superintendents and Repair- 
men generally — and in a case I know of was a question of 
importance to the amount of just $90 50. Let me " a 
plain unvarnished tale unfold," and then, perchance, 
some priest or prelate of the Vatican, or else some dean* 
of cunning knowledge, skill and aptness, may give me 
answer to my puzzled cogitations. 



'Twas a bright and sunny Sabbath morning, that came 
smilingly upon the earth, treading upon the heels of a 
frowning eve, that had done mischief to the harp of Zeus, 
that hitherto had played smooth tunes to the manipula- 
tion of his devotee — Charlemagne — the main Charles of 
the Temple. 'Twas meet this evil should be overcome, 
sought out and remedied, and so he thought — solely, 
of course, to do great Zeus homage, and — it was a fine 
morning for a drive. Accordingly, two able-bodied young 
men, with generous and dutiful intent, and minds on 
business and its interests bent, sought out a chariot and 
Bucephalus and went forth on their errand The trouble 
might have been located anywhere ; and so 'twas best to 
keep their eyes industriously both up and down, above, 
and all about, in tree-tops and amongst their lower 
boughs, where'er the length of shimmering electric 
threads led on their vision. Surely, such faithful service 
meets with due reward, and theirs was met most justly. 
Suddenly, whilst both their eyes were banging in the 
trees, and whilst their chariot wheels went close upon a 
ditch — "' a scissor-grinder " — mind, so says the text, ap- 
peared (whether popping up from under ground or drop- 
ping from the sky the deponent giveth not a word in 
further explanation), and scared the horses, which started 
off with speed and turned them in the ditch — ingloriously 
grounded. Most erratic Rosinante ! and thou, yet more 
erratic and unfortunate " Repairmen," your enand of re- 
pair duty endeth in destruction ! The chariot was 
" smashed ;" the horses " laid up nine days," and the two 
" able-bodied " picked up their aching and bruised anato- 
mies from the embrace of mother earth and took them- 
selves after the flying steed, homewards. The grand 
finale, a bill of $90 50 for ''Repairmen's expenses," 
and their auditors' gracious permission to retire from fur- 
ther duty on that line, in consideration of a lessened ex- 
pense to the Company. Xow, then, who is to "pay the 
damages?" If that man teas grinding — stop! He was 

merely mentioned as '• o 3ci330r-grLnder, " and there is no 

right in this to suppose the man engaged in any action 
on a Sunday morning more suggestive of his occupation 
than being attired in Sunday garb, pursuing his quiet 
way churchward — but, if that man was grinding scissors, 
near a wood, near a ditch, on a Sunday, scaring horses, 
and costing two of the able-bodied of masculinity some 
aching bones and a company some alarming expense, I 
say, should not that scissorist be requested to pay the 
bill ? Are there no disciples of the mighty Blackstone 
among us? Can they not answer? " "What sayeth Coke 
on Littleton ?'' I know some interested T6 the tune of 
near a hundred dollars. "Will no one answer me ? 

In my opinion, if not according to the venerable 
grind — Blackstone, proceedings had best be legally insti- 
tuted in a suit for damages against this alarming member 
of society, who frightens peaceable horses on Sunday; but 
my pen pauses again, despairingly, as query two pre- 
sents itself: ""Where is that scissor-grinder?" Picture 

the chase ! 0. P. Ebatoe. 
►-«♦*-< 



A Happy Retort. 
A Westebx correspondent sends us the following : 
"An operator wa3 recently sending despatches from a 
Western city to Cincinnati, and upon being broken two 
or three times on a name, sung out, ' Who is at the 
key?' The response was, ' S,' which happened to be 
Stevens, the manager. The sender replied, ' Guess you 
are not familiar with that name.' ' I am not familiar 
with that kind of writing' was the prompt retort." 

Economical." 

A Westeex correspondent writes : " We light our 
cigars here by electricity when the gas is out or we are 
short of matches. By bringing together two local battery 
wires a blaze of sufficient strength is raised to light a 
piece of paper." 

We should recommend that the Company keep that 
office supplied with matches, as a matter of economy. 



August 29, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

A r o notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



The Union— A Suggestion for Consideration. 
Utica, N. Y., August 15. 
To THE Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

As you have invited correspondence and discussion 
through the columns of The Telegrapher, of Union 
matters, preliminary to the meeting of the Convention, I 
avail myself of the invitation to consider the present con- 
dition of the Union, and bring forward some suggestions 
whereby, in my opinion, the interest in it may be renewed 
and increased. 

It is too evident that the interest which originated 
and for a time sustained the Union, has, to a considerable 
extent, subsided, and that it has declined rather than 
progressed during the last two years. 

The chief sustaining power of all successful organiza- 
tions of the character of ours, is energy upon the part of 
each and every officer and member. There should be no 
dereliction or disaffection upon the part of one or the 
other. "Without a large share of indomitable energy and 
persistent activity among its members no society ever 
amounted to . anything. The Union is no exception, 
and will never achieve that success and usefulness which 
its founders hoped for, unless every member's shoulder is 
found at the wheel when it becomes difficult to pull 
through. One main cause of indifference, in my opinion, 
is the absence of that in our Constitution which would 
have a tendency to keep up the novelty of the undertaking. 

A child is for a time engrossed with a new toy, but 
soon wearies of it and throws it aside, unless it is capable 
of variations and novel combinations, which shall serve 
to protract and renew his interest. The Union was 
our hobby for a time but it has now lost its charm, its 
novelty. We are all children still, largely actuated by 
the same motives and desires, but our objects of interest 
are on a larger scale, and it is to be hoped generally of 
more practical value and permanent usefulness. "When 
the Union was first organized the operators generally 
were eager to enroll their names as members and parti- 
cipate actively in its affairs and management. Now it is 
almost in a comatose condition— no life, no energy, no 
activity or interest. 

A stimulus is needed, something that will create an in- 
terest among our members. What shall be done ? I 
suggest to the delegates soon to assemble at Albany 
that they amend the Constitution in such a manner as 
will establish a permanent Telegraphers' tournament, to 
be held yearly or half yearly, as may be decided upon, at 
which suitable premiums shall be awarded to the best 
operator. The tournament to be held at such times and 
upon such circuits, and under such regulations as the exe- 
cutive committee of the N. T. U. may decide upon, and 
to be free and open to all competitors having a certificate 
of membership in the Union. Let premiums be awarded 
to the best and most rapid Morse and combination trans- 
mitters, to the best and most rapid Morse receivers, and 
for the best autographic copy, written from the most rapid 
transmitter. 

One of the prizes to be awarded should be a handsome 
and appropriate gold champion key, to be awarded to the 
operator who shall, in the opinion of the judges, excel in 
all the acquirements that constitute a first class Telegraph 
operator. The holder of this key, for the time being, to 
be regarded as the champion Telegrapher of the country, 
and to hold it until it shall, at some future tournament, 
be awarded to some other contestant — it being understood 
that the champion is to hold himself in readiness to con- 



tend for the key at any regular tournament held under 
the auspices of the Union. 

The expenses of the tournament to be met in such 
manner as the Convention may determine. Each district 
of the Union might fit out one or more of its members 
as contestants, with proper credentials, &c. I offer these 
general suggestions in the firm belief that a move of this 
kind would be very popular; some decided action at 
Albany in this direction is imperatively necessary. Give 
the knights of the key a chance to contend for honor, and 
there will be some tall Telegraphing done. 

Let us have a beautifully engraved champion golden 
Telegraph key, worth say fifty or one hundred dollars, to 
be held by the best man or woman, and let him or her be 
the acknowledged champion. 

In this manner let.us^levate the profession until we 
reach as near perfection as possible. In a few years the 
holder of the champion key would only become its pos- 
sessor by the greatest perseverance and practice. 

Agitator. 

Scientific Congress. 

Chicago, August 13. 
To the Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

The proceedings of the Scientific Congress which has 
been in session in this city for several days past have 
been the all absorbing topic of conversation. Our papers 
have been filled with its proceedings, and our preachers 
have preached about science and religion, and, in short, 
every-one has had " science on the brain." Several inte- 
resting papers on electricity, acids, &c, were read before 
the Congress, abstracts of which I have sent you, from 
which you can make extracts, if your limited space will 
allow. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: President, Col. J. "W. Foster, of Chicago; Vice- 
President, Ogden N. Reed, of New York ; General Sec- 
retary, 0. C. Marsh, of New Haven; Treasurer, Dr. 
Alfked L. Elevyn, of New Haven. The next meeting 
%ill be held at Salem, Mass., in August, 1869. 

The Congress adjourned on the evening of the 11th 
ult., with a grand banquet at the Sherman House. Five 
hundred persons were present, including all the celebrated 
scientists in the country. Hon. J. D. Caton and T. 
Bassnett, prominent Telegraph men, were members of the 
Convention. 

All forcible proceedings on the part of the Western 

Union Co. towards the Pacific and Atlantic Co. have 

come to a sudden termination, and a course of litigation 

is to settle the matter. A suit in chancery between the 

two companies is now pending. Poles for the Great 

Western Telegraph Co., from Chicago to Davenport, 

Iowa, have been contracted for, and it is the intention of 

the Company to have the line in operation to Davenport 

by the first of October. Cosmopolite. 
^.^♦^.. 

Success of The Telegrapher— An Excellent 
Appointment. 

Chicago, Illinois, August 2iih. 
To the Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

The editorial statement in the last Telegrapher of 
its pecuniary condition, and the success which has at- 
tended the efforts to establish on a permanent basis an 
independent Telegraphic journal, is decidedly encourag- 
ing and satisfactory. As far as I have had any opportu- 
nity to learn the sentiments of the Telegraph fraternity, 
the general conduct of the paper gives satisfaction. 
You can rely upon the Western Telegraphers, I think, to 
support you in your efforts to make it a creditable organ 
and representative of the profession. 

I believe, as yet, you have had no notice in The Tele- 
grapher of the appointment of Mr. A. R. Swift to the 
Superintendency of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railroad Telegraph lines. Mr. Swift has been for near- 
ly ten years an operator in the office of the General 



Superintendent of that road, and very thoroughly under- 
stands his business. If the managers of that excellent 
thoroughfare will give Asa full swing, he will give them 
a set of first class working lines. His headquarters will 
be at Davenport, Iowa. C. 



A Cood Appointment. 

Dubuque, Iowa, August 11th. 
To the Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

Mr. Jesse W. Crouse, late Division operator in charge 
of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad wires, Philadelphia 
Division, from Philadelphia to Harrisburg, has been ap- 
pointed Assistant General Superintendent of the Missis- 
sippi Valley. National Telegraph Company, and is already 
busily engaged in the duties of his office. He has been 
employed by the Pennsylvania Central for nine years, and 
has been in the business for nearly fifteen years. He is 
a pleasant gentleman and a thorough Telegrapher, and a 
valuable acquisition to the new Company. His head- 
quarters are at Dubuque, Iowa. Mississippi. 

St. Paul, Minnesota. 
To the Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

I notice, in The Telegrapher for August 15th, a re- 
monstrance from Chicago against the excessive service 
required of the operators in that office — it frequently ex- 
tending beyond 9 P. M. If comparisons are not too odiou3 
I would like to draw one between our case and theirs. 
In this office we are expected to work until 8 o'clock P. 
M every day, and every other night until 3 o'clock A. 
M. on night report, and we have not even the conso- 
lation of supposing that the officials are ignorant of the 
facts of the case. 0wL - 



Election in Chicago District. 

Chicago, August 2lsl. 
To the Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

At a meeting of Chicago District the following were 
declared elected: 

For District Director : "W. A. McElroy. 

For Secretary: A. G. Stolebrand. 

For Treasurer : W. F. Altmeyer. 

Delegate to Convention : George C. York. 

Alternate : "W. A. McElroy. 



"W. A. M., Secretary. 



-•» 



Highly Important Changes in the Chicago 
Office. 

Chicago, August 22d. 
To the Editob of the Telegbapheb. 

Among the numerous changes lately in the Chicago 
office, the following have as yet passed unnoticed, vi?. : 
Clement M. Greene has been appointed Sunday Mana- 
ger, filling the place vacated by Mr. Sholes for a more 
lucrative, though no more honorable position, with F. 
Ed. Angell as First Assistant, and Frank B. Knight as 
Second Assistant on the staff. These appointments, 
with the able corps of Telegraphic minions by which they 
are supported, will render Chicago as gloiiously prompt 
on Sundays as it has always been at other times, and en- 
sures to the Company a repletion of its bankrupt treas- 
ury. Mons. Billy McMillan, distinguished hereaway as 
,the " Kingston kid," will superintend other counter trans- 
actions. The newly-appointed officials have already se- 
lected the appropriate badges and uniforms denoting their 
various ranks, and hereby notify their fiiends (such as 
they have haven't " shaken" since their new accession 
to power and dignity) that their 'full titles must hereafter 
be used in all epistolary correspondence. A proper 
respect on the lines is requested, will be observed, and 
may precede promotion to those worthy. 

Sar — dine. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[August 29, 1868. 




by automatic transmission and the codifying of mes- 
sages. He has so well argued and demonstrated this, 
however, that we will only refer the reader to his article, 
and cannot but regret that the limits within which it was 
necessary to compress his remarks for The Telegrapher 
did not allow space for greater amplification on this vi- 
tally important subject. 

*-*-*r<* 



NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION. 

« 

To the Delegates for 1868-9. 
In accordance with Art IV. Section 4 of the Consti- 
tution, I hereby summon you to meet in Annual Conven- 
tion in the City of Albany, N. T., on "Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 9th, at 10 A. M. 

H. W. Wheeler, 

Recording Secretary. 



THE FUTURE OF THE TELECRAPH. 

We would call special attention to the very able arti- 
cle on the first page of this paper, " On the future of the 
Telegraph," and the necessity which is constantly be- 
coming more imperative for the practical development of 
more rapid methods of transmission, to accommodate the 
constantly augmenting volume of business pressing upon 
the Telegraph lines, and render practicable a reduction 
of the tolls exacted to such a figure as will bring it into 
even more general and popular use. 

Mr. F. L. Pope, the author of this article, has given 
the subject much attention, and his article is worthy of 
careful consideration from all the parties interested. It 
is one of the utmost importance, alike to Telegraph com- 
panies and the public. Experiments are now, and have 
long been in progress for developing some practical sys- 
tem for the automatic transmission of despatches, and, we 
understand, with every prospect of speedy and complete 
success. 

The past progress of the Telegraph has been wonderful 
beyond all precedent, and it is no doubt destined in its 
future progress to outstrip even its previous successes. 
Steam and Electricity combined have changed the whole 
structure of modern society, and yet both are comparatively 
in their infancy. Marvellous as have been their achieve- 
ments hitherto, they are likely to prove but the prologue to 
the swelling theme of their full development. The mind 
of man cannot set limits to their possibility. The ap- 
parently wild and improbable projects of to-day become 
the accomplished facts of to-morrow. Wires on land and 
cables under the water cannot be constructed and laid 
fast enough to meet the requirements for rapid intercourse. 
Millions of dollars have already been invested, and mil- 
lions more are being invested to furnish the required fa- 
cilities. A Telegraph project can hardly be too wild or 
apparently impracticable to find financial support. The 
public necessities for rapid and reliable means of inter- 
communication are so great, that capitalists will aid and 
favor such projects even though there may seem to be 
little probability of pecuniary return. That the means 
thus furnished have often been squandered, and not un- 
frequently been improperly and even criminally appro- 
priated, does not furnish an effective argument againslf 
further investments, so pressing is felt to be the necessity 
for an extensive and increased development of the Tele- 
graph system of the country and the world. As is con- 
vincingly demonstrated by Mr. Pope, there must be a 
limit to the number of wires that may be erected, and 
when that limit is reached, as it soon must be on all im- 
portant routes, in this and other countries, further in- 
crease of facilities can only be obtained in two ways — 



[From the Bolivar (Teim.) Bulletin, 15th.] 
Wonderful Discovery in Telegraphy. 

" For months past we have longed to lay before the 
public the fact that a most wonderful discovery had been 
made in the art of Telegraphing by two of our fellow 
citizens, George M. Dugan, of Booker Ford, and Col. 
Coleman, of Memphis, and shall now proceed to record 
what we have seen in operation *at the Telegraph office 
in this place for weeks past. The discovery made does 
away with all the jars and fluids heretofore used in Tele- 
graph offices, and a current of electricity sufficiently 
strong for all purposes is drawn from mother earth by 
means of one sheet of copper and one sheet of zinc, which 
are buried to the depth of two feet, and having about four 
inches of earth between them. To the copper plate wires 
are attached, and the current thus procured seems inex- 
haustible. The operators at the Telegraph office here long 
since dispensed with fluids of all kinds, and every mes- 
sage sent from Bolivar now is recorded by an instrument 
which receives its power from the buried battery, and 
which consists of nothing but one sheet of copper and 
one of zinc. The inventors have applied for a patent, 
and it is hoped that their prayer will be speedily answered, 
as this discovery of theirs is destined to work a most 
wonderful change in the art of Telegraphing. Hereafter 
we shall endeavor to give a full and complete account of 
this truly wonderlul discovery, and are proud to say that 
to Hardeman county belongs the credit. Those who 
doubt the truth of what we have related can go to the 
depot and see for themselves, as the new battery is in full 
and constant operation, and has never failed to do all and 
even more than the old costly jars and fluids can do. This 
invention will save thousands of dollars to the Telegraph 
companies, and is destined to become universally adopted, 
on account of its cheapness and durability." 

[Our friends in " Hardeman County, Tennessee," are a 
little behind time in claiming the credit of this "most 
wonderful discovery." It is as old, and nearly as well 
known in scientific circles as the Telegraph itself. Alex- 
ander Bain tried it in 1844 for Telegraphic purposes, with 
indifferent success, as sufficient intensity cannot be ob- 
tained from a single pair of plates, however large, to work 
a circuit of any length. Bain afterwards used it for his 
electric clocks with better results. In 1846 Steixheil 
employed an earth pair, consisting of a copper and zinc 
plate, each containing 120 square feet of surface, located 
at the respective ends of a wire twenty miles in length. 
The needle system was successfully worked with the 
current. 

Accounts of the above, and other experiments, may be 
found in nearly every work on the Telegraph. See 
Sabine, page 230 ; I)e la Rive, Vol. III., page 471 ; Cully's 
Handbook, page 45 ; Silliman's Princ. Physics, page 580 ( 
Schellen's Elec. Mag. Tel, pages 39-738. etc., etc. 

The only apparent advantage of this arrangement, 
which is applicable only for a local, is its constancy. If 
very large plates are buried deep enough in the ground 
to ensure their remaining moist, the current will last until 
the whole of the electro positive metal, is converted into 
oxide — a process which would take a very long time. 
Of course the discoverer (?) of this remarkable earth cur- 
rent can get a patent on it if he thinks it worth while 
to apply for one. Our patent office has become a recep- 
tacle and endorser of all such effete, ancient and exploded 
discoveries and inventions. — Ed. Telegrapher.] 



The New Volume. 
With this number of The Telegrapher it enters upon 
its Fifth Volume. Its prospects are bright and encourag- 
ing, and we confidently expect even greater success 
for this than the preceding volume. The daily accession 
of new subscribers to our list indicates a rapidly growing 
appreciation of the paper, and the determination of the 
profession to afford the means for making the paper what 
it should be, as their organ and as a Journal of Electri- 
cal Progress. 

Some of those whose subscription expired with the last 
number of Volume Four have not yet forwarded the 
money to renew their subscriptions. To all such we send 
this number, and hope that they will, without further de- 
lay, comply with its terms. The names of those who fail 
to do so — if any such there shall be — will be stricken 
from our books after the present week, and the paper will 
no longer be forwarded to them — it being understood that 
they do not desire longer to receive it. 



The Index to Volume Four. 
In order to prepare and have properly printed a full, 
accurate and complete Index to Volume Four (which in- 
volves much care and labor), we are obliged to postpone 
Us publication until next week. It will be sent to sub- 
scribers with The Telegrapher for Saturday, Sept. 5th. 



Becoming Famous. 
The London Times copies the highly complimentary 
notice recently published in our official contemporary of 
Miss L. H. Snow, and the corps of lady Telegraph opera- 
tors under her management at the Western Union Office, 
No. 145 Broadway. 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. John EL Calvert, one of the oldest House and 
Combination (printing) Telegraph operators, formerly of 
of the Metropolitan Hotel and 145 Broadway offices, 
in this city, has been transferred to the Philadelphia 
Western Union office, to fill the situation recently vacated 
by Mr. R. J. Black to engage in other business. 

Mr. John Van Horn, General Superintendent of the 
Southern Division of the Western Union Company, who 
formerly resided at Memphis Tenn., some time since 
removed to Louisville, Ky.. residing on Chesnut street be- 
low Seventh in that city. 

Frank L. Capron, formerly Manager of the Franklin 
office at Norwich, Conn., has resigned, and gone into the 
grocery business in that city. 

John Boyle has been transferred from the Western 
Union Branch (Ad.) office to No. 145 Broadway, New 
York. 

Mr. D. S Ryan, of the W. U. Office, Galveston, Texas, 
has a month's leave of absence, and has gone on a visit 
to his family in Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Gens Stager and Marshall Lefferts have gone 
West, to Omaha and the U. P. R. R- 

Geo. T. Makle has taken a situation with the Franklin 
Company, New Tork. 

Wm. M. Spink, recently of St. Louis, has taken a place 
in the W. U. office, Cincinnati, 0. 

Miss Minnie Mason, of the Franklin, Middletown, Conn., 
office, is rusticating for the summer at her home in 
Palmer, Mass. 

M. A. R. Swift has been appointed Superintendent of 
the Chicago, R. I. and P. R. R. Telegraph line, between 
Chicago and Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

Rush Spalsbury, of Rouseville P. and A. office, Ed. 
Swan, of the A. and G. W. R. R. line, and C. C. Wright, 
late of the 0. C. & A. R. Ry. line, have gone on a visit to 
Central New York 



August 29, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



FOREIGN TELEGRAPHIC NOTES. 

Cyrus W. Field has gone to Switzerland. 

M. Alvergsiat, of Paris, has succeeded in proving 
that electricity does not pass through a vacuum. 

The new Persian Gulf Cable is to be insulated with 
rubber instead of gutta percha. 

The cable across the Straits of Messeina, in connection 
with the direct line between Susa and Alexandria, has 
been successfully laid. 

A Russian Telegraphic Agency exists at Pekin, 
through which messages are transmitted from the Atlan- 
tic to the Pacific Ooeans. 

M. Leroux says that a jet of oxygen playing upon the 
carbon points of an electric light will prevent their waste, 
and a permanent light is the consequence. 

The prospectus has been issued of the Anglo-Mediter- 
ranean Telegraph Company, who propose providing a di- 
rect and thoroughly efficient line of Telegraph to Egypt. 
Their cable is now in the course of construction. 

A concession for the privilege of laying a telegraphic 
cable between France and America was, on the 5th of 
July, adjudicated to Baron Etnile d'Erlanger and M". Julius 
Reuter, for twenty years, by the French Government. 

For the first time, experiments in Military Telegraphy 
upon a large scale are to take place this year at the 
Camp at Chalons. For this purpose, several employes of 
the French Telegraph lines have been drafted off and 
placed under officers specially appointed. 

M. Edluxd, from a series of recent experiments, de- 
duces the fact that the electric current traversing a solid 
body produces an elongation due to itself, and indepen- 
dent of that due to the increase of temperature, this elon- 
gation increasing rapidly with the intensity of the current. 

M. Girard has lately tried a most interesting experi- 
ment, which he has communicated to the Academy of 
Science. In these experiments he believes he sees a new 
system of Telegraphing, and he thinks that we shall be 
able to succeed in obtaining from this principle very 
powerful machines. His experiment is simply placing 
above an electro-magnet a metallic ring formed of wire, of 
greatly but regularly varying diameter, so that on one 
side the wire is very fine and on the other side very 
thick. These conditions being fulfilled, the electro- 
magnet, when excited, is capable of giving movement to 
the ring. 

If two zinc plates of equal dimensions, connected with 
a galvanometer, be plunged at the same moment, and to 
the same depth in a liquid, no result is shown upon the 
galvanometer, but according to M. Caudray, if one be 
first immersed and then the other, a strong current com- 
mences flowing from one plate to the other, showing 
that the first was a negative. The polarity of the plates 
depends upon the order of immersion, the second being 
positive — so that any one plate may be made at will 
positive or negative, according as it is immersed first or 
second. The .polarity may also be reversed when both 
plates are immersed, by touching one or the other with 
a piece of carbon. The strongest effect is noticed when 
one plate is wholly and the other only half immersed. 

Working Well. 
The fines of the Mississippi Valley National Telegraph 
Company are now constructed and working well to 
Davenport and Rock Island. 

A New Private Line. 
The 'Western Union Company are going to build a line 
for Norton & Co., from Chicago to Lockport, Illinois, on 
the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis R. R. Distance thirty- 
five miles. 

The Franklin Telegraph Company has opened an office 
at Spencer, Mass. 



New Railroad Telegraph Line. 
The "Western Union Company will immediately com- 
mence building a line between Chicago and Omaha, a 
distance of over five hundred miles, for the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railroad Company. 

Reduction of Cable Tolls. 
On and after September first messages of ten words 
will be sent by Atlantic Cable to any point in Great 
Britain and Ireland for $16 65 in gold, or $24 25 in 

currency. 

Fire Alarm Telegraph Superintendent. 
The appointment of J. Murray Fairchild to be Super- 
intendent of the Fire Alarm Telegraph is an excellent 
one, and gives thorough satisfaction. He is an electri- 
cian of many years' experience, and has peculiar talent 
for the work, as is evidenced in his capital management 
of the Western Union office for years past, and in his 
valuable inventions. — New Haven, Conn., paper. 

New Patents. 

89.922.— Electro-Magnetic Alarm.— Moses G. Crane, Newton, 

Mass. 

I claim, in combination with the electro-magnet and its arma- 
ture, the balanced hammer, connected with the armature 
mechanism and arranged to be operated substantially as shown 
and described. 

Also, in combination with the striking mechanism, the stops 
x y, and finger al, or an equivalent locking and disengaging 
mechanism, substantially as described. 



BORN. 
At Chicago, August 19th, 1868, a son to Mr. and Mrs. Geo. E. 
Fuller. 



MARRIED. 
Childs — Brown. — At Geneva, N. Y., by the Rev. B. B. Gray, 
of Canandaigua, Thebon T. Childs, of Chicago, to Miss E. A. 
Bbown, of Geneva. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AND DEALER IX ALL KINDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
6een By the following Schedule of Pbices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

" No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

" 2, '« " " 19 oo 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete). 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
0/ acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION 

iX 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STEEET, NEW YORK. 

[OVER THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it hag had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume hag 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most nattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
or electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively If Telegraphic interests. 
terms or subscription: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

jfcg- Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts., 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

tW Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 *' 

£g=- No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

£3j-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover. Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P.. and M. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
John Lenhart, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, " " " 

W. H . Young, B . & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 
A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, " ' " 
R. J. Black, Western Union Office. Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 
B Frank Ashley, Standard Office. Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 
Jas. M. Warner, '« " Aurora, N. Y. 

K. McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. Torrence, " " " " 

C. P. Hoag, " " San Francisco, Cal. 

M. Raphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[August 29, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, N. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTKUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



•KS-- 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eot a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 



Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 



Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Boot Jol ani Commercial Printing. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



TELECRAPH PRINTINC A SPECIALTY. 



CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds & Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANTJFACTTTBEB OF 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 

HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA PERCHi COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

AIR LINTE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. v 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO, 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining an 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 



Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 



SUBMARINE 

t 

AND OTHEB 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B We are prepared to lay down and wabhant Submarine 

Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 118 LIBERTY STREET, 

Ns-w Yobx. 



August 29, 1868.] 



THE TELE Q RAP HER. 



RE^JCOV^Iy OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



fltfkgrapjj Instruments aifo Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, <fec. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 

Material. 
Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 
Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 

Connection. 
Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical Works. 
" C. F. Yarley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered "Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSOIV <fc GO. ? 

126 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AVD DEALERS IN 

Celeppjj Patjmterg anb Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotsojj & Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 

BRADLEY'S RELAYS, 

and other desirable instruments of Eastern manufacture on hand 
and for sale. Repairing done promptly. 

No. 162 SOOTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVEEED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 
SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 
Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 

29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 
MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

"The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRI A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAT. 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

CAPITAL, $5,000,000. 

Lines completed from New York to Cleveland, 

[In progress.] 

A. F. Willmarth, President New York. 

C. A. Harper, Secretary " 

M. L. Wood, General Superintendent '• 

Franklin Telegraph Company. 

CAPITAL, $1,000,000. 

Lines extending from Boston to Washington. 

J. B. Stearns, President Boston. 

J. W. Brown, Treasurer " 

3. G. Smith, Superintendent , New York. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. T., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 



TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

*®-Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 1 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, N. J"., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 

Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and finer than brass, he now presen te 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(veryfine) 19 50 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy • 

armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 76 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 
He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds ol'Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 

BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, Etc. 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 
Account Books, 'Writing Papers, Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
every kind for Business, Professional, or Private use, in quanti- 
ties to suit. 

Manifolds for Telegraphers and Reporters, Diaries and 
Daily Journals. 

Photographic Albums, Gold Pens, Chessmen, Pocket Cutlery, 
Drawing Materials and Paper, Mourning Paper and Envelopes, 
Portfolios, Cards, Writing Desks, Expense-Books, Time-Books, 
Inks and Fluids, Ink Trays, etc., etc. 

Copy your Letters. 

USE FRANCIS' IMPROVED MANIFOLD 

LETTER-WRITER, 

by which Letters and Copies are written at the same time. Copy 
ing andSeal Presses. Please call or send all your orders to 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

Stationers, Printers and Book-Binders^ 

15 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK, 



8 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[August 29, 1868. 



AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGKAPH LINE WISE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OP NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased freight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, k Co., Agents, 

Cldcago, III. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



BLASTING BY ELEOTEIOITY. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
lives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rales and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications mu3t be made to the Actuarv, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto : 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

J. W. Stover, Actuary, 

Box 6077. New York. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nos. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange, 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS ; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 



FOR 



EXPLODING NITEO -GLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THIS BROOKS 

PATE! PARAFFI1 INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHXX.ABIIX.PHXA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

No. 40 Hanover St., BostoD, near American House, 

MANUFACTURE TO ORDER 

A MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, 

On the Alphabetical Dial principle ; the best, most 

useful and economical instrument for private 

business and railroad purposes. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

38 South Fifth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY OP 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AND OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on hand. 
J8SB~ Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

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Vol. V .-No. 2. 



New York, Saturday, September 5, 1868. 



Whole No. 112. 



TELECRAPHINC BY CODE. 

The application of a code system to Telegraphy has, for 
many years, been made a subject of careful study by two 
English gentlemen, Captains Boltox and Barrow. This 
system, as advocated by its inventors, as well as Mr. 
Wyldman Whitehouse, who will be remembered as the 
Electrician of the first Atlantic Cable, has excited much 
i interest in Telegraphing circles in England, and appears 
to be so ingenious and so well adapted to the require- 
ments of the service, that we trust no apology will 
be needed for the following somewhat lengthy and de- 
tailed account, which we copy from the columns of En- 
gineering : 

" This system consists in giving each word, as well as 
each of the most frequently recurring sentences in a 
language, an individual number. When, therefore, a 
message is received for transmission, it is first translated 
into numbers, transmitted in numbers, which take very 
much less time than whole words would do, and is 
retranslated into words for the receiver. The translation 
into numbers and retranslation into words are done, of 
course, by clerks, who make this part of the work their 
sole occupation, and acquire thus a proficiency in the use 
of the code- which, assisted by the memory retaining the 
corresponding numbers of the most common phrases, 
enables them to get through a surprising amount of work 
in a short time. The code, so far arranged by Captains 
Bolton and Barrow, promises to make, when finished, 
a large volume— a sort of constructive dictionary to the 
English language. The code begins with A and ends 
somewhere after Z, containing, in the intermediate pages, 
many thousands of words and sentences, all consecutively 
numbered, and no number, under any circumstances, re- 
quiring more than five figures to express it. Commercial 
words are limited to four, and the ' conjunctions, prepo- 
sitions, interjections,' and all that sort of thing, are 
strictly limited to three figures. The opening page of the 
code is devoted to the elementary signals representing 
the numerals, which diner from those of the Morse in 
being condensed — a point all important in saving time. 
We give the two sets of numerals for comparison.* 



Ho. 


Bolton. 


MOBSE. 

■ 


No. 


Bolton. 


MOBSE. 


1 


- 




6 







•J 


— 





7 








3 








8 








4 

5 







9 






















" These dots are kept quite distinct from dashes in the 
same figure, which, in our opinion, will, when working 
quickly, be found by the clerks to materially assist them 
in preventing the mistakes that now constantly arise 
from a confusion of the signals. The numbers which ex- 
press the letters of the alphabet are arranged so that 
their symbols are identical with the Morse alphabet— a 
very judicious arrangement, as it accommodates, in one 
sense, the systems to a compromise, although little ne- 
cessity is likely to arise, when once a code system is 
adopted, to return at all to ordinary transmission. Each 

* It will be understood by the reader that the European or 
" International" alphabet is referred to in this article instead of 
the American. 



page of the code contains one hundred numbers, from 
to 99, inclusive, and the top cf each page is also num- 
bered, the latter number having to be set before the for- 
mer to give the code number. Page 12, line 22, is, 
therefore, Xo. 1222 — a system which materially facilitates 
reference. On the second page of the printed code we 
see ten numbers of each livo, and ninety of each three 
figures. These are sacred to general mercantile wants : 
thus, 81 means 'Telegraph back the rate of exchange;' 
66 means 'sailed to-day;' 40 means 'free on board,' 
' and so on.' 

" A page is also devoted to the wants of the station 
officials, containing the most customary questions and 
answers. No. 020 means, for instance. ' How many cells 
have you in circuit ?' Xo. 062, ' "Whereabout is the 
fault ?' Eight pages are devoted to a spelling code, with 
the syllables arranged in alphabetical order — ba, be, bi, 
bo, and so on — by means of which, should, by any chance, 
a word be presented for transmission which is not to be 
found in the code — and people will persist in having 
crack-jaw names, and in writing outlandish English — the 
word may be spelled through in syllables. The vocabu- 
lary, with sentences, occupies about a thousand pages. To 
compile this part Samuel Johnson has been exhausted, 
and changes have been rung upon every possible word, 
singular and plural ; every verb, except, perhaps, ' to 
work,' has been thoroughly declined, until the perusal of 
a page of this part puts us through the steps again, as, in 
years gone by, we went through the steps of our initio 
lalina. Here is a scrap torn off the top of page 009 : 

009. 



00900 
1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



Home. 

Absent from home. 
Always from home. 
Always away from 

home. 
Away from home. 
All at home. 
Am detained here and 

shall not be home. 
Am detained here and 

shall not be home in 

time. 
Am detained here and 

shall not be home in 

time for. 
Am detained here and 

shall not be home 

till. 



00950 Cannot come home tall 
late. 

1 Cannot come home till 

last train. 

2 Cannot come home to 

dinner. 

3 Cannot come home to- 

night. 
i Cannot get home. 

5 Cannot get home in 

time. 

6 Cannot get home in time 

for. 

7 Cannot get home till. 

8 Cannot get home till 

about. 

9 Cannot get home till 

late. 



" And so on ; the whole being compiled in a way which 
can leave no doubt in the mind of any one who casts an 
eye over the page that the author was perfectly 'at 
home' in all the variations he has given of each word. . 

■ " As an instance of the great saving which will be 
effected in transmission, by a condensation of this kind, 
we will write out at length the sentence, Xo. 00951 : 
' Cannot come home till last train.' This would be trans- 
mitted by the Morse system as follows : 



c 

It 

t i 

1 
t r 



o 

o 

1 

n 



m e 
m e 

1 



t 



consisting 'of 65 elementary signals, and taking the dot 
as the unit of length and of time, occupying 255 of these 
units of paper in being recorded, and of time in being 
transmitted and received. Xow, by the code, the same 
would be done by 

O O 9 5 1 

consisting of only 20 signals, and occupying only 75 units 
of length of paper and of time. 

" But the saving thus effected in time is not the^only 
advantage which it is expected will accrue from the 
adoption of this system. Another great point in its favor 
is, that the transmission of the message by the clerks is a 
purely mechanical operation. The messages received in 
writing from the senders are coded by clerks, who, mak- 
ing coding their whole business, involuntarily commit to 
memory the numbers indicating a greater part of the 
frequently recurring words and sentences; and where 
this is not the case, habitual use of the code affords them 
a surprising facility for finding the numbers they require. 
These clerks, therefore, simply translate the messages 
into their code numbers, and thus the manipulators have 
no knowledge whatever of their contents, and cannot, as 
is now the case, have their attention divided between 
involuntary thoughts upon the subject matter and their 
mechanical operations. 

" A still further advantage of this system consists in the 
facility which it offers for the translation of messages into 
foreign languages. Suppose, for example, England, 
France and Germany have codes, _each code having 
its individual numbers, the coding clerks might be sup- 
plied with an International key, consisting simply of 
a table with three columns of numbers, and headed — 
1, English ; 2, French ; 3, German. A message being 
transmitted from London by the English code would be 
received by the clerk in Paris, who would have only to 
look down the English column of his key for the num- 
bers received, read off the corresponding numbers in the 
column headed 'French,' and with these get out the 
message from his code in the French language. This 
would, of course, only be applicable in so far as the 
grammatical construction of the two languages allowed. 
In practice, no doubt, each foreign message received 
could be sent to the addressee in its own language, as 
well as in that of the land in which it was received. 

" Some elaborate experiments have very recently been 
made at the offices of the Electric and International 
Company, on their line between Birmingham and Lon- 
don, with the view of establishing the practicability of 
the system. On the 16th of June 100 messages, aver- 
aging 12.86 words per message, were transmitted by the 
code system in 45 minutes without error, whilst, by the 
Morse, they occupied two hours and twelve minutes. 
The rate of errors by the Morse was 5 per cent 

<; Such a result speaks highly for the system, and allays 
any doubts that, whatever may be the demands upon the 
exertions of the Telegraph in future years, we possess a 
way of meeting them. Whether this demand is suffi- 
cient, at the present moment, to necessitate the change — 
whether the practice of the art is sufficiently ripe for the 



10 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 5, 1868. 



introduction of this condensation system — must be a 
question for the Government scientific and technical com- 
mission to decide. At any rate, we feel convinced that a 
code system will be the future system of Telegraphy, and 
that, too, at no distant day." 

It has been proposed to adopt, in connection with the 
code, some different system of notation than the denary 
scale in common use. Thus, by using a scale in which 
the radix is G, there would be only six distinct signs 
instead of ten, as in the denary scale. The consecutive 
numbers, according to this scale of notation, would run 
thus— 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 31, &c. In repre- 
senting each word in the English language by a number 
of the senary scale, the figures will require to be carried 
to one more place than under the ordinary system of no- 
tation ; but this, it is evident, will be much more than com- 
pensated by the greater simplicity of the signs in the for- 
mer instance. The words of one syllable being the most 
common, it would be well to represent them by the 
smaller numbers, and place them in a separate column 
from the longer words. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



The Alphabet Used on Peruvian Lines. 

Lima, Peru, South America, 
June 29ih, 1868. 
To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

The alphabet constituting so important a feature in 
Telegraphy, it may not be uninteresting to your readers 
to look into our A, B, C. Here it is : 

A-— II N — - T — 

B I- - N U 

C J V 

CH K P X 

D L Q Y 

E- LL R Z 

F M S--- & - 

G 

THE NUMERALS. 

1 5 9 

2-- G— •--- 

3 7 

4 8 



PUNCTUATION. 



Period 

Comma 

Semicolon. . . 
Interrogation . 
Admiration. . 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

"Wait a moment. — Despatch. . — - - 

Repeat - — - - — Number — - - - — 

Conclusion. &c. all right - - - — - 

Check - - - — - - - &c. 

This alphabet ha3 been carefully devised, with a view 
to simplifying and facilitating. The space letters of the 
American alphabet seems to us liable to cause blunders 
and mistakes by inexperienced operators. Errors are 
often due, no doubt, to a want of proper care ; yet it is 
worthy of remark that they generally occur in the trans- 
mission of space letters. In the construction of this 
alphabet there are but two elements employed — the dot 
and the dash. There are no space letters nor dashes of 
varying length. The alphabet comprises twenty-eight 
letters, whereof ten employ but four elements each, and 
five employ six each. "We have omitted the W, as en- 
tirely foreign to our language, and whenever some out- 
landish words require it we substitute V.V. 



The numerals -are formed after the German system, as 
being generally used throughout the European Continent. 
With this exception our alphabet, on the whole, is not 
unlike the American, the only difference being in the 
space letters. Some of our letters may seem rather long 
or slow, but they are seldom used, and whenever it be- 
comes necessary to use them they cause no sensible 
diminution of the average speed of transmission. 

Henry J. Dinegro, 
Supl. of the Compaiiia Nadonal Tdegrafica. 



Excitement in the Chicago (W. U.) Olfice.— Who 
Dares to Complain? 

Chicago, August 20th. 
To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

It would have amused you to have witnessed the 
effect of the communication in The Telegrapher relative 
to the impositions practiced upon the operators here by 
the petty officials of the W. TJ. Company. Equal 
astonishment and indignation were displayed that any 
minion should repine at his lot, or protest against any 
exactions that might be made upon his time and labor. 
Mr. Wilson, the District Superintendent, announced, in 
his most forcible and impressive manner, that " if there 
was any one in the office dissatisfied, his services were 
not required." Each individual in the office has been 
interrogated as to his knowledge of the wretch who 
originated the movement. The offenders, if discovered, 
were to be discharged without notice, and their rations 
of rye coffee, hard tack and beans summarily stopped, 
and they left to expire of starvation, or driven by want 
and misery, to drown themselves in the Chicago River. 
It was really amusing to see the fussing and fuming of 
some of the small fry of the official staff among us here 
for the last two or three days, but their success has 
scarcely been commensurate with their exertions. It is 
rumored here that Allen Pixkerton and his detectives 
are to be relieved of all other duty and set after us. 
Here are a few more details of the way Chicago operators 
are worked and treated. Out of about thirty operators in 
this office most of them are required to work from eight 
A. M. to six P. M. one day, and from eight A. M. to nine 
P. M. the next day. There are about six who bring 
their meals, and only remain from eight to six — no night 
labor. There are three or four who labor from eight to 
six, and are off nights, but these have to work every 
Sunday from nine A. M. to six P. M. These operators 
are the highly favored ones. They are supposed to get 
the soft chances. These jobs of Sunday labor are only 
bestowed upon the favored few, and are considered a 
special boon. Ahem ! The regular night operators have 
it about as easy as could be expected. There are only 
six or seven of them. 

Perhaps the wealthy directors of the Western Union 
Company — the men who build colleges, and make large 
donations to religious bodies — don't know that their divi- 
dends are made, to a certain extent, by over-working 
and under-paying poor operators, whose necessities com- 
pel them to submit to imposition. 

As your space is limited, I will postpone the balance 
of this interesting story until next week. In my next 
communication I propose" to consider, and locate where it 
belongs, the blame for the state of things which exists in 
the Chicago office, and show up the petty assumptions of 
certain great-little men, who are, unfortunately, placed 
over the Chicago Operators. 



■*■++■*■ 



Cincinnati, August 29, 18G8. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

A game of base ball was played on Buckeye grounds 
this morning, between day and night men of this "Wes- 
tern Union office. Five innings played. The game was 
called at 7 a.m., when score stood 20 to 18 in favor of the 
night men. The grounds were in excellent condition, 
and there was splendid playing on both sides. 

Old "Vet. 



Suggestions to the Delegates. 

Washington, D. C, Aug. 31. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Please allow me space in your columns to make one or 
two suggestions to the delegates now about to assemble 
in Albany. 

I would suggest that the Union be reorganized upon 
some basis similar to that of the Printers' Association, 
thereby making it binding and beneficial. We all know, 
by painful experience, that we badly need such an organ- 
ization, in order to redress the many wrongs inflicted upon 
us daily. 

I am not, as a general thing, in favor of coercion, but 
in this case I am. "We have been deprived of all our 
rights since the great, monopoly has been in existence, 
and there are rights we should demand. 

The "Western Union Company seems disposed to treat 
its employes as slaves, and we should put a stop to 
this, and demand that they shall be treated as ladies and 
gentlemen. 

In regard to unnecessary Sunday work — some steps 
should be taken in this direction, and I suggest that the 
N. T. U. will recognize, as Sunday office hours, from nine 
to eleven A. M. and 7 to 9 P. M., only, excepting, of 
course, such offices as specials are sent from or to for the 
morning papers ; and at such offices the correspondents to 
be required to send in all their specials as early as possible 
— say nine P. M., and not require operators to remain in 
their respective offices all day when there is scarcely 
anything done. That was all very well during the war, but 
there is no necessity for it now, and should not be toler- 
ated by the N. T. U. 

I hope to see some such measures adopted by the Con- 
vention, as they would induce hundreds of Telegraphers 
to join us, thereby making the Union whaf it was inten- 
ded it should be, namely — a powerful protective and 

beneficial organization. 

Agitator No. Two. 

Election in Corry, Pa., District. 

Corey, Pa., August 20, 1868. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

At a special meeting of the Corry, Pa., District, held 
here pursuant to adjournment, this evening, the following 
gentlemen were declared elected officers for the ensuing 
year: 

District Director E. "Wade. 

" Secretary J. "W. N. Gilds. 

" Treasurer "W. M. Newbold. 

Delegate J- A. Vaughan. 

There has been a revival of interest in the Union in 
this district of late, and some new members have been 
admitted. J. A. Vaughan, Secretary pro tern. 

Is it a Swindle? 

Janesville, Wis., July 31s/. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

The Daily Gazette of this place publishes the following : 
"A man by. the name of Van Buren was in this city 
in December last, and took quite an amount of stock for 
the "National Telegraph Company." Months having 
elapsed without hearing anything in reference to the one 
per cent, paid down, one of the subscribers who was in 
New York went to the office of the Company in that city, 
and ascertained that everything was not exactly right 
in reference to the matter; accordingly, steps were 
taken to bring Van Bdren to terms. This was done by 
getting a requisition from the Governor of this State on 
the Governor of Illinois, and bringing him to this city. 
Here the matter was adjusted by his paying back all the 
money he had received, together with the costs. 

This man, Van Buren, took stock for the National 
Company in every town and city in the State, receiving 
from each subscriber one per cent, on the amount of his 
subscription. He obtained these subscriptions in De- 
cember, and promised to have a wire working between 



September 5, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



11 



here and Chicago by March first. He also assured the 
subscribers that the National Company already had lines 
working east, and were building as rapidly as possible, 
and would soon have lines all over the United States. 
Our business men were too much for him, but what 
others in the State will do is more than I can say. R. 

Telegraph Base Ballists. 

Cincinnati, August 27, 1868. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

A game of base ball was played here to-day between 
the married Telegraphers on. one side and the bachelors 
on the other* Some of the married Telegraphers failed 
to come to time, having recently taken unto themselves 
companions, i. e. got married, and we had to take the 
best men we could pick up, and were badly beaten in 
consequence — the score standing at the close of the 
game — Married Telegraphers, 11 ; Bachelors, 35. 

Some of the playing on both sides would have done 
credit to old base ballists. The game was called at five 
o'clock.and ended at 7:30 a. m , at which time five innings 
had been played. We are about to organize into a regu- 
lar Telegraph B. B. Club, when muscle, bruised limbs, 
black eyes, &c, may be expected among the Telegraphic 

fraternity in this city. Old Vet. 
..— »»...~^~^- 

Premiums Received.— Good Wishes. 

Pittsburg, Aug. 28ih. 
To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

It is with much pleasure that I reply to your kind 
favor of the 26th inst., and acknowledge the reception of 
your last handsome present — the crowning one of a series 
of most munificent gifts — for all of which I would again 
express my warmest thanks. 

I see you are determined to still hold out these unpre- 
cedented inducements, whereby the fraternity may find 
easy means of supplying a long felt want, and from which 
the profession should ultimately reap a rich return. 

I trust you will find a compensating pleasure therein, 
and long enjoy the gratification of having contributed, in 
no small degree, to a greater advancement of Telegraphic 
scieuce by these distributions. 

Geo. A. Hamilton. 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. J. H. Cade, of Newnan, Ga., takes charge of La- 
grange, Ga., office, vice Hay, deceased, 
r Mr. John W. Doane, operator at Western Union Cin- 
cinnati office, resigned his situation Sept. 1st. 

Charlie J. Thomas, of Atlanta, Ga., has taken a place 
on the U. P. R. R. 

Hiram Sibley has just returned east from inspection of 
lines on the U. P. R. R, 

Mr. John F. Knapp, formerly train despatcher at 
Omaha, Nebraska, on the Union Pacific Railroad, was 
relieved August 25th. An operator named Heally fills 
the position temporarily. 

Billy Lewis, who has been at Columbus, Neb., is 
going to work in the Superiutendent's office hereafter. 

W. B. IIibbard has gone to Nebraska city. 

Kinney Smith is at Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

Ed. Conway's headquarters are now at Cheyenne. D. T. 

11. Lithgow is temporarily employed at the Western 
Union office, at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Joe Pi-rcell. formerly from St. Louis, is the operator 
at Santa Fe, N. M. 

Mr. J. W. N. Gilds_ has been relieved as extra opera- 
tor and agent on the Oil City and Alleghany Railway 
Company, and appointed permanently as operator and 
clerk in the office of the General Superintendent of the 
road at Corry, Pa. 

Mr. L. C. Kinsey, fortnerly chief operator of the Eastern 
Division of the Pennsylvania and Erie Railroad line at 
Williamsport, Pa., has accepted the position vacated by 
Mr. Gilds. 



Mr. Chet. Clarke, Manager of the Albany, Georgia, 
office, is on a trip to the north and west. Also, C. G. 
Merriwether, of Mobile, Ala. 

Mr. M. B. Graham, of the "Western Union Stock Ex- 
change office, Cincinnati, has returned after a ten days' 
sojourn in the country. Milt's health is improving. 

Mr. Wm. F. Schiebler, for several years House and 
Combination operator in the American and Western Union 
offices at Washington, D. C, has been transferred to the 
No. 145 Broadway office, New York. 

Mr. C. H. Lithgow has resigned his position in the 
Ohicago, W. U. office. 

Mr. Chas. G. Merriwether, Superintendent of the 
Western Union Telegraph at Mobile, Ala., has been so- 
journing at Chicago for a few days past. 

Mr. A. C. Bassett, of Salt Lake, Utah, is also on a 
visit to Chicago. 

Mr. Davidson, formerly of Dayton, Ohio, has accepted 
a position in the Western Union office at Cincinnati. 

Mr. Dennis F. Brown has resigned the Bethel Conn, 
office, and taken charge of the Franklin office at Norwalk, 
Conn. 

Mr. Frank B. Knight, who has been off on a three 
weeks visit to Rochester, N. Y., has returned and re- 
sumed his position in the Chicago office. Frank is a good 
fellow, and is heartily welcomed by his associates-after his 
recent dangerous illness at Rochester. 

Mr. Samuel H. Cary, formerly of the Western Union 
Railroad Telegraph at Racine, Wis., has been appointed 
agent and operator at Como Station, U. P. R. R. 

R. C. Fulton has resigned his position at Valparaiso, 
Indiana, and is succeeded by Mr. Ware. Mr. Fulton 
takes the railroad agency at Plymouth, Indiana. 

Mr. Jesse H. Bunnell was in Chicago August.31st. 

Mr. S. L. Robinson, of the Chicago office, is off on a 
visit to Niles, Mich. Steve is about to take unto him- 
self a better half. 

Mr. C. E. Bkinck, of the Chicago office, has gone to 
Cleveland on a visit. 

Mr. B. F. Woodward and lady are sojourning for a few 
weeks in the Middle Park, Colorado. 

Mr. Wm. F. Altemyeu, of the W. U. Chicago office, 
takes charge of the Galena, 111., office of same Company, 
vice John Thode, resigned, to engage in other business. 

Mr. Hiram Sibley, of Rochester, was in Chicago on 
the 25th August. 

Mr. Honey, of Quincy, 111., takes a position in the 
Western Union Chicago office. « 

Gen. Anson Stager, General Superintendent of the 
Central Division of the Western Union Company, has, 
preparatory to his removal to Chicago, where his head- 
quarters are hereafter to be located, sold his residence on 
Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, for $100,000. 

THE TELEGRAPH. 

Private Lines in Illinois. 

The Virmillion Coal Company of Illinois have built a 
line for their own convenience, along their railroad fiom 
Wenona to Stocatoo, III., a distance of twelve miles. 
They have in contemplation the extension of both their 
road aud Telegraph line to Ottawa and Aurora. 

Additional Facilities. 

The Western Union Co. are building new linos along 
the Union Pacific Railroad route. 



The Western Union Monopoly in California. 

Sax Francisco, Aug. 27. 
The Western Union Telegraph Company have instituted 
a suit against the Atlantic and Pacific States Telegraph 
Company, for an injunction restraining the defendants 
from engaging in the business of transmitting despatches 
within the boundaries of California, and for $50,000 
damages, by reason of the Atlantic and Pacific States 
Telegraph Company's constructing their lines in close 
proximity to, and removing poles on the plaintiff's line. 

New Line in New Hampshire. 

The new Telegraph line from Dover to Alton Bay, N. 

H., has been completed and opened for business, with 

intermediate stations at Rochester and Union, N. H. 

This line is constructed with the American compound 

wire. 

■»■««■» 

New Western Union Offices. 

The Western Union Company have opened new offices 

at the following places : Flushing, L. I. ; Putney, Vt. ; 

Howlett and Marseilles, 111.; Pikeville, O.; Lagrange, 

Lee's Summit, Bismarck and Canton, Mo. ; Sand Prairie, 

and Croton, Iowa, and Sheridan, Kansas. Offices at 

Nanuet, N. Y., Dent Station, Mo., and Monument, Ks., 

have been closed. 

. «■♦»■» 

July Statement of the W. U. Tel. Co. 
JULY, 1868. 

Gross receipts $601,730 61 

Current expenses 396,163 66 

Net profit $205,506 95 

*~*~»-* 

Telegraph Line to be Resuscitated. 

The Greensboro' Beacon, of the 1st. says that an effort 

is on foot to raise the necessary amount, $1,000, to put 

in operation the line of Telegraph from Marion, via 

Greensboro', to Tuscaloosa. 

m*>~« 

The Telegraph in Alabama. 
Within a few months the Telegraph line will be ex- 
tended from Marion through Galveston to Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama. 

Increasing Facilities. 
The Western Union Co. have just completed a new 
wire between Boston and Albany, to furnish a through 
wire to Buffalo. 



The Southern Telegraph Co. 

We understand that the lines of the Southern Telegraph 
Company have been completed to Nashville, Tenii., for 
about two months, although, for some reason not known 
to us, no office has as yet been opened there. 



New Railway Signal and Indicator. 
An Englishman has invented an electrical indicator for 
train signalling, which the London Bailway Times en- 
dorses as practicable and valuable. It describes the 
working of the instrument at Lily Bridge, a railroad junc- 
tion, as follows : " The ' sending' indicator is a dial (about 
eight inches in diameter), the face of which is marked off 
into as many compartments as are required. That in the 
Lily Bridge box has eight, in six of which are painted 
the words 'Clapham train,' ' Goods train,' 'Great Western 
train,' 'Metropolitan train,' and 'Waterloo train.' The 
indicator is furnished with a movable brass hand or 
pointer. When the man in the Lily Bridge box wishes 
to tell the pointsman at Kensington that a train from 
Clapham Junction is approaching, he takes hold of the 
pointer or index and turns it opposite the compartment 
marked ' Clapham train,' where it remains. The box at 
Kensington is provided with a 'receiver,' upon which the 
messages are shown." The ad\'autage of the instrument 
is, that a porter can operate and read it as well as a 

trained Telegrapher. 

»-*-»-► 

All the Same. 

A correspondent sends us the following : 

" The case of Colville vs. the S. and I. R. R. Co. is 
set, &c," was received, " The case of Colville, viz. the S. 
and I. B. B.," by one of the intelligent operators in the 
Indianopolis office, and when informed that it should be 
vs. said, " What difference docs it make; it means all the 
same." 



12 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 5, 1868. 




SATURDAY, SEPT. 5, 1868. 



NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION. 
To the Delegates for 1868-9. 
In accordance with Art. IT. Section 4 of the Consti- 
tution, I herehy summon you to meet in Annual Conven- 
tion in the City of Albany, N. Y., on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 9th, at 10 A. M. 

H. W. Wheeler, 

Recordiny Secretary. 



THE ANNUAL CONVENTION. 

The Annual Convention of the National Telegraphic 
Union takes place at Albany, N. Y., on Wednesday 
next. As this will be the last opportunity we shall have 
of addressing the Telegraphic fraternity before the meet- 
ing of that Convention, we propose briefly to review the 
matters which are likely to come up for its consideration, 
and which have been discussed pretty fully in the columns 
of The Telegrapher during the past three months. 
The importance of the action of the Convention, as affect- 
ing the perpetuation of the Union, cannot be over-esti- 
mated. The association has reached that crisis in its 
affairs incidental to all such organizations when radical 
changes are essential to its continued prosperity and use- 
fulness. The novelty which at first attracted to it many 
of its members has ceased. It has been found somewhat 
onerous to maintain it, and those who were earnest and 
eager in its support at first have grown weary and faint- 
hearted, and are disposed to question the extent of its 
usefulness. Many of those who originated it, and for the 
first two or three years were its leading spirits, have re- 
tired from the business, and have, of course, ceased to 
participate actively in its affairs, and it cannot be denied 
that the apparent benefits experienced by its members 
has failed to realize their expectations. 

It is, therefore, evident that if it is to continue, vital and 
radical changes must be made at the coming Convention. 
These cannot safely be postponed for another year. They 
must be made now, and must be promptly and energeti- 
cally put in operation. 

We are pleased to know that the Convention promises 
to be larger than at one time seemed probable. In antici- 
pation of reform, and, if found necessary, reorganization. 
Districts that we supposed were practically defunct have 
revived and elected delegates. We are assured that The 
Telegrapher has been largely instrumental in this, and 
rejoice to know that the fraternity have listened to its 
counsels and exhortations. As far as we know them, 
good men have been selected as delegates, and the Con- 
vention promises to be an earnest, faithful, working body. 
We have from time to time pointed out the changes 
which seemed to us desirable, and our correspondents 
have also discussed the matter intelligently, and made 
several important suggestions. Several of these corres- 
pondents will be at Albany, and urge their views per- 
sonally upon the Convention. 

As we have before stated, we regard it as essential — 
First : That the pecuniary burdens of the Union upon 
its members should be lessened. 

Second : That, in connection with the publication of 
The Telegrapher, a central office of the Uxiox be estab- 
lished in this city, at which members and other Tele- 



graphers who may visit this city may call, and where a 
record of such information as may bo of interest to them 
shall be kept. At this office the general business and 
correspondence of the Uxiox should be conducted. 

Third: That the Executive Committee should be so 
located that its members may meet at least once in three 
months, and consider and act upon such business as may 
properly come before them, instead of being, as at pre- 
sent, so widely separated that even a single meeting dur- 
ing the year is impracticable. 

Fourth: That a large part of the duty now assumed, 
and, we must confess, as a general thing, very badly done 
by the Central organizations, shall be devolved upon the 
District organizations, leaving only matters of general im- 
portance and interest for the General Convention and the 
officers of the Union to act upon. In this connection we 
would devolve upon the Districts all relief matters, and 
the duty of attending to sick and indigent members. Let 
each District arrange its own system of relief, and do as 
much or little in that direction as its members are willing 
to be taxed for. 

A suggestion was made in the communication of Agi- 
tator, in the last number of The Telegrapher, which 
we regard as eminently practical and worthy of serious 
consideration by the Convention ; that is, that an annual 
Telegraphic Tournament be established, under the auspices 
of the Union, open to all members, and the award of a 
Champion Key to the Telegrapher who shall demonstrate 
his superiority in the art of practical Telegraphy. Such a 
tournament would, without doubt, interest many of the 
best practical Telegraphers, and there can be no question 
but that the possession of the Champion Key, -thus awarded, 
would prove not only a subject of just pride to the holder, 
as establishing his claim to the credit of being the best 
practical Telegrapher of the country, but would prove ad- 
vantageous to him in many ways. It would also stimu- 
late other Telegraphers to strive to emulate and excel, and 
thus prove of much importance in elevating and improv- 
ing the general standard of Telegraphic efficiency. We 
hope to see something like this brought before the Con- 
vention and favorably acted upon. 

Other important improvements and reforms will, doubt- 
less, be developed at the Convention, and we look to it as 
likely to inaugurate a revival of interest in the Union, 
and initiate an onward and upward progress, beside which 
what has already been accomplished, important as it has 
been, (and the actual benefit which the Uxion has ac- 
complished for the profession is far from being properly 
appreciated,) shall be like the early morning light to the 
full blaze of the noonday sun. 



The Telegrapher Enlarged. 

Our readers have, no doubt, noticed that we have of 
late given them from one to two columns of reading mat- 
ter extra, Weekly. We have now somewhat enlarged the 
paper, enabling us to give about another column in each 
issue of The Telegrapher. The excellence and beauty 
of the typographical execution of the paper is highly 
creditable to Messrs. Russell Bros., at whose steam 
printing establishment, corner of Centre and Reade Sts., 
the paper is printed. This firm does a large amount of 
Telegraphic printing for the Western Union and other 
companies, and have given perfect satisfaction, as regards 
the excellence of their work and the reasonableness of 
their charges, to us and their other patrons. 

The changes and improvements that are made from 
time to time in The Telegrapher of course involve ad- 
ditional expense, but thus far we have had no reason to 
complain of the disposition manifested by the Telegraphic 
fraternity to support us in our efforts to make their organ 
creditable to them and to the National Telegraphic Union, 
by whom it has been established and maintained. 

We confidently ask of the profession even a more libe- 
ral support than that already extended, and assure them 
that, with increased means, no effort shall be wanting on 
our part to make The Telegrapher additionally valuable 
aud interesting. 



Courteous. 
As is customary among newspaper publishers, about 
the 12th of August we took an advertisement of the 
commencement of the fifth volume of The Telegrapher 
to the office of the Journal of the Telegraph, for insertion. 
Mr. J. D. Reid, the responsible editor of the paper, was 
absent, but we were told by the person in the office that 
it would be published. We offered to pay in advance for 
the advertisemejft, but were told that, in Mr. Reid's ab- , 
sence, no one knew what the charge would be. We left 
a note for Mr. Reid, stating the facts, and our desire to 
prepay, and requesting that the bill be sent to our office, 
when it would be promptly paid. The advertisement not 
appearing in the Journal of the 15 th ult., we called at the 
office to ascertain ihe reason, when we were told that 
Mr. Reid had made up the paper before he left, and not 
having returned before the day of publication, the adver- 
tisement was omitted, but should appear in the next 
issue. It does not so appear, however. The editor of 
the Journal has not even had the courtesy to notify us of 
the declination of the advertisement or return the eppy. 

We do not know what the reason may have been for 
this exhibition of discourtesy, and did not expect that 
Mr. Reid, with whom our personal and professional re- 
lations have always been of a friendly character, could be 
guilty of such a display of petty jealousy aud spite 
against a cotemporary. It is another illustration of the 
effect of associations upon a naturally fair aud candid 
mind. 

The Telegrapher will prosper in spite of such dis- 
plays of malignancy and petty meanness, and cannot be 
injured by such action on the part of Mr. Reid or his 

masters. 

» * » » 

An Intelligent Correspondent. 
A Mr. Wji. J. Biggar, of Brady's Island, Nebraska, 
sent us a letter, dated August 7th, for publication, which, 
as soon as we could find time to correct the grammer and 
spelling (in both respects it was a literary curiosity), we 
had put in type and intended to publish it in this week's 
Telegrapher As we find the same letter, word for 
word, in our grandmother's (so called) Journal of the Tele- 
graph, we, of course, have no use for it. We are obliged to 
Mr. Biggar for his kind intentions, but hope hereafter he 
won't send the same communication to us and our vener- 
able friend at No. 145. 

Knox in Siberia. 

In the September number of Harpirs 1 Monthly our 
friend Tuos. W. Kxox continues his interesting articles. 
He devotes the present paper to an account of Siberia, 
and his journey through that country. Under the genial 
and interesting pen of Mr. Knox Siberia assumes a much 
less bleak and inhospitable character than wo have gene- 
rally been taught to credit it with. In fact, he gives us 
so pleasing an account of his experience there that we 
are almost inclined to travel in that direction ourselves — 
especially when the thermometer gets up into the nineties 
in New York. 

We hope that Mr. Kxox will continue his sketches, and 
take us with him through the remainder of his journey 
round the world. 



Special Notice. 
We are voiy much in want of copies of No. 1 of Vol. 
V, whole number 111, issued last week. As we are 
already running short of them, and new subscribers wish 
to commence with the volume, any of our friends who 
have this number to spare will oblige us very much by 
sending it to this office. 

Electricity as a Bleaching Agent. 
A stream of electricity from a powerful electro-mag- 
netic machine, driven through a solution of unrefined 
brown sugar, will, it is said, bleach it as effectually as 
charcoal. 



September 5, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



13 



MISCELLANEA. 

Crystallization of Copper Wires by Intense Currents. 

It was noticed by Mr. James "Wylde, ia England, as 
early as the year 1842, that when intense currents were 
sent continually in one direction, using as a conductor 
the best copper wire, that it gradually decreased in ten- 
acity, and became so brittle as to easily bo broken by the 
finger. He found that after using a copper wire of No. 
10 gauge for some time, sending the current of 100 Grove 
cells through it, always in the same direction, the nega- 
tive terminal of the wire became almost destitute of ten- 
acity. A microscopic examination showed a crystalline 
appearance at the fracture, indicating a complete molecular 
change in the metal. The same effect was also casually 
noticed by Faraday during his experiments. Mr. 
"Wylde is of the opinion, from careful observation, that 
this molecular change is to a great extent prevented, or at 
least lessened, by a frequent reversal of the direction of 
the current. This matter is worthy of the attention of 
practical electricians. 

Novel Application of the Telegraph. 

Ox board the steamer Europe, belonging to the French 
Transatlantic Steamship Company, and . employed on the 
line between New York and Havre, a novel application 
of the Telegraph has been made, and which seems calcu- 
lated to add to the safety of the ship, and to be exceed- 
ingly convenient to the officers and crew in the manage- , 
ment of the ship. It is a speaking Telegraph, correspond- 
ing with the quarter-wheel, by means of which the officers 
can send their orders instantaneously to the helmsmen, 
and the crew be advised of the approach of a ship and of 
all accident. This speaking Telegraph is provided with 
an alarm bell, and the transmission is so rapid that in the 
twinkling of an eye every one on board is advised of what 
be has to do. This deserving invention is due to Mr. 
Foucaut, doctor and electrician on board the steamship 
Europe. The French Minister of Marine is to apply it, it 
■ is said, to the command of the artillery on board ships of 
war. It seems admirably calculated for such a purpose. 
*-+-+-* 

The Vienna International Telegraph Conference. 

The International Telegraph Conference, recently in 
session at Vienna, Austria, adopted a resolution allowing 
the use of Hughes' printing apparatus alongside that of 
Morse's on all international lines; another, recommend- 
ing the exclusive use of wires of the thickness of five 
millimeters (.19685 of an inch); both of which measures, 
it is believed, will lend great speed and certainty to the 
transmission of despatches. The Emperor of Austria 
awarded to Mr. David Hughes, in acknowledgment of 
the value of his Telegram printing apparatus, the order of 
the Iron Crown, of the third class. 



A Deaf Telegraph Operator. — S. J. Hoffman, a 
Telegraph operator in St. Louis, is a curiosity. He lost 
his hearing some years ago. and then learned the art of 
Telegraphy, in which he has become a remarkable adept. 
His method of receiving a report is exceedingly interest- 
ing. Good operators receive by the ear, the clickings of 
the instrument being to them like audible reading, each 
letter and word being ticked off as distinctly as though 
spelled out by the human voice. Not hearing a single 
sound, he places his hand upon the working instrument, 
or placing his knee against the operating table, by his 
peculiar and sensitive nerves feels every vibration so dis- 
tinctly that he is able to surpass ordinary receivers in 
the accuracy of his reporis. He hears nothing about 
him, is never disturbed, and consequently works in a 
Silent world of his own. In this condition his memory 
has become wonderfully retentive, and, as a consequence, 
his manuscript is exceedingly correct, while his chiro- 
graphy is excellent. Mr. Hoffman can speak, and answer 
questions put to him, audibly. The mode of communica- 
tion the Telegraph boys have with him is to tick off, as 
on an instrument, upon his hand or the back of his neck, 
such things as they desire to say to him. This is by no 
means tedious, as the process is quite as rapid as an or- 
dinary drum beat. To see him taking the report is really 
interesting. 



A Circuitous Route. 

A despatch dated Franklin, Texas, August 16th, via 
Santa Fe, N. M., 22d, destined to Austin, TexajS, passed 
through the Chicago office on the 2 2d. The route this 
despatch takes to reach its destination is from Sante Fe 
via Denver, Col., Cheyenne, Dak., Omaha, Neb., Chi- 
cago, Louisville, New Orleans, Galveston, and thence to 
Austin, in the State from which it originated. Distance 
by Telegraph, 3,500 miles. Distance from Franklin to 
Austin we have not been able to ascertain — probably not 
over 200 or 300 miles, if that far. 

The despatch passed through the following States and 
Territories : 

Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, "Wyoming, Dakotah, 
Colerado and New Mexico. 



Lightning as a "Well-digger. — At Cornish Flat, N. 
T., recently, a streak of lightning ran down a tree and 
went iito the earth, tearing open a hole from which a 
stream of crystal water has continually bubbled since. 
The stream runs from a place hitherto dry, and near 
which no water was supposed to exist. 



BORN. 
August 15th, to H. Coons, formerly night operator at Wilming- 
ton, Illinois, now agent and operator at Chatham, HI. (C. and A. 
R. K.), a daughter. 



MARRIED. 
Adgate — Lamson. — At Pittsfield, Mass., August 2Gth, Mr. 
Matthew Adgate to Miss Nettie Lamson. 

Smith— Cv/htis. — At the residence of the bride's sister, near 
Larden, Ohio, by the Rev. J. M. Schofield, Mr. John W. Smith, 
of the Western Union Telegraph office, Cincinnati, to Mrs. 
Geraldine Curtis. 



DIED. 
Hay. — At Lagrange, Ga., Mr. James R. Hay, Manager of the 
Telegraph office at that place. 

W. E. PACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AND DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following' Schedule of Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders .' 9 00 

" " Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVEK THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fiith 
Volume of The Telegbapheb will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegbaphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relatiug to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegbapheb will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the .world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, aud its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages willtontain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
tornake The Telegbapheb what it purports to be — a journal 
of electbical pbogbess, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegbapheb is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

Oue copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

4<g- Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts., 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

ZW Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

SfW No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

/Hf-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. «v P.. and M. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
John Lenhart, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
L. H. KoiiTT, 

W. H. Young. B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 
A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Union Office, 
K. J. Black. Western Union Offico, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 
B Frank Ashley, Standard Offli e, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. WEED, W. U. Telg. Office. Oswego, N. Y. 
Jas. M. Warner, " " " Aurora, N. Y. 
K. McKenzie, ■• " £t. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. TORBENCE, 

C. P. Hoag, " " Pan Francisco, Cal. 

M. RAPHAEL, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to. or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



14 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[September 5, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



101 Centre Street, N. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool, Job ail Commercial Printint 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PAKAFFINE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wins, in 
the spac eot a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and tesc 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this aud other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds & Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 
Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 

HARRESBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA PERCIIA COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

-A^ I IE=L LINE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

, that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office "Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining an 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectlully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AND OTHER 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED with 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

/ 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B, — We are prepared to lay down and warrant Submarine 
Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Fercha Co. 
Office, 113 LIBERTY STREET, 

New York. 



September 5, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



15 



REMOVAIv OF 



L. Gr. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegrapl] Instruments aifo Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. F. Varley's Patent Paraffiue Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered "Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 
Wire. 

t 

" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. - 
Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

126 South Clakk St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Celeppjj Hatljinerg nnb Supplies* 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALEB IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 
BRADLEY'S RELAYS, 

and other desirable instruments of Eastern manufacture on band 
and for sale. Repairing done promptly. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET. 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 



Established 1842. 



Established 1842. 



COVEEED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instrument's, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 
SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 
Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind" need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 

29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

manufacturers and dealers in all kinds of 

MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the sevebest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

11 The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAT. 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

CAPITAL, $5,000,000. 

Lines completed from New York to Cleveland. 

[In progress.] 

A. F. WrxiMASTH, President New York. 

C. A. Harper, Secretary .- " 

M. L. Wood, General Superintendent " 

Franklin Telegraph Company. 

CA.PITAL, $1,000,000. 
Lines extending from Boston to Washington. 

J. B. Stea-rns, President Boston. 

J. W. Brown, Treasurer " 

J. G. Smith, Superintendent New York. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. Y„ 
Inventor of the " Pony Sounder" Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

Jteg^Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 1 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, y. J"., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDS METAL, 

which is much richer and fines than brass, he now presen te 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the 6pace occupied by the silk is the l-150th to 
the l-300th of an inch ; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(veryfine) 19 50 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 76 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning/ furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 
He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tola- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 

BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, Etc. 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

Account Books, Writing Papers, Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
every kind for Business, Professional, or Private use, in quanti- 
ties to suit. 
Manifolds for Telegraphers and Reporters, Diaries anb 

Daily Journals. 
Photographic Albums, Gold Pens, Chessmen, Pocket Cutlery, 
Drawing Materials and Paper, Mourning Paper and Envelopes, 
Portfolios, Cards, Writing Desks, Expense-Books, Time-Books, 
Inks and Fluids, Ink Trays, etc., etc. 

Copy your Letters. 

USE FRANCIS' IMPROVED MANIFOLD 
LETTER-WRITER. 

by which Letters and Copies are written at the same time. Copy 
ing andSeal Presses. Please call or send all your orders to 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

Stationers, Printers and Boolc-Bindersj 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 



16 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 5, 1868. 



AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIEE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for .its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of-the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
lives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications mu3t be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
appUcant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Exeoutive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

J. W. Stover, Actuary, 

Box 6077. New York. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume in. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nob. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



BLASTING BY ELECTRICITY. 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 



FOR 



EXPLODING NITROGLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 
* SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

' PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

EDMANDS &, HAMBLET, 

No. 40 Hanover St., Boston, near American House, 

MANUFACTURE TO ORDER 

A MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, 

On the Alphabetical Dial principle ; the best, most 

useful and economical instrument for private 

business and railroad purposes. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

38 South Fifth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY OP 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AND OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on band. 
jfcS= Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold -good until the first of December, 1868. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will couut as oue in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

for five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, "Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
"Presoott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or ".Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal value. 

For twelve subscribers, "Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or " Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. - 

We have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Rive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. ^ 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, uutil they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, NEW YOMK. 

*#8° 

SHAFFNER, T. P.— Telegraph Manual. 

A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 

Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 625 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentucky. New Edition. 1 voL 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY, R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., niustrated. London, 1867 5 25 

SABlN, ROBT- The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the U. S. and Europe. 1 vol., 8vo. niustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. London, 1867 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELECRAPH, by Dr. 

LARDNER. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. R. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Illus- 
trations. London,1867 2 50 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged by the Professors of " Morse's Telegraph 
Institute." 1 vol. 12mo 1 25 

TURNBULL, L.— Th e Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 50 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. Snow.) A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NOAD, H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol., 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

QE |_a RIVE. A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo ." 36 50 

NOAD H. M.— Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol , 12mo. 400 niustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M.— Electricity. 1vol., 12mo.... 1 76 

BOND R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

DU MONCEL.— ( Le e Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

H I C H TO N E .—History of Electric Telegraph 1 00 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12mo 2 50 

5®- A New and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Work* 
ready October 1, sent JVee on Application. 
New York, Stpt. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V -No. 3. 



New York, Saturday, September 12, 1868. 



Whole No. 113. 



ELECTRICAL & TELECRAPHIC MANUFACTURES 
IN PHILADELPHIA. 

During a recent brief visit to Philadelphia, we took 
occasion to visit some of the principal manufacturers and 
dealers in Telegraphic apparatus and supplies. It was 
in this city, we believe, that the manufacture of Tele- 
graphic apparatus was first commenced as a specialty, 
some twenty years since. Some of the earliest instru- 
ments were made by Clark, whose son still continues 
the business at Ilarrisburg. 

One of the most flourishing establishments in the city 

is that of 

Chester, Partrtck & Co., 

whose place of business is at 38 South Fifth street. 
Although this enterprising young firm has been estab- 
lished less than a year, they have already secured a 
large and constantly increasing business. 

Mr. Stephen Chester, the senior partner, is a brother 
of the well known Chesters of this city. Mr. Partrick 
is an old and experienced Telegrapher, and the value of 
a practical man in this business is at once apparent upon 
inspecting the minor details of the instruments manufac- 
tured by the firm, and on exhibition at their warerooms. 
The registers and keys which they furnish are of espe- 
cially neat and serviceable patterns. Relay magnets, 
sounders, switches, lightning arresters, and every variety 
of apparatus, batteries and other material are kept on 
hand and made to order. 

Messrs. Chester, Partrick & Co. are agents for Ches- 
ter's dial instrument, the American Fire Alarm, Kid- 
der's Medical Instruments, &c, &c. ; and are also pre- 
pared to contract for the construction, equipment, and 
maintenance of Telegraph lines in any part of the 
country. 

Although not strictly a Telegraphic invention, we may 
state that we noticed, at this establishment, a self-pro- 
pelling swing for children, invented by John A. Wright, 
a well known Telegrapher of Trenton, N. J., which is a 
most capital thing in its way. 

Our next visit was to the shop of 
W. E. Facer, 
at No. 48 South Fourth street. . A case at the door, con- 
taining a number of finely finished instruments, first 
attracts the attention of the visitor. Mr. Facer's estab- 
lishment is not very large at present, but if he continues 
to turn out the quality of work exhibited in his case of 
samples, he will speedily have occasion to enlarge it. 
The instruments made by Mr. Facer do not differ mate- 
rially in design from the usual patterns. In common 
with most of the Philadelphia manufacturers, the adjust- 
ing spring of the sounders and registers are arranged to 
act directly against the armature, thus relieving the 
bearings of the lever from much unnecessary friction. 
"We were shown.a very neat and convenient clamp for 
the carbon battery, which deserves to come into general 
use. It is the best thing of the kind we have seen. A 
new repeater of Mr. Facer's invention 'was also shown 
us, which is in use on the Pacific and Atlantic, and 
Bankers and Brokers' lines, and is highly recommended 
by Telegraphers using it. The manufacture of medical 



electric instruments forms a considerable part of the 
business of this establishment. Among other curiosities 
here we noticed au electromotive engine of considerable 
power, and a compound relay, which has been made to 
work well in a circuit of 1,500 miles, which included 
also, a number of other instruments. 

One of the oldest establishments in Philadelphia en- 
gaged in this line is that of 

Knox <& Shaw, 
at 218 and 220 Walnut street. This firm are also largely 
engaged in the manufacture of first-class engineering and 
surveying instruments. Registers, however, seem to be 
their particular specialty. In fact, Knox & Shain's 
registers are about as well known throughout the United 
States as the Telegraph itself, and can be found in almost 
every country railway station from New York to New 
Orleans and Omaha, and, for aught we know, San Fran- 
cisco itself — and this extensive popularity has resulted 
solely from the uniform excellence of the workmanship 
of these instruments. 

A main line register, with coils of No. 30 wire, is ma- 
nufactured here, which is quite extensively used upon 
lines of moderate length in the city of Philadelphia and 
elsewhere. The usual variety of relays, sounders, keys 
and other Telegraphic apparatus, are also made here, a 
large portion of which find a market upon the numerous 
important railway lines leading out of Philadelphia. 
Some business is also done in the manufacture of dial 
instruments for police purposes. 

Josiah B. Thompson 
has an establishment at No. 29 North 20th street, which 
furnishes the greater portion of the silk insulated wire 
used in the construction of electro-magnets, by the dif- 
ferent makers in the United States, ^nd the quality of 
his work is unsurpassed either in this country or abroad. 
Mr. Thompson also makes every variety of office wire, 
insulated by fibrous material, including the well known 
and approved " enameled wire." He also makes a nice 
article of flexible cord for plug switches. 

Joseph Moore & Son, 
at 537 China street, in addition to their regular business 
of making bonnet wire, have recently furnished a large 
amount of insulated wire for house-top lines to the Report- 
ing Telegraph in this city, which has given good satisfac- 
tion. This wire is No. 14 copper, insulated and strength- 
ened by a covering of hemp, and paraffined to preserve 
it against the influence of the weather. 
B fore leaving the city we took occasion to visit 
The Brooks Parapfine Insulator Work<!, 
which are situated at No. 21 South 21st street. We found 
the " Insulator Man" up to his eyes in business, and the 
works running night and day, turning out insulators at 
the rate of fifteen thousand per week — the inevitable 
result of getting up a good thing and then advertising it 
in The Telegrapher. The greater part of those now 
making are supplied to leading railway companies, to 
whom an efficient Telegraph department, equally relia- 
ble in all sorts of weather, is invaluable. Many thou- 
sands of them have also been shipped to California, South 



America and Europe. At the time of our visit the 
works were just completing a large order for the Western 
Union Company. Four or five different varieties of insu- 
lators are now made here, one of the latest being com- 
posed of earthenware, saturated with paraffine, which 
has thus far given wonderful results under the most 
severe tests, its resistance greatly exceeding that of any 
known insulator. 

Connected with the establishment Mr. Brooks has a 
laboratory and testing room, supplied with the finest set 
of e'ectrical measuring apparatus in this country. This 
consists of an astatic galvanometer, with forty thousand 
convolutions of wire, made by the celebrated Ruhmkorff, 
of Paris, and a set of resistance coils, from one to ten 
thousand units, made by the Silvertown Company, of 
Essex, England. This is so arranged that it may be 
used as a Wheatstone's Balance, and is capable of 
measuring accurately any electrical resistance, however 
great. Our space* being limited, we must reserve till 
another time an account of several interesting experi- 
ments made with this apparatus during our stay. The 
battery used by Mr. Brooks for his insulator tests con- 
sists of nearly 400 cells, which will shortly be increased 
to 1,000. The different varieties of insulators are placed 
upon a frame in the yard, in sets of twenty, each set 
being connected by a wire which is brought to the test- 
ing room. An excellent opportunity for comparing their 
merits is thus afforded during the prevalence of damp 
and rainy weather. Telegraphers of a scientific and in- 
vestigating turn of mind cannot fail to derive pleasure 
and instruction from a visit to this well appointed estab- 
lishment. 

mn 

New Automatic Telegraphic Apparatus. 

Among the considerable number of scientific foreigners 
attending the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science is Professor Zenger, of Prague, who has 
come over purposely to exhibit a new automatical Tele- 
graphic apparatus, which is likely to excite a great deal 
of attention. The following brief description has been 
specially furnished by the Professor, who has occupied 
himself for more than a year in perfecting his invention. 
The object of the instrument is to secure correctness in 
the Telegraph signs by mechanical means, the signs being 
made quite independent of the hand of the Telegraphist. 

No change in the arrangement of the Morse apparatus 
is required beyond the removal of the key and the substi- 
tution of the automatical apparatus. There is only a 
uniform movement of three levers, which will produce 
three distinct signs (and can produce no others), whose 
relations to one, two, three, will give thirty-eight combin- 
ations, a number greater than is required to telegraph 
all letters and replies. The despatches will become one 
third shorter than usual, and nearly half the time in trans- 
mission will be saved, as the uniform and simultaneous 
movement of the levers will secure a more rapid manipu- 
lation. 

^^■y^-^%. >!«< » " •^■v^wv^ 

A private' Telegraph wire has been erected between 
Stamford and New Canaan, Connecticut, along the rouU 
of the new railroad. 



18 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 12, 1868. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Oar columns are op.<n to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction ofi>erson or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Recruit for the Union. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE TELEGRAPHER. 

Some time since I noticed in the columns of The Tele- 
grapher an invitation and appeal to the members of 
the profession to connect themselves with the National 
Telegraphic Union. This I consider a good suggestion, 
and hope that it may be responded to by the profession 
generally. 

For one I should like to join it, if the conditions could 
be made known to me ; for although I am not a subject 
of the United States, I have great faith in its national 
motto — E pluribus unum. 

I hope the Canadian Telegraphers may be included in 
the Union ; and in view of that, I wish to express my 
opinion upon the question so long under consideration, 
as to whether it shall be- made a secret society or not. 

For one I am in favor of a secret organization. As far 
as I know, only two valid objections have been made to 
such an organization: first, that it might be more ex- 
pensive ; and second, that it may be against the religious 
principles of some of its present members. 

I cannot understand why the use of a pass- word, and 
the adoption of some peculiar signs, by which members 
may recognize each other, is necessarily to increase the 
expense. And even if it did add somewhat to the ex- 
pense, it would be more satisfactory to pay a little more 
for an association which would afford social opportunities 
to its members, as well as advance and protect their 
material interests ; and besides, it is "hardly possible to 
maintain the one without the other — and this, I think, 
tho experience of the Union has already shown. 

As to its conflicting with religion, I think we might 
consider preposterous a church that would condemn a 
secret that is for no bad purpose. The secret referred to 
in Scripture cannot possibly be such. 

It is very true that some secret societies were con- 
demned by certain churches, but it was for the good rea- 
son that those societies were established for the purpose 
of overthrowing these churches, or at least to counteract 
their influence on some points, which, I fancy, will not 
be the case with the one now in question. 

I do not expect to effect any disturbance in the 
Union, nor do I wish to. I am a Telegrapher, anxious 
to take part in some fraternity likely to help the voca- 
tion, and to facilitate the arrest of minds made vague by 
an everyday confinement to lonely offices, like mine and 
many others ; and my only intention is to let the public 
know my disposition, "as I think every Telegrapher 
ought to do," in order to give the more influential men 
good ground to act upon. 

I wish the Union well — that it may soon embrace all 
eligible Telegraphers, and that I may be one of them. 

Bona Fide. 



More Excitement in the Western Union Office— Anx- 
iety to Discover' the Malcontents— Who can the 
Correspondent of the Telegrapher be? 

Chicago, Sept. 8. 
To the Editor op the Telegrapher. 

The petty officials of the Western Union Company in 
this city continue to be greatly exercised over the ex- 
posure in The Telegrapher of the imposition and un- 
reasonable exactions practiced towards the employes in 
this office. If they could only discover who the wretch 
is that has dared to ventilate this matter, his head would 
come off in less than no time. They have not yet suc- 
ceeded in fastening the crime upon anybody, and I would 
take this opportunity of informing them that the corres- 
pondent is beyond the reach of their vengeance, and not 
beholden to them for a continuance of his daily rations. 



There has been no improvement in matters here as 
yet, and the exactions upon and excessive labor of the- 
operators continue unabated. 

It is not desired, however, to locate the blame for this 
state of things where it does not belong. The executive 
officers of the "Western Union Company are not responsi- 
ble for this state of things. The district superintendents 
and office managers regulate such matters. If Mr. "Wil- 
son and the managers of the office were so disposed, the 
grievances would speedily be removed. The operators 
are perfectly willing to do their whole duty to the Com- 
pany, and render a just equivalent in labor for every 
dollar of salary received, but they do not consider the 
stipend paid them as an equivalent for from twelve to 
sixteen hours' labor daily. 

Had the operators followed out their inclinations, and 
availed themselves' of Wilson's polite invitation for all 
that were dissatisfied to leave, very few operators would 
have remained in the office. He very well knew, how- 
ever, that they could not do so, knowing that the ban of 
the Western Union Company would be upon them, and 
thwart, as far as possible, their efforts to procure other 
situations. 

All operative Telegraphers here, however, are rejoic- 
ing in the fact that soon a strong opposition will be es- 
tablished in this section of the country, and relieve them, 
to a certain extent, from their dependence upon the 
Western Union Company and its puffed-up subordinates. 
Is it to be supposed that any of these over-worked and 
under-paid operators will exert themselves to any greater 
extent than they are obliged to do to further the inter- 
ests of the Western Union Company when an active 
competition comes? Human nature would require a 
large infusion of saving Christian grace to bring them up 
to that point of disinterested self abnegation ! A part of 
the blame should properly rest upon the night manager, 
who has been frequently asked if the force was sufficient, 
and has responded that it was, when he well knew that 
such was not the case. He comes on duty at 6 p. M., and 
generally goes home at an early hour, while men who 
have been on duty all day are stuck, as it is termed. 
Besides, he is violent and overbearing, and is, for these 
things, generally disliked by those who are so unfortu- 
nate as to be placed under his control. His removal to 
another sphere of labor would greatly rejoice the Chicago 

Operators. 

Houston, Texas, Aug. 2olh. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

It has been my desire for sometime past to let you hear 
from this side of the Mississippi river, but the quiet and 
harmonious character of Telegraphic events in this dis- 
trict for the last few months has scarcely furnished me 
with any subject upon which to write. 

The lines have been working very well and uninter- 
ruptedly, save by the heavy lightning storms which visit 
this country during the greater portion of the summer. 

The damage done by this lightning is very small com- 
pared to that of winter lightning, the former merely pre- 
venting the lines from working, and sometimes burning 
a relay, whilst the latter, as a general thing, tears the 
lines down and splits the poles by the wholesale. 

Mr. D. 0. Shepherd, Superintendent of this district, is 
taking an inspection tour on the Western Line toward 
San Antonio. 

The poles for the Indianola line are being rapidly 
brought in, and the probabilities are that the line will be 
completed by January, '69. Considerable business is ex- 
pected to be done over that line, but I presume the re- 
ceipts will tell in time. 

The yellow fever, that dreaded scourge of the South, has 
not yet made its appearance, and probably it will not now 
visit us this year. It performed its work of destruction 
and havoc only too well last year to be so soon forgotten 
by the fortunate survivors, snatching away, as it did, in 
the flush of manhood, three of our brethren in the pro- 
fession. 



Aside from this deadly disease, there is a kind of sick- 
ness emanating from the swampy country which sur- 
rounds some of our inland towns, and which has proven 
only too fatal in the death of another operator at Liberty, 
Texas, who died from this miasmatic disease a few days 
ago. 

The deceased, B. O'Callahan, was late of Mississippi, 
and had only been employed in this district a few months. 

I hope in my next to be able to detail some facts that 
may prove more interesting to the readers of The Tele- 
grapher than those contained in the foregoing. 

Texas. 

More Grievances. 

Pittsburg, Pa., August 21th. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

In these days of poor pay and injustice to operators by 
the Western Union Co., it is gratifying to observe the 
interest manifested by the fraternity, and the efforts being 
made, through the medium of The Telegrapher, to cor- 
rect the many evils that exist in the management of the 
larger offices of the above-named Company. 

The office of our cotemporary above, on Fifth street, is 
not, I regret to say, an exception to the general system 
of petty abuse and disregard of employes' comfort and 
convenience. Aside from the extra work often required 
of operators, without additional remuneration, and the 
filthy, unhealthy condition their office is kept in, the 
payment of salaries is made between the 3d and 6th of 
the month for the previous month's services, and then 
with a great show of importance and red tape. In other 
offices this is done on the last day of the month, and 
never extending beyond the first of the next. 

The operators are also required to furnish their own 
ice-water, or go parched and thirsty. The interesting 
feature of the morning hour in this " peut-up Utica" is 
the itineracy of the dummy boy, with a mendicant's 
smile, soliciting penny donations to purchase the con- 
gealed fluid. Frequently a sufficient amount for the 
purpose cannot be obtained, and the contributions are 
returned. 

This severe and arbitrary exercise of power over 
their employes seems hardly requisite for the purposes 
of government, or the preservation of those amicable re- 
lations which should exist between employer and em- 
ployed, and calls for reform, or at least an inquiry into 
tho facts by those having authority to apply the remedy. 

Quill. 
♦-*-*-» 

Dubuque, Iowa, August 26, 1868. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

As your columns are always open for jokes, bulls, &c, 
I will give you one that occurred many years ago, and I 
think you will agree with me, notwithstanding its age, 
that it is too good to be lost. During the year 1853, and 
when the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railway 
was completed no further west than Bucyrus, Ohio, the 
Telegraph Company, then known as the Wade Company, 
opened an office at that point A difficulty occurring in 
the working of the line, the Superintendent (a sub ap- 
pointed by J. H. Wade), the first letters of whoso name 
are T. T. E., was sent out on a tour of inspection. Ar- 
riving at Bucyrus he immediately began a vigorous 
search for the cause of obstruction. Now, the electrical 
knowledge of the aforesaid " sub" not being of the order 
" brilliant," his researches were not conducted on strictly 
scientific principles. "With an eye single to glory" he 
proceeded to a careful examination of the register spools, 
the wires of which were in rather a dilapidated condi- 
tion. During the inspection the line, from some cause 
unknown, suddenly began to work all -K. A few mo- 
ments afterwards our worthy General Supt., Wade, was 
astounded by the receipt of the following dispatch : 
"Bucyrus to J. H. Wade, Columbus. Line all right; 
found the trouble in the local spools of the register in 
this office." (Signed), T. T. E. 

Instructing the operator to look carefully after his 
spools, he took the next train for home, no doubt feeling 
highly gratified at the result of his investigation. 

Jonsmith. 



September 12, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



19 



PERSONAL. 

"Wanted— A Situation. — The services of a first-class 
Telegraph line builder, accustomed to taking charge of 
gangs of men and the Telegraph construction business 
generally, can be secured by immediate application to the 
editor of The Telegrapher. 

J. M. D. Orrell, formerly at Indianopolis, has been 
appointed chief operator of Bridger Division, TJ. P. R. R-, 
and manager of Benton office. 

" Little Bill" Foley is now " on tick" at despatcher's 
office, Laramie, TJ. P. R. R. 

George Chamberlain-, of Chicago Junction, has ac- 
cepted a position with Morton & Co., of Lockport. 

Address Wanted.— Mr. J.' B. Austin, of Erie, Pa., 
wants the present address of Mr. W. W. Wickham, who 
was an operator at Nashville, Tenn., during the war. 

J. Hervey Nichols, manager of Cheyenne, D. T. 
office, has gone east on a visit. 

Mr. James Bay has vacated his position in the Western 
Union Cincinnati office. 

Mr. J. Yan Horne, General Superintendent of the 
Southern Division of the Western Union lines, is on a 
trip to the north. 

Mr,. Thos. Curry has resigned from the Franklin Tele- 
graph office, No. 1 1 Broad street, this city, and accepted 
a position on the Union Pacific Railroad at Grand Island, 
Nebraska. 

.D. S. Ryan, of Galveston, Texas, office, is on a visit to 
his home in North Carolina, on thirty days' leave of 
absence. 

Wm. McKexzie, formerly operator in the Montreal 
Co.'s Montreal office, has gone into the money exchange 
business in that city. 

Jas. Unsworth, the popular negro minstrel in this 
city, is a Canadian, and was formerly operator at St. 
Ayacinthe, C. E. 

The friends of Mr. James F. Gormley, a veteran House 
and Combination operator, will regret to learn that his 
wife died of quick consumption at Bridgeport, Conn., on 
Thursday evening last. She was an estimable woman. 
She was twenty-six years of age. 

Mr. John Hoyt, of the Frankliu line office at Norwalk, 
Conn., has taken charge of the Western Union office, in 
the same place, a position filled by him some years ago. 

Mr. Clous has charge of the Bethel, Conn., office, vice 
Brown, gone to Norwalk. 

Mr. Wm. H. Booth, formerly manager of tho Franklin 
office in Bridgeport, is acting as night operator in the 
Waterbury office, Western Union Line, Mr. Chas. S. 
Stancllffe. manager. 

Mr. D. B. Granny, formerly of the Worcester, Mass.. 
Franklin office, is now manager of the Franklin office at 
Bridgeport, Conn., and is filliBg the position very accept- 
ably. 

Miss Miller, assistant operator in the Bridgeport office, 
Western Union Line, has been off duty for some weeks. 
She has been very ill with brain fever, from which her 
recovery is exceedingly slow. 

Mr. A. W. Chamberlain is now operating iu the 
Spencer, Mass., office, of the Franklin Line. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Beta. — We are obliged to postpDue the publication of 
your communication until next week. 

P., Prov.— -See editorial paragraph to correspondents 
and contributors. Would be pleased to publish your 
favor, but it is unavoidably crowded out. 

« * *■ > 

The Indians and the Telegraph. 
The Indians, so far, have not disturbed the Telegraph 
lines, though they have done considerable damage to 
other property in Colorado aud the West. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 

A New Cable to America. 
(By the Atlantic Gable). 

London, Sept. Mh. 
A prospectus of a new Telegraphic fine, to connect 
Portugal and the United States, uuder the title of the 
People's Cable, has been issued. 

A Wonderful Discovery— Perhaps. 

The New York Herald of Friday, "Sept. 4th, publishes 
a long communication, dated Tonawanda, N. Y., pur- 
porting to give an account of a very wonderful discovery 
in Telegraphing, made by a Mr. J. BZ. Mower, who, 
although as yet to "fortune and to fame unknown," 
should his discovery prove to be as stated, is destined 
to fill no inconsiderable space in the Telegraphic annals 
of the future. 

. It is evident that the writer, whoever he maybe, is 
neither a practical Telegrapher or a scientist. Divested 
of its excessive verbiage, the statement is this : 

Mr. J. H. Mower, who is now only twenty-six years 
old, and, unlike the generality of discovers and inventors, 
in moderately opulent circumstances, has devoted the 
last three years of his life to an exhaustive study of 
electricity, both voltaic and static. Finding that the 
most powerful voltaic currents were insufficient for his 
purpose, like old Ben. Franklin, he drew the lightning 
from the clouds, and discharging it into water, observed 
the decomposition of the fluid through the chemical 
action of this current of high intensity. He then sought 
means to generate a current of high intensity and of great 
quantity, and eventually succeeded, by the combination 
of the voltaic pile with a machine of his own, a descrip- 
tion of which is not furnished, in producing an electrical 
current of very high intensity and greater quantity, with 
which he could thoroughly decompose water. The writer 
proceeds : 

" It now became necessary to test the efficacy of tins combi- 
nation for purposes of communication, and accordingly a reser- 
voir, twenty-five feet long and six feet deep, ^as built, and the 
different portions of the apparatus were immersed. A series of 
experiments showed that a succession of distinct electrical 
shocks would, without regard to external influences, decompose 
the water in a straight line of transmission at a uniform depth 
from the surface, separating the water into its constituent ele- 
ments, oxygen and hydrogen, from one end of the reservoir to 
the other. The transmission was instantaneous — so quick, in 
fact, that its transit could not be measured by the smallest 
division of time. Having thus far been successful in establish- 
ing such encouraging results, he caused to be made an instru- 
ment to receive the chemical ingredients as decomposed, and 
measure them successively as transmitted, both in weight and 
volume ; and their quantitive relations to each other being 
known (oxygen to hydrogen as one to two in volume, and as 
eight to one in weight), he easily tabulated a set of signals by 
which at last was secured intelligible, facile and rapid communi- 
cation. This evolution is known among chemists as the elec- 
trolysis of water, though, of course, it is greatly modified." 

Having thus demonstrated on a small scale the practi- 
cability of Telegraphing communication without other 
conducting mediums than water, he desired to demon- 
strate the feasibility of such communication for any re- 
quired distance. 

One peculiarity of this discovery is, that it can only be 
used on a line running exactly due east and west. Such 
a line was surveyed and located from a point near Toronto, 
C. W., to Sandy Creek, Oswego County, N. Y., a 
distance of a hundred and thirty, miles, through the 
waters of Lake Ontario. The first experiment was un- 
successful, and on raising the apparatus the fault was 
discovered in one of the instruments, and repaired. 

" Three days passed, and on Monday, the 10th of July, at two 
o'clock" everything was again got in position, the weather being 
calm and the water 8.n0oth and unagitated. A scow was secured 
from which to operate, and was finally anchored at each end. 
He then commenoed to generate a powerful stream, and an im- 
mense quantity of the decomposing fluid, which he stood ready 
to let loose upon the susceptible medium, a hundred radiating 
agents converging to a common centre, all charged with elec- 
tricity, aad which were only waiting for the needed touch to 
speed the fluid upon its impulsive errand. At seventeen 
minutes past two o'clock *e handled the operating screw, and 
sent the following despatch : 
"' J. B. Spearman— 

" ' Success at last is mine. James H. Mower.' 

" At nineteen minutes past two o'clock back came the re- 
sponse : 

" ' Mr. Mower— 

'■ 'The world will acknowledge your triumph. 

" ' J. B. Spearman.' 

" Two hours were then spent in uninterrupted communication 
upon matters relating chiefly to the apparatus, its operations and 
disposition. 



" The theory upon which he determined to make the line of 
transmission — a parallel of latitude — is founded upon the natural 
disposition of electricity over the earth ; but as to the particulars 
Mr. Mower declined to enlighten me, as was also the case in 
regard to many points of his apparatus." 

Mr. Mower, it is further stated, is now preparing to 
patent his discovery and inventions, and proposes within 
three months to have his system of communication in 
operation between Montauk Point, tho extreme eastern 
end of Long Island, N. Y., and the coast of Spain, which 
he says can be done at an expense of ten thousand 
dollars. We shall await with interest further develop- 
ments, to enable us to decide whether this is a veritable 
scientific discovery, or merely one of the sensations for 
which the Herald is somewhat famous. We must con- 
fess, however, that the manner, and the medium through 
which it is made public, favors the latter supposition. 

Success of the Santa Fe Line. 
The Telegraph line extending from Denver, Colorado, 
to Santa Fe, New Mexico, a distance of 430 miles, which 
it was generally supposed must prove a failure pecuniarily, 
has so far paid all expenses, and the business is steadily 
increasing. It is of great service to the people of that 
country, where mail communication is infrequent and 
travelling slow, difficult and uncertain, and it will pay 
them to keep it up, even if its receipts should fail to 
meet its expenses. 



Effect of Competition. 
A new kink has been introduced in the Chicago office 
of the Western Union Company. Under the spur of 
active competition, actual and prospective, the usual calm 
indifference to the anxieties of customers for the speedy 
transmission of despatches has been succeeded by an 
earnest sympathy with their desires, and a rule has been 
adopted and enforced that when a message remains upon 
the files unsent for ten minutes, the operator is required 
to note upon it the cause of the delay. 

MISCELLANEA. 

[From "Comptes Bendus," August 26.] 

* 
Is there Such a Thing as Animal Electricity? 

" M. Schultz-Schultzenstein auswers there is not. 
According to the savant, the researches of Matteucci, 
Dubois, Reymond, Remak, Radcliffe, and others, are 
valueless, and arose out of a blnnder ! 

M. Schultzenstein believes that the electric indica- 
tions which have been attributed by physiologists to the 
vital action of the tissues, are simply the consequences of 
salt and water used in their experiments. He is some- 
what dogmatic in the expression of his opinion, and, 
among other startling statements, occurs the assertion 
that " L'electricite Animale est une Illusion." He 
lays down the following conclusions : 1. The supposition 
that living muscle produces electricity is incorrect. If 
needles be plunged into the feet of a living animal and 
be placed iu communication with the galvanometer, no 
deflection of the needle occurs. 2. Muscles removed from 
the body give evidence of electricity, but this is because 
of the combination of the decomposing tissue with the 
oxygen of the air. 3. Salt water causes the galvanometer 
needle to be decidedly deflected. This explains why 
meat like pork, which is salted, gives evidence of electri- 
city. 4. The supposed electric current in the human 
muscle is solely caused by salt water in contact with the 
tissue. 5. In diseased structures the electric current is 
derived from the decomposing tissues. 6. The electricity 
of the secretions is similarly produced. 

Magnetic Notice of Earthquakes. 
The Japanese have invented an alarm for giving notice 
of an approaching earthquake. It having been ascertained 
that just before the shock there is a loss of power in the 
magnet, they suspend from the armature a weight which 
drops upon a bell when the polarization takes place. 
When the alarm bell rings all who hear it immediately 
seek some place of comparative safety. 



20 



THE TELEG-RAPHER. 



[September 12, 1868. 




SATURDAY, SEPT. 12, 1868. 

REQUIREMENT OF EXCESSIVE LABOR FROM 
OPERATORS. 

It is always more agreeable to praise than to blame. 
Unfavorable criticism and reproach are alike ungrateful 
and distasteful to the critic and the party criticised and 
blamed. Ungrateful and distasteful as is the task, it is 
one which, under some circumstances, to decline or 
neglect, would be alike reprehensible and disgraceful- 
It is from no desire on our part to find fault with or 
censure the managers ©f the "Western Union Company, 
that we call attention to the imposition being practiced 
upon the employes of that company in its large offices, 
more especially in the matter of unreasonable and exces- 
sive hours of labor. 

It is evident, from the tenor of the correspondence re- 
cently published in The Telegrapher from Chicago, In- 
dianapolis. Pittsburg, i£c., that the operators in those 
offices have good cause to complain of the amount of 
labor required from them. "We are also in constant re- 
ceipt of private letters from other offices making similar 
statements. It is time that these outrages should be 
corrected. 

We are aware of the necessity of strict economy in 
the administration of the affairs of a great corporation 
like the Western Union, yet this economical spirit may 
be carried too far, and in the end react disastrously upon 
the economists. 

Since the consolidation of the "Western Union, United 
States and American Companies, the management of 
the consolidated company have been vigorously en- 
gaged in a reduction of its working expenses. The 
force employed in the different offices has been sys- 
tematically and constantly reduced, until now not a 
man is employed not actually necessary to carry on 
the business of the offices. The hours of labor of 
those who have been retained have been gradually but 
constantly increased, to make up for this reduction of 
working force. If an operator gets sick, or an unusual 
pressure of business is thrown upon the line, there is no 
surplus force to fill up the gap. The unfortunates whose 
misfortunes chain them to the oar are compelled to ren- 
der increased service to make up the deficiency. If an 
operator desires a few days' rest or vacation, he knows 
that he can only obtain it by imposing additional labor 
upon his associates. And when sick, or absent from any 
cause, his or her pay is stopped, while at the same time 
no extra compensation is vouchsafed to those whose brain 
and muscles are thus additionally taxed. Sickness, even 
if incurred in the service of the company, is considered a 
crime, to be punished by a suspension of pay, and if too 
long protracted, by a forfeiture of situation. 

The regular labor required of most of the operators in 
the larger offices (and it is of these we are now speaking.) 
is unreasonable and excessive. 

In the letter to the Postmaster General prepared by Mr. 
J. D. Reid, the present editor of that organ of sentimental 
twaddle and exponent of musty and exploded electrical 
and telegraphic fallacies (miscalled) the Journal of the 
Telegraph, and signed by the then presidents of the West- 
ern Union and American Companies, and by Mr. Wm. 
Ortox, then president of the United States Telegraph Com- 
pany, but now President of the consolidated Western Union 
Company, it is stated that " the absorption of the mind 
(in operating! is exhausting. To crowd the work beyond 



a certain rate would require relays of men to relieve each 
other. Six hours' continuous service of this character is all 
that a young man is capable of performing and maintain 

Tiealthr 

If this was true in 1866 (and had it not been true, the 
pious Mr. Reid would not have written, or the Hon. 
Messrs, "Wade, Saxford and Ortox have signed it.) it is 
no less true now. 

How then can Mr. Ortox, the chief executive officer 
of the Western Union Company, for mere motives of 
picayune economy, justify the requirement that opera- 
tors in the employ of the company shall render from ten 
to sixteen hours of continuous service daily, and that for 
less salary than was then paid them for shorter hours of 
labor? 

"We call the attention of the higher officials of that 
company to these things, that they may no longer plead 
ignorance of such exactions as an excuse. 

The course now pursued is driving the best men from 
the key and the keyboard. Hardly a week passes but 
that we record in The Telegrapher the abandonment of 
the profession by first-class operators, to engage in other 
business, where they cau secure more reasonable hours of 
labor and more remunerative compensation. It requires 
much time and experience to make a first-class and re- 
liable operator, and when one of them abandons the 
business it is a loss not easily repaired. Unless some 
changes in the treatment of operators takes place, another 
five years will witness the surrender of the business into 
young and inexperienced hands, to be transacted as best 
it may be by those who, in their turn, as their services 
become valuable, will seek other more reasonable and re- 
munerative employment. 

You may believe us, Messrs. Managers of Telegraph 
Companies, such economy will in the long run prove 
more costly than would a more liberal and just course 
towards your employes. 

Scientific Knowledge in High Places. 

Oxe of the ''hirelings of the monopoly" is in trouble. 
With the praiseworthy intention of extending his scien- 
tific knowledge, he procured a copy of '' Smith"s Manual 
of Telegraphy.'' On page 45 of that useful little work his 
attention was riveted by the following paragraph : 

•'A short piece of wire (six inches long), considerably 
larger than that in the relay magnet, run from each ma.n 
circuit binding screw of the relay, and the ends dipped 
into a small bottle of water, forms one of the best protec- 
tions against lightning. * * * "Water being a poor con- 
ductor of galvanic electricity, only a small portion of the 
current will pass through it, the larger portion choosing 
the magnet wire ; but atmospheric electricity, being pos- 
sessed of enormous intensity, prefers the short water 
route." 

Our friend experimented with this principle on the 
company's twenty dollar relay, in a violent thunderstorm, 
with the happiest results. To use his own expression he 
began to feel that "the burned child need no longer 
dread the fire." But his joy was destined to experience 
a sudden check. Bumble, the division superintendent, 
in an evil hour happened in. and in tones of thunder de- 
manded to know '• what that thing was for." The terri- 
fied subordinate attempted to quote Prof. Smiths theory 
in justification of himself. l; Silence ! Take it out ! It 
resists the action of the main liue current !" said BUMBLE. 
With a reprehensible confidence in his book-lariiiu' this 
misguided youth ventured to suggest " that there was no 
possible 'escape,' and that the current had the same 
facility for passing through the relay as before, the ori- 
ginal wires remaining undisturbed." In a tone of wither- 
ing contempt Bcmdle infor:ued*hiin, what he ought to 
have known before, " that he did not understand the 
laws of resistance." Will it be credited that this ignorant 
and impertinent young man could not rest satisfied until 
he had written a letter to his grandma of the Journal, to 
ascertain her " views" on resistance. The old lady pub- 
lishes his letter, but considerately omits the date, to 
"prevent trouble to the writer," it being one of the 
thirty-nine articles of the mammoth that any employe 



suspected of knowing more than the division superin- 
tendent ought to f5e beheaded without benefit of clergy. 
It is indeed fortunate that Pixkertox and his men 
have their hands full at Chicago just now, or the luckless 
author of the above epistle would cetainly be unearthed, 
and his name enrolled among the martyrs of science. 

The benignant old lady is •' unwilling to believe that 
there is a superintendent any where so stupid." Is it 
possible that she is unaware of the existence of the savant 
elsewhere mentioned, who found trouble on the line in 
the register spoofs. Did she never hear of the Dogberry 
I who ordered his operators to "insulate their ground 
wires;" who invented the celebrated "non-resistant 
relay," and who struck tjre item of mercury out of the 
battery man's requisition, on economical grounds, be- 
cause, as he remarked, " the zincs were bright enough 
without being quicksilvered," having just come from the 
supply department ! 

In the latest issue of our contemporary Dogberry's 
name still appears as superintendent of one of the most 
important districts of the "mammoth organization." 

Then there is yet another whose honored name may be 
found in like manner in the list aforesaid, and whose 
dignified presence is not unfamiliar to the memories of 
the " old guard." He happened in an office one day, and 
it chanced there was only one wire working to Kiachta. 
" Cau t you raise Kiachta?" inquired he. "Xo." said 
the operator, "this is the only wire we've got." "Switch 
it round on some of the other mstrunients ; you'll raise 
him somewhere !" The stupid operator had never thought 
of this simple plan, and probably never would have done 
so if the superintendent had been one of yuur common 
men. 

And, while we are upon this subject, we must not forget 
Buell. To be sure he is only an '."assistant superin- 
tendent" as yet, but he recently demonstrated his quali- 
fication for a higher position, by exj^osiug through the 
columns of our contemporary the utter fallacy of Prof. 
Faraday's views respecting induced currents. Others 
had been contented to accept the deductions of that emi- 
nent philosopher without investigation. Not so Bcell. 
Confident that "some things could be done as well as 
others," he proved experimentally that induced currents 
are continuous, not momentary, as Faraday, Hlxry and 
Page had erroneously asserted. 

Other instances might be given in illustration of the 
high scientific attainments of some of these peripatetic 
philosoplkcrs, whose inventions range from pepperidge- 
wood insulators down to cast-iron lead pencils, but we 
forbear. Enough has already been said to prove that 
they richly deserve the honors bestowed upon them by 
an appreciative corporation. 

Apologetic and Explanatory. 
Our correspondents and contributors will please exer- 
the virtues of patience and resignation. Our columns 
are very much crowded, and we are obliged to postpone 
the publication of a number of communications and con- 
tributions which were intended for this week's paper. 
Will accommodate all as rapidly as possible. We hope 

■ the profession will so m enable us, by their liberal patron- 

■ age, to make a material enlargement of the paper, which, 
for inauy reasons, is very desirable. 

Telegraph Connections with the Pacific Coast. 

There are now four Telegraph wiues along the Union 
Pacific Railroad, on two sets of poles. The railroad 
wire and a Western Union wire are on one set of poles, 
and two Western Cuion wires have lately been put up 
by Messrs. Hibbard and Coxway on another set of poles. 
Tliese last constructed lines are reported to be of a supe- 
rior character. The old overland lines will all be taken 

down. 

•-*-*-* 

The tolls from this city for despatches, per Atlantic 

Cable, are $16.85 in gold, instead of $16.65, as published 

in a recent issue. 






September 12, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



21 



Is Damp Air a Conductor? 

In a recent issue of our official contemporary we 
notice a republication of Judge Catox's letter " On the 
management of Telegraphs," which first appeared in the 
columns of the Scientific American some six years ago, 
and in which occurs the following passage : 

'• No line is or can be perfectly iusulated unless, indeed, 
the whole length, of the wire is covered with an insula- 
ting substance. On a damp day not only does more or 
less electricity find its way into the ground at every pole, 
even with the best insulation, but as the humid atmos- 
phere is itself a conductor, from every yard of the wire 
some portion of the electricity is discharged to the 
earth." 

At the time the above letter was written Telegraphers 
and .Electricians were generally disposed to coincide in 
the opinion that damp air was actually a conductor of 
voltaic electricity, but in view of the experiments and 
discoveries since made, the republication of the letter 
above quoted at this late day looks rather like an attempt 
to cast ridicule upon the Judge's scientific knowledge. 
Numerous experiments, made at Berlin, Paris and Lon- 
don, with a view of determining this point, have utterly 
failed to show that any such conduction exists, at least 
in any appreciable degree, and prove that a naked wire 
can be supported at the posts and made to show«*higher 
insulation per mile, in the midst of rain or fog, than the 
Atlantic cable itself. 

A writer in London Engineering, of July 40, in refer- 
ring to this subject, remarks, that we scarcely need ask for 
better insulation than has been attained in the Atlantic 
cables, and that " Brooks, of Philadelphia, has solved 
the difficulty of line supports by his paraffined cups." 

In making these remarks we do not wish to underrate 
the value of continuously iusulated lines. Every Tele- 
graph line wire ought to be enveloped in an insulating 
covering, as a protection against accidental contacts of 
conducting bodies, as well as of the wires with each 
other. We merely wished to point out the well-ascer- 
tained fact that, iu insulating a line, free from contact 
with foreign conducting bodies, we only need to secure 
ourselves agaiust any possible escape at the supports. 
»# » > 

(Special to The Telegrapher, by Atlantic and Paeinc Line.) 

Albany, N. Y., Sept. 9. 
The Sixth (6th) Annual Convention of the National 
Telegraphic Union assembled at the Delevan . House in 
this city at ten (10) o'clock A. M. to-day, as usual. The 
first day's proceedings have been mainly of a routine and 
preliminary character. Mr. W. H. Toung, of Washing- 
ton, presided to-day. Mr. Churchill, the President, hav- 
ing been unavoidably detained, but will be present to- 
morrow. The Convention is composed of intelligent aud 
earnest men, who have evidently come here with the de- 
termination to take such action as may be necessary, not 
only to revive the original zeal and interest in the pro- 
gress and prosperity of the Union, but to increase that 
zeal, and extend the' organization and its successfulness. 
The convention will probably be in session for two or 
threo days. . A. 

An Electrical Organ. — An electrical organ was re- 
cently inaugurated in the church of St. Augustin, Paris, a 
short description of which may be interesting. A single 
wire, passing from the key to an electro-magnet, commu- 
nicates to it a galvanic current, thus obviating the old 
system of the long chain of wooien slips called trackers, 
that required such hard thumping to cause them to move 
promptly. The electro-magnet, by means of a small 
valve, works the pneumatic lever, which consists of a sort 
of bellows, placed just under tho wind valve of the pipe. 
These wires form a small bundle, easily grasped by one 
hand. They supercede the whole system of trackers, 
give greater durability to the instrument, aud a lightness 
and equality of touch, which all organists can appreciate. 
Apart from this novelty of detail, the St. Augustin organ, 
like its elder brother at St. Eustache, is distinguished by 
an exquisite beauty aud purity of tone, particularly in 
those fancy stops (such as the hautboy, clarionet, bassoon, 
flute, harmonique,) which imitate instruments in the or- 
chestra, with a fidelity hitherto unattained. Likewise, the 
vox humana stop is so perfect that, on the day of the in- 
auguration, many of the persons present were deceived, 
and thought that a human being had Really begun to 
sing. 



New Patents. 
81,485.— Magnetic Telegraph.— Moses G. Farmer, Salem, Mass. 
I claim the arrangement and combination of the rheostat re- 
ceiving magnet and two-point key, or their equivalents, substan- 
tially as described. 

OBITUARY. 

We regret to be called upon to record the death, by suicide, of 
Mr. Joseph Rubbeth, of Louisville, Ky., who shot himself 
through the heart about five o'clock P. M. of the 28th ult. 

Mr. Rubbeth was a native of England, but has for the last 
thirty-eight years resided in Louisville, and has been for fifteen 
years in the employ of various Telegraph Companies in that city. . 
At the time of his death he was in charge of the Delivery Depart- 
ment of the Western Union Company, in that city. 

He was faithful to all his trusts, and a general favorite among 
his numerous friends and associates. The immediate cause of 
the rash act was domestic trouble, which his friends suppose 
caused temporary mental derangement. 

MARRIED. 

B::aytox— Shields. — On Friday, September!, at the residence 
of the bride's mother, West Brighton, S. I., by the Rev. Dr. 
Sawyeii, Theodore E. Braxton, of Bristol, R. I., formerly 
clerk with the B. i: B. Teleg. Co., ia this city, to Jli-js S. Lo vise 
Shields. No cards. 

Curtiss— FiiY.— Augus>t 25th, by Rev. R. W. Patterson, Mr. 
J. W. Curtiss and Miss Emma F. Fry, ail of Chicago. Both groom 
aud bride are operators on the Telegraph line of the Michigan 
Southern Railroad. 

Davis— Schatt.— At Philadelphia, by Rev. James A. Cole- 
man, Mr. Foster W. Davis, of Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany's ofilcc, to MTss Laura V. Schatt, all of Philadelphia. 

Scesman— Hutchinson.— Iu Fall River, Mass., on Tuesday, 
September 7th, Albert L. Suesman, of the W. U\ Telegraph Co. 
at Providence, and Miss Adelaide M. Hutchinson, of Fall 
River. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 



NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVER THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



DIED. 
0'Callah\N— At Liberty, Texas, August 23d, B. O'Caixahan, 
operator in the Western Union office at that place. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HAN OVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American Hou&e.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to ordor. Their Special Inventions are: 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder iu the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Gauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electricr.lly by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Tele- 
graph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 
aud Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battorv. 



THEY SOLICIT OEDERS FOR 

Chronograph and Astronomical Clocks, 
Regulators, &c, &c. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fiith 
Volvme of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Yolume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Ehatei.nity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. AU matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices ; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of allmalters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegbapher what it purports to be — a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newsj«iper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

jgES" Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts., 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04. Buttia, 
1'russia and lite west coast of .South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment oj American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

S3&~ Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

$g- No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements arc charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

j£g=The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agxkt. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P.. and M. V. N. Telg. Co., Chicago. 
John Lenhart, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, " " «« 

W. H. Young, B. Jt 1). Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 
A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, X. Y" 
S. C. Rice, Western Union Office, 
R. J. Black. Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House. Boston. 
B Frank Ashley, Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. . 
Jas. M. Warner, " " Aurora, N. Y. 

K.McKenzie, *' •" St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. Torrknce, " " " 

C. P. Hoag, " '* San Francisco, CaL 

M. Raphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to tho Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



22 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 12, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, RUSSELLS' 

io4 centre street, n. f., American Steam Printing House 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 
BATTERI3S, 

AJfD EVEBY DESCRIPTION OF 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



-ct£So- 

-sST- 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALT, DESCRIPTION'S OF 



THE 



Boot Jot and Commercial Printing. 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT EEPEATEE, 

The simplest and" most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean, spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eof a square inch for each "connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and tes: 



Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Pkktina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken dpwn but once a year; and the very 
best MAUI LINE SOUNDERS made. 



Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



TELECRAPH PRINTINC A SPECIALTY. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(SUCCESSOB TO HlSDS & WlLXIAXS,) 

109 COURT STREET (MIXOT BUILDINGS), 
Boston, Ma.sss., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Calvanic Batteries of all kinds. 
Wholesale and Rttail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURES OF 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS. 

HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GITT1 PERCHA COMPANY, 

113 LIBEBTT STBEET. 

SAM L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES, 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH 'COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

-A. T. IrR. LIISTE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office "Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining an 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish al! the 

SUBMARINE 

A>"D OTHEB 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

D5STJLA.TED WITH 

Pure Cu tta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in (Ms country, and on term^ as 
reasonable as zny foreign manufacturers. 

N. B. — We are prepared to LAr down and wabkanx Submarine 
Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 113 LIBERTY 8TREET, 

New Yobs. 



September 12, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



28 



REMOVAL OF 



L. Gr. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegrapl] Instruments anb Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION'. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and .all kinds of Battery 

Material. 
Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 
Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 

Connection. 
Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical Works. 
". C. F. Varley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered Wire and Cables, American 
■ Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

126 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

KelegrHpjj Patjjweij aifo Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shaU be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insure^ party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliabiuty and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residenoe ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct ? 

Applications may be sent to 

J. W. Stover, Actuary, 

Box 6077. New York. 



^Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for" Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Eleo-tricoil Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 

SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 

29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 

MAI N-LINE 
TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

"The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAY. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

TJTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL BINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

4SfSwitches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 7 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, N. J; 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and ftner than brass, he now presen ts 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound tkat the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch ; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while tho 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(veryfine) : 19 50 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 
He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds oi Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 

BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, Etc. 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 
Account Books, Writing Papers, Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
every kind for Business, Professional, or Private use, in quanti- 
ties to suit. 
Manifolds for Telegraphers and Reporters, Diaries and 

Daily Journals. 
Photographic Albums, Gold Pens, Chessmen, Pocket Cutlery, 
Drawing Materials and Paper, Mourning Paper and Envelopes, 
Portfolios, Cards, Writing Desks, Expense-Books, Time-Books, 
Inks and Fluids, Ink Trays, etc., etc. 

Copy your Letters. 

USE FRANCIS' IMPROVED MANIFOLD 
LETTER- WRITER, 

by which Letters and Copies are written at the same time. Copy 
ing andSeal Presses. Please call or send all your orders to 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 
Stationers, Printers and. Boole -Binders, 

46 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 



24 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 12, 1868. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AXD DEALER IX ALL KI>CDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule op Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects : r 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, witn Weights J45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior'Adjustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

*' 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern. 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 

A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instrument's, Materials 
and SuppUes will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of .the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nos. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



L. C. STRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER of and dealer in 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 
BRADLEY'S RELAYS, 

and other desirable instruments of Eastern manufacture on hand 
and for sale. Repairing done promptly. 

No. 1G2 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

Blasting by- electricity. 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS ; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 



FOR 



EXPLODING NITROGLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM". C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFFI1 INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

CHESTER, PARTMCK & CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

38 South Fifth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY OF 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AND OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on hand. 
jOSTParticular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the clrcul: - 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 18G8. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate'of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, "Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
"Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal value. 

For twelve subscribers, " Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or " Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. • 

We have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of- The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Rive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they "decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



"WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 HROADWA.Y, NEW YOJtK. 

— m& — 

SHAFFNER, T. P -Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 625 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentucky. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY, R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp.. Illustrated. London, 1867 5 25 

SABIN, ROBT- The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the U. S. and Europe. 1 vol., 8vo. Mustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. Loudon, 18C7 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, by Dr. 

LARD^NEB. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. B. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 DJus- 
trations. London, 1867 2 50 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged bv the Professors of " Morse's Telegraph 
Institute." 1 vol. 12mo 1 25 

TURNBULL, L.— The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Bise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 50 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. SnOW.) A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NO AD, H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetisni— Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the ElectricTTelegraph. 1 
vol., 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

DE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 50 

NO AD, H. M .—Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol., 12mo. 400 niustrations. London, 18G6 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M. -Electricity. 1vol., 12mo.... 1 75 

BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

DU MONO EL. —(Lee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

H I C H TO N E .—History of Electric Telegraph 1 (0 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12mo 2 50 

8S~ A. Netv and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Works 
ready October 1, sent free on Application. 

New York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V.-No. 4. 



New York, Saturday, September 19, 1868. 



Whole No. 114. 



ADDRESS ADOPTED 

BY THE 

ANNUAL CONVENTION 

OF THE NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 

TO THE TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



The Sixth Annual Convention of the National 
Telegraphic Union having completed its labors, has 
thought it due to the Telegraphic Fraternity of the 
country, that a brief statement of the results of its deli- 
berations should be presented to them, and that the 
attention of the Fraternity.generally should be called to 
the value of this organization to them, and the impor- 
tance of their connecting themselves with it. 

As will be seen, in obedience to the apparently almost 
unanimous desire and judgment, not only of the present 
members of the Union, but of the Fraternity generally, 
very important changes have been made in the Consti- 
tution, and that, to a considerable extent, the Union has 
been reconstructed, and radical alterations have been 
made in its plans of operation. After a full and free 
consultation and comparison of views, it was judged to 
be expedient for the general organization to surrender 
and devolve upon the district organizations many of the 
duties, obligations, and powers heretofore exercised by it. 

The district organizations are hereafter to take charge 
of and administer the relief to members who may be sick 
or in want ; to regulate the admission, withdrawal, and 
expulsion of members ; and, in short, to manage all local 
matters, reserving to the general organization only a gen- 
eral supervision and direction of the affairs of the Union, 
and the power to concentrate the efforts and influence of 
the Union at any point where it may be required ; to 
accomplish important objects, whether of local or general 
interest. 

The amount of dues payable to the general organiza- 
tion have been reduced to a nominal sum, merely suffi- 
cient to defray the necessary expenses of maintaining tfhe 
organization, and ensure against all contingencies the 
continuance of the publication of your organ, The 
Telegrapher. Hereaaer nearly all the money contri- 
buted by members will be expended under the direction 
of the district in which it is collected, and there can be 
no disaffection or jealousy arising from this source. 

The value and importance of union and concentration 
of the strength and influence of the Fraternity appears to 
us too evident to need any labored argument to demon- 
strate it. 

Although the Union may not have accomplished all 
that- its originators and those who have hitherto adhered 
to it had hoped, yet we are sure that it has been of great 
value and importance to the best interests of the Frater- 
nity. Had there been no organization of the practical 
Telegraphers of the country, there can be no doubt but 
that they would, during the last four years, have found 
lemselvesmuch less favorably situated than they have 
een and now are. Their rights would have met with 
even less consideration, and their compensation, ia a large 
-aajority of cases, would have been still further decreased. 



The formation and continuance of the Union has ren- 
dered possible the establishment and maintenance of an 
organ and advocate of the profession. Without the 
Union The Telbgrapher could never have been estab- 
lished ; or if its publication had been commenced, it could 
not, and would not have been sustained beyond the first 
year. Will any one of you question the fact that your 
having an organ through which your rights could be ad- 
vocated and maintained, and your wrongs made public, 
has been of great advantage and importance ? If any 
disinterested person does so believe, it is because such 
person has not given the subject intelligent consideration 
and examination. 

In the new order of things, in connection with the 
Union which this Convention has inaugurated, we ask 
and expect the active co-operation of the great majority 
of the practical Telegraphers of the country. "We appeal 
to every Telegrapher to give this matter earnest and 
careful consideration, satisfied that such consideration 
will result in the conviction that their interest and wel- 
fare, and that of the Fraternity generally, requires im- 
mediate application on their part for enrollment in its 
ranks. We cannot set forth in this Address all the reasons 
which should influence you to join hands with us and aid 
us in our efforts to improve the condition of the practical 
Telegraphers of this country. We propose to constitute 
the members of the Union a band of, brothers, each in- 
terested in securing to his fellows just recognition of their 
rights, and assisting, by "all the means in their power, in 
securing them. Thus united, the moral power of this 
association will be very great — its demands and requests 
will meet with respectful consideration. 

In accordance with the new policy adopted by the 
Convention, those who have formerly belonged to the 
Union, and whose membership has lapsed, will be cor- 
dially welcomed to a renewal of their connection with it, 
upon the same conditions as entirely new members. In 
localities where no districts have heretofore been in exis- 
tance, or where districts having been established, have 
been disbanded, or have lapsed by default, new dis- 
tricts should at once be organized, and the Telegraphers, 
in such localities, place themselves in communication and 
connection with their brethren of the Union throughout 
the country. 

Remember, that while individually we are of little im- 
portance, and can have but a small influence in the matters 
in which we are one and all vitally interested, that if gen- 
erally united, our influence would be most powerful, and 
could be exerted to secure to us proper and just recogni- 
tions and concessions. 

We would, therefore, cordially invite you to connect 
yourselves with this, the only organization of practical 
Telegraphers, and appeal to you, one and all, to lay aside 
all petty jealousy and distrust, if not for your o\v n indi- 
vidual benefit, for the greater good of the whole. 

It rests witli you to make our action a living, vital, 
powerful element of good to the Telegraphic Fraternity 
of the country, or by apathy, inattention or antagonism, 
render it nugatory and unavailing. 

W. H. Young, President. 
J. W. Duxburt, Recording Secretary. 



Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Convention of the 
National Telegraphic Union. 
*** ir FIRST DAY. 

Albany, September 9th, 1868. 

The Sixth Annual Convention of The National 
Telegraphic Union was called to order at 20 minutes 
past 10 A. M., by Mr. H. Young, Vice-President, the 
President being absent. 

Mr. A. H. Bliss was elected Secretary pro tern., the 
Secretary not having arrived. 

As several of the Delegates had not arrived, Mr. A. L. 
Whipple moved to adjourn till 5 P. M., but the motion 
was subsequently withdrawn, and the regular order of 
business proceeded with. 

The Chair appointed as Committee on Credentials 
Messrs. Merrill, Sherman and Whipple. 

Mr. A. H. Bliss moved to adjourn till 5 P. M, which, 
after a brief discussion, was unanimously agreed to, and 
the Convention adjourned till 5 P. M. 

EVENING SESSION. 

The Convention was called to order at 6 P. M. by the 
Vice-President. 

The Report of the Committee on Credentials was pre- 
sented by W. P. Merrill, Chairman. 

A message from the President, Mr. F. G. Churchill. 
was read, excusing himself on account of the illness of 
his wife, and stating that he would be in attendance in 
the morning. 

The Annual Report of Mr. A. L. Whipple, Treasurer, 
was read. 

The Report showed the following as the financial 
operations for the year ending August 31st, 1868 : 

Balance in the Treasury, Sept. 1st, 1867, $1,051 75 
Received for Initiation Fees and Dues, 1,356 20 

" from L. H. Smith, on account 

Telegrapher 489 49 

" from interest on Bonds, 136 08 

United States Bonds on hand, 1,600 00 

Total for the year, $4,633 52 

The expenditures for the year, including the expenses of 
the last Convention, sick relief and funeral expenses, were 
$781 ; expenditures on account of The Telegrapher, 
supplies, stationary and incidentals, were $2,598 37. 
Balance in hand in cash and bonds, $2,035 15. 

The membership of the Union has not been increased 
during the last year, but has been somewhat reduced by 
the failure of a portion of the members to pay up their 
dues, and in anticipation of important changes to be made 
in the Constitution, etc., by the present Convention, the 
additions of new mmebers have not been as numerous 
as heretofore. 

The Telegrapher is reported to be in a flourishing 
condition financially, and has more than met its ex- 
penditures during the last seven months. 

The Treasurer recommends the disbandment of the 
following districts of the Union, they having failed to for- 
ward the requisite reports during the last year, viz. : 



26 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 19, 1868. 



Augusta, Geo. ; Greencastle, Ind. ; Harrisburg, Pa. ; 
1 Louisville, Ky. ; Memphis. Tenn. ; St. Joseph and St. 
Louis, Mo. 

The Portland, Maine, and Albany, X. Y., Districts, 
have exceeded all others in payments to the treasury. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Stover, Lawrence and 
Vaughn as Finance Committee, and the Treasurer's Re- 
port was referred to that Committee. 

The Report of Mr. A. H. Buss, Corresponding Sec- 
retary, was next read, received, and placed on file. 

The Corresponding Secretary reports that his cor- 
respondence during the portion of the year in which he 
has held the office, has referred principally to the support 
of The Telegrapher, Insurance Bureau, etc., and has 
met with considerable success. He refers the Con- 
vention to the communication of the officers of the Balti- 
more District, requesting a disbandment of the District, 
and the granting of an honorable withdrawal to certain 
members, which authority the Corresponding Secretary 
has been unable to grant. The correspondence, etc., 
shows that while in aome localities the UHIOH has seemed 
to languish, in others it has increased. 

The report of the editor of The Telegrapher was 
received, read, and referred to the Finance Committee. 

This report shows the financial condition of the paper 
to be very good. During the last seven months of the 
year the receipts have exceeded the expenditures to 
an amount nearly sufficient to make up the deficit on 
the operations of the previous five months. The or- 
gan of the Union is now fully paying its expenses ; and, 
if the Telegraphic Fraternity continue to extend to it a 
cordial support, there need be no fear of its again be- 
coming a charge upon the treasury of the Union. 

On motion of Mr. W. H. H. Clark, the officers of the 
Union and the editor of The Telegrapher were invited 
unanimously to exercise in this Convention the privileges 
extended to honorary members at district meetings. 

Mr. A. L. "Whipple offered a resolution, which was 
temporarily laid on the table, that the Chair appoint a 
committee of three to prepare an address to the Tele- 
graphic Fraternity. 

On motion of Mr. J. W. Stover the Convention went 
into Committee of the Whole, on the Constitution — Mr. 
W. H. H. Clark in the chair. 

After some time spent therein, Committee rose, reported 
progress; and the Convention took a recess for ,pne hour. 

Upon re-assembling, the Convention immediately went 
into Committee of the Whole on the Constitution, and 
after some time spent therein, the Committee rose and 
reported progress. 

M. Merrill moved that a Committee of five be ap- 
pointed, to whom all amendments to the Constitution 
should be referred, and that they should report to-morrow 
morning. 

Not agreed to. 

Mr. Bliss moved that the Convention again go into 
Committee of the "Whole on the Constitution, and that the 
Constitution be read by sections, for amendment or ap- 
approval ; 

Which was agreed to. 

The Convention, accordingly, again went into Com- 
mittee of the Whole, and after some time spent therein, 
the Committee rose, reported progress, and the Conven- 
adjourned until 10 o'clock Thursday morning. 



SECOND DAY. 

Thursday, September 10. 

The Convention was called to order at 10:30 o'clock 
A. M. by the Vice-President, and after the transaction of 
certain business, of a private and confidential character, 
the President, Mr. F. G. Churchill, having arrived, 
took his seat, and read his annual report to the Con- 
vention. 

After referring to the continued existence of the Union, 
notwithstanding the lukewarmness which has existed in 
some of the districts, he gives a resume and review of 



the situation of the Union, and the difficulties and dis. 
couragements under which it has labored. He expresses 
confidence in the wisdom of this Convention to make 
such changes and improvements in the Constitution, Ac., 
as are requisite to revive and increase the original in- 
terest in and influence of the Union. He refers in very 
flattering terms to the success of The Telegrapher 
under its present editor, and appeals to the fraternity to 
give it a cordial and substantial support. 

As the Convention is engaged in a thorough revision 
of the Constitution, he omits the usual suggestions, be- 
lieving that it will act wisely and judiciously, and for the 
best interests of the Union. 

The report was ordered, placed on file, and the Con- 
vention went into Committee of the "Whole on the Consti- 
tution. 

Upon the rising of the Committee the Convention took 
a recess until 3:30 o'clock P. M. 

Upon the re-assembling ofthe Convention at 3:30 o'clock 
P. M., the resolution for the appointment of a Committee 
to prepare an Address, was called up and agreed to. 

The Chair appointed as such Committee Messrs. 
Whipple, Clark and Roberts. 

The Convention then resumed its deliberations on the 
Constitution, in Committee of the Whole, and after some 
time spent therein, the committee rose and reported an 
amendment to the section of the Constitution relative to 
the election of officers, providing for their election at 
such time during the sessions of the Convention as may 
be directed by the Convention, and recommended imme- 
diate action thereon. 

The Convention, accordingly, adopted this amendment 
unanimously. 

The election of officers was ordered to take place at 

5 o'clock P. M. 

On motion of Mr. W. H. H. Clark, the Review Bill 
was amended so as to legalize the election of an honorary 
member of the Union as editor of The Telegrapher. 

On motion of Mr. J. W. Stover all records of the pro- 
ceedings ofthe Convention, relative to the amendment and 
revision ofthe Constitution, were referred to a Committee 
of three for revision and codification. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. D. C. Roberts, T. A. 
Davin and J. W. Duxburt, of Boston, as such Com- 
mittee. 

The reports of the Finance Committee on the annual re- 
ports of the treasurer and editor of The Telegrapher, 
were called for and read. 

The Committee reported that the accounts of the trea- 
surer and editor of The Telegrapher were found to be 
correct, and accompanied by the proper vouchers. 

The finances of the Union are in a better condition, 
considering the adverse influences under which we have 
labored during the past year, than could have been 
reasonably expected. That the Union has afforded 
timely aid to many members, is evident from the fact 
that $781 have been paid for sick relief and funeral ex- 
penses during the past year. 

The Committee concur in the recommendation of the 
treasurer for the disbandment of certain districts. 

They recommend that the Union assume any loss 
which may arise from the failure of H. J. Messenger 

6 Co., of New York, in whose hands certain moneys of 
the Union had been deposited by the treasurer of the 
New York district. 

They recommend that the present editor of The Tele- 
grapher be allowed to retain, as working capital, under 
the direction of the Executive Committee, the cash bal- 
ance in his hands, and the accruing receipts. 

They congratulate the editor and the friends of the 
Union on the success of the paper under his administra- 
tion. For the first time we can assert that our organ is 
a paying institution. Every Telegrapher in the country 
should render to the editor all the aid in his power to in- 
crease its circulation and extend its influence. 

The report was, on motion, laid on the table tempo- 
rarily. 



The hour having arrived for the election of officers, Mr. 
Clark took the chair, and the following were ejected: . 
Mr. W. H. Young, of Washington, D. C, President; 
Mr. W. P. Merrill, of Portland, Me., Vice-President ; 
Mr. A. L. Whipple, of Albany, N. Y., Treasurer; 
Mr. J. W. Duxburt, of Boston, Recording Secretary ; 
Mr. F. L. Pope, of New York, Corresponding Secretary. 

The present Editor of The Telegrapher was re-elected 
without opposition. 

Each of the officers present, as their election was de- 
clared, responded in brief and appropriate terms. 

On motion of Mr. Stover, the Editor of The Tele" 
GRAPHERwas authorized to retain the cash balance in his 
hands, and the accruing receipts, under the direction of 
the Executive Committee, as working capital. 

On motion of Mr. Vaughn it was resolved that the 
title of the Editor of The Telegrapher be changed to 
that of Publisher and Editor of The Telegrapher. 

On motion of Mr. Stover, the Editor of The Tele- 
grapher was authorized to publish such portions of the 
proceedings of this Convention as he may deem proper. 

Mr. Stover made a statement in regard to the pro- 
gress and condition of the Insurance Bureau. 

Mr. A. H. Bliss offered a resolution, which was 
adopted, that the Executive Committee be instructed to 
take such measures as they may deem necessary for the 
furtherance ofthe objects ofthe Life Insurance Bureau 
of the National Telegraphic Union. 

Portland, Maine, was selected as the place of meet- 
ing for the next Convention. 

On motion, the Convention went into Committee of the 
Whole on the Constitution and By-Laws. 

After some time spent therein, the Committee rose and 
reported progress, and the Convention took a recess until 
nine P. M. 

At nine P.M. the Chair called the Convention to order. 

The Committee who were instructed to prepare an Ad- 
dress to the Telegraphic Fraternity of the United States 
reported an Address, which was read and approved, and 
ordered to be published in The Telegrapher, and with 
the proceedings of this Convention, and the amended 
condition, printed in a supplement for general distribution 
among the Telegraphers ofthe country. 

The Convention then went into Committee of the 
Whole on the Constitution and By-Laws. 

After some time spent therein the Committee rose and 
reported sundry amendments to the Constitution and 
By-Laws of the Union to the Convention, and recom- 
mended that they be adopted. 

On motion of Mr. Lawrence, the report was tempo- 
rarily laid upon the table. 

Subsequently, on motion of Mr. W. H. H. Clark, it 
was ordered that the amendments reported from the 
Committee of the Whole be taken up and considered 
section by section. 

Mr. Bliss moved that, wherein, in the Constitution or 
By-Laws, the word "Delegate" occurs, the word " Re- 
presentative" shall be substituted. 

The Convention then adjourned until nine o'clock A. M. 
of Thursdav. 



THIRD DAY. 

Friday, September 11. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock A.M. 

After further consideration and amendment, Mr. W. 
H. H. CLARK moved that the Constitution and Bye 
Laws, as reported from the Committee of the Whole, and 
amended by the Convention, be adopted as a whole, 
which was carried by the requisite two-thirds vote. 

On motion, the Director of the Boston District was 
directed to remit to the Treasurer the balance remaining 
in his hands of money sent to him to defray the burial 
expenses of a member of the Union. 

Mr. W. P. Merrill offered the following resolution, 
which was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the Telegraphers in the British Provinces 
are cordially invited to form Districts of the National 



September 19, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



27 



Telegraphic Union, and the proper officers are hereby 
directed to issue charters to such districts upon the same 
terms and conditions as to other districts. 

A resolution "'was adopted, requesting the Executive 
Committee to confer either personally or by letter with 
well known members of the profession throughout the 
United States and British Provinces, setting forth fully 
the objects and benefits of the Union, and to request their 
co-operation in the formation of districts, <fcc. 

On motion of Mr. A. H. Bliss it was ordered that the 
Treasurer of the Union act as Actuary of the Insurance 
Bureau, without extra compensation. 

The report of the Finance Committee was taken from 
the table, accepted and placed on file. 

The several districts, whose disbandment was recom- 
mended by the Treasurer and the Finance Committee, 
were ordered disbanded, and the Telegraphers in those 
places earnestly recommended to form new districts under 
the revived Constitution of the Union. 

On motion of Mr. A H. Buss, it was 

Resolved, That the District Directors and Treasurers be 
directed to collect all back dues up to and including July 
31, 1868, and report the names of those who are unable 
to pay to the Executive Committee for its action. 

Mr. Merrill offered an additional clause to the Con- 
stitution, which was adopted by the requisite two thirds 
vote. 

On motion of Mr. Lawrence, it was 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the District Or- 
ganizations that they drop from the rolls or expel all 
members who, on the 31st day of July, 1868, were in 
arrears of dues, and refuse to pay the same. 

The minutes of the Convention were read by the Re- 
cording Secretary and approved. 

By unanimous consent, Mr. A. H. Bliss, of Chicago, 
addressed the Convention briefly, making an earnest 
appeal to the members of the Convention to go home 
with a determination to work earnestly and persistently 
for the Union, The Telegrahper, and the Insurance 
Bureau. He especially urged upon them, individually 
and collectively, the necessity of giving to The Tele- 
grapher a cordial and liberal support, eloquently demon- 
strating its importance to the interests of the Telegraphic 
Fraternity, who could not be crushed under the iron heel 
of monopoly and consolidation so long as they had The 
Telegrapher for an organ and defender. 

After a few remarks from the editor of The Telegra- 
pher upon the importance of persistent individual effort 
in increasing the circulation and influence of the organ 
of the association and of the practical Telegraphers of the 
country, the Convention, at 12.30 P. M., adjourned sine 

die. 

*-+-+-* • 

CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE I. 

SECTION I. 

1. This Association shall be known as The National 
Telegraphic Union. 

2. The officers of the National Organization shall be a 
President, a Yice-President, a Treasurer, a Recording 
Secretary and a Corresponding Secretary. 

3. There shall also be District or subordinate organiza- 
tions, which shall have power to elect all officers, and to 
adopt such rules and regulations as they may deem neces- 
sary for the organization and government of said districts, 
provided they shall not conflict with any rule or regula- 
tion adopted by the Union. 

4. The officers of the national and subordinate organ- 
izations shall be chosen annually, to hold office for the 
term of one year, unless sooner disquallified, or until their 
successors are inaugurated. 



; 



ARTICLE II. 



SECTION I. 



1. Five or more operators, qualified for membership, 
may constitute a District, and determine the location of 
its head-quarters. 



2. All members of the Union should belong to the 
District of which the head-quarters are in, or nearest to, 
the place where th£f are employed. 

3. The President, by and with the advice of the Exe- 
cutive Committee, may order the disbandment of any 
District fading in its obligations to the Union, and any 
members of Districts so disbanded, who are in good and 
regular standing, shall be entitled to membership in the 
nearest existing District. 

ARTICLE in. 

SECTION I. 

1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested 
in a Convention of Representatives. 

2. The Convention shall be composed of members 
chosen annually by the several Districts. 

3. No person shall be a Representative who shall not 
have attained the age of twenty-one years. 

4. Each District shall be entitled to a Representative, 
provided it has seven (7) members. Any District having 
fifty (50) members shall be entitled to two Representa- 
tives, and an extra Representative for every twenty (20) 
members in excess of that number. But no member who 
is six months in arrears for dues, shall be entitled to vote, 
or be eligible for any office, and shall not be enumerated 
in the basis of representation. 

5. At the regular meeting in July, the District shall 
nominate candidates for District Officers and Represen- 
tatives. 

6. No District six months in arrears shall be entitled to 
representation in the National Convention. 

7. Each District shall, at the first regular nleeting in 
August proceed to elect Representatives, as provided by 
the District By-Laws, but such only shall be entitled to 
seats in this body as shall receive a majority of the votes 
cast, the same being set forth in their credentials, as fol- 
lows : 

District, No. — N. T. U. 

August — , — . 
To the National Telegraphic Union. 

This is to certify that has been duly 

elected to represent this District until September next. 

In witness whereof, we have caused this to be signed 
by our Secretary, and the seal of the District to be at- 
tached. 

(Seal.) , Sec'y. 

8. When vacancies occur in the Convention, the 
Director of the District in which they occur shall order 
an election to fill such vacancies. "When this is imprac- 
ticable, the Director may appoint suitable persons to fill 
the vacancies: 

9. Representatives shall assume the duties of their of- 
fices immediately after their election. 

section n. 

1. The Convention shall assemble annually on the 
third Wednesday in September. 

2. A majority shall constitute a quorum ; but a min- 
ority may adjourn from day to day, and is authorized to 
compel the attendance of absent members, in such 
manner and under such penalties as the Convention may 
provide. 

3. The Convention shall be the judge of the qualifica- 
tions of its members; determine the rules of its proceed- 
ings ; punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, 
with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member of 
the Convention ; regulate all matters pertaining to reve- 
nue; assess and collect dues, fines and fees, and pro- 
vide for all expenditures of the Union. It shall deter- 
mine upon the amount to be assessed upon the several 
Districts for the support of the National Organization, 
but shall have no power to legislate -upon the monetary 
affairs of any District, as regards any assessment or out- 
lay which said District shall decide upon for its own 
benefit, or upon any measure passed by said District for 
its own benefit, not inconsistent with the Constitution 
and rules of the General Association, or detrimental to 



the general welfare and interests of the Union, or con- 
trary to the provisions of this Constitution. 

4. No legislation of the Union can be enforced until 
officially communicated to all the Districts. 

5. A Finance Committee of three shall be appointed 
by the President of ea#h Convention, to whom shall be 
referred all matters pertaining to the finances of the 
Union. 

ARTICLE IY. 

SECTION I. 

1. The General Officers of the Union shall be elected 
separately, by ballot, at such times during the annual 
session of the Convention as may be deemed advisable. 

2. The candidates receiving a majority of all the votes 
cast shall be declared elected, and shall hold their offices 
until their successors shall be elected or appointed and 
qualified. 

3. Should there be no choice on the first ballot, the 
candidate receiving the least number of votes shall be 
withdrawn, and so on every succeeding ballot, until a 
choice is had. 

4. Every member of the Convention present, when a 
motion is stated and the question put, or on taking the 
ballot for officers or membership, shall be required to 
vote, unless excused by the action of the meeting. 

SECTION II. 

1. The General Officers shall constitute an Executive 
Committee, whose duty it shall be to attend to the proper 
execution of this Constitution ; decide by a majority vote 
all matters in dispute concerning the interpretation of the 
Constitution, or between the different subordinate organi- 
zations and their members, and attend to such other • 
matters as the interests of the Union may require. 

SECTION IIL 

1. No member under the age of twenty-five years, or 
who had not been a member of the Union at least one 
year, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, 
shall be eligible to the office of President or Yice Presi- 
dent. 

ARTICLE V. 

SECTION I. 

1. It shall be the duty of the President to attend all 
meetings of the Convention ; preside over their proceed- 
ings, except when the Convention shall be engaged in 
the election of General Officers ; report in writing, at 
least once a year, to the Convention, information of the 
condition of the Union ; recommend to their considera- 
tion such measures as he shall deem necessary and ex- 
pedient ; sign all bills and resolutions passed by the Con- 
vention ; appoint committees, and perform all other 
business pertaining to his office ; to call special meetings 
of the Convention; and to suspend any officer of the 
Union, subject to the decision of the Convention. He 
shall also have power, with the advice and consent of 
the Executive Committee, to postpone the time of the 
meeting of the Annual Convention, if it be deemed neces- 
sary, and to fill all vacancies among the general officers 
that may occur during the recess of the Convention. 

2. It shall be the duty of the Yice-President to attend 
all meetings of the Convention. In the absence of the 
President, or in case of his death, disability, or resigna- 
tion, the Yice-President shall assume the office of Pres- 
ident. In the event of death, disability, absence or 
resignation of both President and Yice-President, the 
Executive Committee shall appoint a President pro tem- 
pore. 

3. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive all 
moneys, and deposit the same whenever the sum in his 
hands shall reach in amount one hundred dollars, in such 
bank as the Executive Committee shall determine, sub- 
ject to his own draft, countersigned by the President ; 
but he shall make no disbursements unless authorized 
to do so by the written order of the President, such 



28 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 






[September 19, 1868. 



order to be retained by the Treasurer as a voucher for 
said disbursement. Before entering upon the duties of 
his office, the Treasurer shall give an obligation or bond 
to the Union, with at least two responsible securities. 
each in the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars, 
and himself in a like amount. He shall report quarterly 
to the President the financial condition of the Union, and 
at such other times as the Union or the President may 
require. He shall keep a book in which shall be re- 
corded the name of each member of the Union, in such 
manner as to show when he was admitted, paid the full 
amount of his dues, was suspended or expelled, with- 
drew or died, which book shall be the register of the 
Union. 

4. It shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary to 
keep a record of the proceedings of every meeting of the 
Convention, issue all notices and summons, and notify 
members of their election to any office. 

5. It shall be the duty of the Corresponding Secretary 
to answer all communications addressed to the Union, 
when answers are required, and to carry on all other cor- 
respondence, under the direction of the President, which 
may be deemed necessary for the interests of the Union. 
He shall keep a book in which all correspondence shall 
be regularly recorded, and said book shall at all times 
be subject to the inspection of the members of the Union ; 
and he shall report in full, yearly, to the Convention. 

ARTICLE VI 

SECTIOX L 

1. The President may submit any question that he may 
deem necessary to the members of the Convention sepa- 
rately, by telegraph or in writing, and upon receipt of 
their votes thereon, declare the decision of the Conven- 
tion, and notify the Recording Secretary accordingly ; and 
such action of the Convention shall be as binding upon 
the Union as any adopted at a meeting of the Conven- 
tion. 

2. The President shall have the privilege of resigning j 
his office, but such resignation must be submitted in open 
meeting of the Convention, or to the members thereof 
separately, as provided in the foregoing clause. 

3. The resignation of other General Officers must be 
submitted, in writing, to the President, who shall submit 
the matter to the members of the Convention, in open 
meeting, or separately, as provided in clause 1, section 1. 
of this article. 

Provided, that the resignation of any officer shall not 
be accepted while any discrepancy remains in his ac- 
counts or records, or while any complaints or charges 
rest against him. 

sectiox n. 

1. Any officer charged with neglect of duty, abuse of 
power, or breach of trust, shall be liable to impeachment 
therefor, and may be suspended, removed from office, or 
expelled, by a vote of the majority of the Executive 
Committee. 

ARTICLE TIL 

SECTION I. 

1 . Any person who is engaged in the Telegraph busi- 
ness, who has attained to the age of sixteen (16) years, 
who bears a good moral charrcter. and who is not so 
disabled by bodily infirmity as to be unable to perform 
the ordinary duties of his position, may be admitted to 
membership in the Union. 

2. Operators of experience engaged in other business, 
to the exclusion of Telegraphy, may be admitted to the 
Union on an equal footing with those actively engaged 
in the Telegraph business. 

sectiox n. 

1. The District Organizations shall have power to ad- 
mit persons who may have been connected with the 
Telegraph business, but who have engaged in other busi- 
ness, as honorary members ; such honorary members to 
have all the privileges of regular members, except that 



they shall not be allowed to vote or be entitled to bene- 
fits, or be counted in the basis of representation to the 
Annual Convention. 

2. Any District neglecting to comply with the rules 
and regulations of the Union shall forfeit its charter 
and representation in the Union, if two thirds of the 
members present, at any regular meeting of the Union, 
concur therein. 

3. The Convention shall have power to elect any pro- 
minent Telegrapher, or Telegraph Inventor, or other 
person, who shall have been connected with Telegraph- 
ing, either directly or indirectly, an honorary member of 
this Union. 

sectiox m. 

1. The Executive Committee shall have power to 
number the several District Organizations in regular ro- 
tation, according to the date of their organization. 

2. In numbering new districts, precedence will be 
given according to the date of organization. 

ARTICLE YIU. 

SECTION" L 

1. Any member who may be suspended or expelled 
by a District, may, within one month from the date of 
suspension or expulsion, appeal to the Executive Com- 
mittee, whose decision shall be final. 

2. The District Director shall notify the Treasurer of 
the Union and all District Directors of the suspension or 
expulsion of members, with the cause therefor. 

ARTICLE IX. 

SECTIOX I. 

1. The revenue of the Union shall be derived as fol- 
lows : There shall be paid for every charter to open a 
new district not less than five dollars. 

The per capita tax from each district shall be one dol- 
lar per year for each member, to be sent with the re- 
turns of the Treasurer at the close of each quarter. 

The Executive Committee shall have power, by a ma- 
jority vote, to assess the Districts, in a case of emergency, 
to an amount not to exceed one dollar for each and every 
member in good standing. 

2. In addition to the Union fees, each District shall 
fix and collect whatever dues, assessments, and fines 
are necessary to meet the expenses of the District, and 
shall have sole power to fix the sa'ary of District officers. 
and make regulations for itself regarding relief for sick 
or unemployed members, aid in adversity, and in general, 
for any purpose not contrary to the interest of the Union 
or the provisions of the Constitution. 

3. When a member changes his place of residence be- 
yond the District in which he is enrolled, he shall be en- 
titled to a Certificate of Transfer upon the payment of all 
dues accruing to the date of such transfer, signed by the 
Director and Secretary of the District, application for 
such transfer to be made to the Director of the District 
to which the member wishes to be transferred. 

■i. Any member in good standing, who may desire to 
withdraw from the Union, shall, upon written applica- 
tion, delivery of his Certificate of Membership to the Di- 
rector, and payment of all indebtedness, reeeive from the 
Union a certificate of honorable withdrawal, signed by 
the President and Recording Secretary; which certifi- 
cate, whenever presented to the Director of any District, 
shall entitle him to full membership in this Union. 

ARTICLE X. 

SECTION I. 

1. Every person admitted a member of this Union 
shall before his name is enrolled, assent to the following 
declaration : 

• I. A B . do solemnly pledge my sacred 

honor that I will conform to, and support inviolate the 
Constitution. By-Laws, and other regulations laid down 
for the government of this Union, that I will at all times 
(all things being equal) procure employment for a mem- 
ber of this Union in preference to any other person, and 



that I will not divulge any of the proceedings required 
to be kept secret. - ' 

ARTICLE XL 

SECTIOX I. 

1. The several Districts shall keep a list of all unem- 
ployed members, with their qualifications, and a re- 
cord of all vacancies that occur, together with the re- 
quirements of the situation. The District officers shall 
use their best endeavors to furnish members with suit- 
able situations, shall furnish the Corresponding Secretary 
of the Union with a list of the unemployed members in 
their Districts, and their qualifications, and shall also aid 
the different companies in procuring proper operators to 
fill vacancies ; and in awarding situations they shall take 
into consideration the capacity of members in regular ro- 
tation, as their names may appear on such list. 

2. The District officers shall constitute a Committee to 
investigate the ' qualifications of members, and, when 
called upon, they shall furnish certificates of the same, 
such certificates to set forth, in an absolutely correct man- 
ner, the whole and particular qualifications of the mem- 
bers. 

ARTICLE XII. 

SECTIOX I. 

1. The funds of the Union, however obtained, shall in 
nowise be disposed of except for defraying the necessary 
expenses of the Union in carrying out the objects con- 
templated by its formation. 

2. The expenses of the Annual Convention shall be paid 

by the Union, but the personal and traveling expenses 

of the Representatives shall be borne by the Districts 

represented. 

ARTICLE XHI. 

SECTIOX I. 

1. This Union shall not have power to dissolve itself 
unless three fourths of all the Delegates at the annual 
meeting of the Convention shall vote in favor thereof. 

SECTIOX II. 

1. This Constitution shall go into operation immediately 
upon its adoption by the Convention of Delegates, 

sectiox rrr. 



1. No amendment to this Constitution shall be made 
unless agreed to by a vote of two thirds of the Delegates < 
to the Convention. 

FOREIGN NOTES. 

The Persian Gulf Cable has again parted. 

The Malta- Alexandria Cable is defunct. 

Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright are the elec- 
tricians of the new Malta- Alexandria Cable. 

Electric organs are to be introduced in many of the 
largest churches in England. 

There is a possibility of France being again united with 
Algeria by Telegraph, a concession having been made by 
the French Government for that purpose. 

TT. T. Henley is about commencing, at his works at 
Xorth Woolwich, a length of about 300 miles of Subma 
rine Cable for a Norwegian Company, whose intention it 
is to submerge it between Peterhead, in Scotland, and 
Norway. 

The long pending action between Mr. Piggot and the 
Anglo-American Telegraph Company, for infringement of 
his patent for working Submarine Cables, is now being 
tried before the English Courts. Some interesting de- 
velopments are expected. 

An interesting discussion is going on among the Eng- 
lish electricians, through the columns of the scientific 
papers, in regard to Submarine Telegraph Cables. 

M Carre has exhibited at the Paris Academy of 
Science some of his metallic carbons containing iron, 
antimony. 4c. On experimenting with these it was found 
that they give a light over one third more powerful than 
that obtained from ordinarv carbon. 



September 19, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



29 



The Brooks Paraffine Insulator. 

Early last year it was announced that Monsieur Vi- 
comte De Vougy, Director General of the Telegraph 
Lines of France, had appointed a commission of electri- 
cians to decide upon a style and material of an insulator 
for Telegraph lines under his charge. This commission 
was composed of eminent electricians, among whom were 
Monsieurs Gangani, Gav arret, Du Moncel, and others, 
whose names are familiar to all readers of works upon 
electrical science. The most approved insulators of the 
different countries in Europe were procured and tested 
in the open air, exposed to the weather. Among others 
presented for trial was the Brooks Paraffine Insulator. 
After a trial of three months an order was given to Mr. 
Brooks, on October 1, 1867, for a sufficient number to 
enable the commission to make a practical test of their 
value. The result of this examination and test was 
made known through the columns of the Semaine Finan- 
ciered of January 24th, and La Union, of February 4th, 
stating that the Brooks Insulator had proved far su- 
perior to all its competitors. 

Telegraphers in England hearing of the success of this 
insulator, sent to Philadelphia for samples to test in com- 
parison with their own amid the logs and mists of 
London. 

The table of results received from them, and published 
on page 341 of the last volume of The Telegrapher, 
shows that the merits of this insulator are not lost by a 
change of climate, or a transfer to hands in no wise in- 
terested in their development or exhibition. 

A series of tests of insulators was made at Philadel- 
phia, on the 22d of April, 1868, which fully confirmed 
the results obtained at Silvertown. We find the follow- 
ing report of the experiments in the August number of 
the Journal of the Franklin Institute, whose editor was 
present on the occasion. 

" The testing instruments employed were a set of re- 
sistance coils, made at the Silvertown works, and a 
Ruhmkorff galvanometer of admirable construction, 
whose delicacy was such that the contact of one finger 
with the brass binding screw at one terminal, while the 
finger of one hand rested on the copper wire at the other 
terminal, deflected the needle several degrees. The re- 
sults are reduced to ohmads of resistance, to make them 
comparable with the Silvertown experiments, in which a 
far more Sensitive galvanometer was employed and a 
more powerful battery. 

" The constant of the galvanometer was first determin- 
ed by passing the current of one of the sulphate of mer- 
cury cells, described by Mr. Chester, p. 257 of our last 
volume,* through a resistance of 10,000 units or ohmads, 
and the instrument thus gave an actual constant for one 
cell of 6,160°, or for the entire battery of 151 cells after- 
wards employed, of 930, 1 60°. 

"One pole of the battery being then connected with 83 
Brooks insulators, and the other through the galvano- 
meter to the earth, a deflection of 8° was observed, giviug 
for each insulator a deflection of t \ = /-, of a degree- 
■which represented a resistance, under the condition de- 
scribed above, of 102,317,600,000 ohmads. 

" At the same date a trial was also made with 22 
earthenware insulators, charged with paraffine by the 
same method as for the other insulators. The deflection 
in this case was 17° or ^J per insulator, which being re- 
duced as before, gives 12,037,365,902 ohmads. 

"There was then a trial immediately made with 22 
glass and bracket insulators, the kind generally employed 
in this country. The deflection here measured was 7,852°, 
or 356f^ per insulator, showing a resistance in ohmads of 
2,605,000. 

"The atmospheric conditions under which these ex- 
periments were made were as follows : It had rained 
steadily on the 20th and 21st until evening, when a fog 
formed and continued until 8 A. M. of the 22d, when the 
deflections were greatest, and were measured as before 
stated. 



* Also, page 257 of the last volume of The Tklegbaphek. 



" The Silvertown tests, on March 31, the time of great- 
est deflection, reduced to ohmads, stand as follows : 

United Kingdom Tel. Co's large porcelain 4,087,500 

Varley's double porcelain cup 3 ,270,000 

British and Irish Mag. Tel. Co's porcelain 2,725,000 

United Kingdom Tel. Co's small do 3,270,000 

Brooks' Patent 40,875,000,000 

" 40,875,000,000 

" 163,500,000,000 

" " lug for cross arm 54,500,000,000 

" Several points here are worthy of remark. First, the 
English tests give a higher actual resistance for the 
Brooks insulator than those made here. This is un- 
doubtedly due to a better state of the weather. Such a 
favorable condition for putting to test the efficiency of 
insulators, as was furnished on April 22d, is, fortunately 
for the Telegraph companies, not often met with. Again, 
we see that the various English insulators tested were 
ahead of our usual glass and bracket, while these in their 
turn were left each further in the rear by the Brooks 
apparatus. 

" The constant of this galvanometer, made by Rhum- 
korff, is, as we have already seen, 6.160°, with a single 
cell through 10,000 ohmads, while that of Prof. Thomp- 
son, used in the Silvertown tests, has a constant of 335° 
through 1,000.000 ohmads, or 100 times the resistance, 
thus showing that the delicacy of the English Instrument 
was five times as great as the French. 

"There is indeed no question that in all such matters, 
if connected with the application of scientific principles 
and accurate measurements to the practical working of 
telegraphic lines, the Euglish are decidedly in advance 
of all other nations. On the other hand, there are a vast 
number of ingenious contrivances and simple ways of 
securing good results in constant use here, which are un- 
known abroad." 

> «♦> < 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. W. H. Schaeffler has gone to Omaha. 

Miss Wheeler has accepted a situation in the ladies' 
department of the Chicago office. 

Mr. A. M. Valentine, formerly of Janesville, "Wis., 
has taken a position in the Chicago office. 

Messrs. C. R. Howe and Harry Nichols have taken 
positions in the Western Union office at Indianapolis. 

Billy Allen has resigned his position at 145 Broad- 
way, New York, and has opened a hat and fur store on 
Court Street, Boston. 

Jack Bates, of Pennsylvania, is substituting for H. W. 
Pope at A. and P. Tel. Co., Produce Exchange. 

Mr. S. T. Tracy, who has been for six years the mana- 
ger of the Sedalia, Mo., office, has been relieved. 

Mr. D. A. WiLLiAMS r formerly train despatcher at 
Kansas City, Mo., has been appointed manager at Sedalia, 
Mo. 

Mr. C. W. Hart, formerly of Otterville, Mo., has been 
appointed assistant operator at Sedalia, Mo. 

Mr. R. A.. Wolliver, late of the St. Louis, Alton and 
Terre Haute Railroad, has been appointed train despatcher 
West Division Pacific R. R. (of Missouri), at Kansas City, 
Mo. 

Mr. J. W. Bay, formerly at Knobnoster, has been ap- 
pointed agent and operator at Otterville, Mo. 

H. P. Hull, formerly military operator at Warrens- 
burg, Mo., has been appointed agent and operator at 
Knobnoster, Mo. 

Mr. W. H. Markley, operator at Tipton, Mo., has been 
relieved. 

Mr. S. Johnson, operator at California, Mo., has re- 
signed, and the vacancy has been filled by Mr. J. C. 
Thompson. 

The Mississippi Valley National Telegraph Company has 
opened an office at Galena, Illinois, and Mr. E. R. Swar- 
inger, lately of Dyersville, Iowa, fills the position of 
manager. 



Mr. John Thode, for several years operator in the 
Western Union city office at Galena, 111., has resigned, 
quit the business, and gone to Secor, 111., to engage in 
the nursery business, Mr. Wm. Altemeyer, lately of the 
Chicago office, filling the vacancy. 

Mr. W. G. Robinson, of the I. C. R. R. office at Galena, 
111., has gone East on a visit. 

T. J. Cornell, of Apple River, Illinois, has resigned, 
and accepted the managership of the Warren, 111., office 
of the M. V. N. T. Co. Frank Bradshaw, of Lena, 
111., takes his place. 

D. C. Hinsdale, who recently resigned his situation in 
the Cleveland Western Union office, on account of ill 
health, has accepted an appointment as extra operator on 
the Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad line. 

The W. U. Company have run a wire from Comstock's 
Landing, N. T., to North Granville, a distance of five 
miles, east, and opened an office in the female seminary 
in the latter place, which is in charge of Miss E. E. 
Beckwith, of Plattsburgh. 

A. J. Reinhold has taken charge of the R. R. and 
Telegraph business at Hyde Park, N. T. Miss Marion 
Outwater, late in charge of this office, has gone west. 

In consequence of continued illness, R. Gay, Jr., has 
been compelled to give up his position as manager of the 
West Troy, N. T., office. His successor is J. W. 
Murphy, of Westfield, Mass. Mr. Gay is at his home in 
Mbany. 

Ellis Wilson has resigned his situation in the Indian- 
apolis, Ind., office, and accepted a place in Cincinnati, O., 
Western Union Office. 

John Curran, of the Memphis, Tenn., office, has re- 
signed, and is going to Wyoming Territory. 

Ninah Chettles, of the Indianapolis office, has been 
transferred to Layfayette, Indiana. 

THE TELEGRAPH. 

Fire Alarm Telegraph. 

Our enterprising fellow-citizen, Mr. Cushman, has se- 
cured the contract for putting up a Fire- Alarm Telegraph 
in the city of Canton. This invention of Mr. Cdshman 
is being introduced in almost every city where its claims 
are fairly presented, and we are glad to learn that 
the efforts put forth by him for its introduction are 
meeting with the reward they deserve. — New Lisbon (0.) 
Journal. 

School Telegraph. 
Signal Telegraph lines have been placed in our Union 
School building by Mr. W. R. Smiley, for teachers to 
communicate with the superintendent's room, and also 
with each other. A system of signals are used, by 
means of which any message can be sent to any room 
with no other labor than simply depressing a signal key 
the requisite number of times ; the signals are then rung 
upon small bells by means of electro-magnetism. The 
instruments are gotten up in a handsome form, simple, 
yet complete in their arrangement, requiring no more 
skill to send and receive messages than is possessed by a 
child of ten years of age. It is just the thing for school 
buildings, and should be used by every one. — New Lisbon 
[0.') Journal. 

Going Ahead. 

The Mississippi Valley National Company commenced 
building the line on Monday, September 7th, from War- 
ren, 111., to Mineral Point, Wis. The wire is strung from 
Dunleith to Warren, 111., and the poles are all up to Chi- 
cago. 

«■♦ » » 

A Camp Meeting Telegraph Line. 
The Round Lake Camp Meeting Association, which 
recently held a ten days' meeting on its grounds, near 
Round Lake, Saratoga County, N. T., were accommo- 
dated with a Telegraph office by the W. U. Co. 



30 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 19, 1868. 




SATURDAY, SEPT. 19, 1868. 

THE SIXTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE NA- 
TIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 
The Sixth Annual Convention of the National Tele- 
SBAPHic Union was held at Albany, N. Y., last week, in 
accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. In 
another part of this paper will be found a detailed report 
of its proceedings, the reconstructed Constitution of the 
Union, and an Address to the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
issued by the Convention, to all of which we call the 
special attention of the practical Telegraphers of this 
country and of the British provinces. 

The members of the Convention assembled at the Dela- 
van House, in Albany, on "Wednesday morning, and its 
Sessions commenced at ten o'clock A. M., and from that 
time until the final adjournment, on Friday, it was 
laboriously engaged in the discharge of its most impor- 
tant duties. In accordance with the generally expressed 
desire of the members of the Convention, the editor of 
this paper attended its meetings, and, to such an extent 
as was proper, participated in its deliberations. 

Although the Convention was not as numerous as some 
of those which have preceded it, it was sufficiently so for 
all practical purposes. It was composed of Telegraphers 
of much experience and superior intelligence, and every 
delegate appeared to fully realize the importance which 
attached to its deliberations, and to be actuated by an 
unselfish desire that its legislation should be such as 
would result to the best interests of the Union and of the 
Telegraphic Fraternity. Preconceived ideas and opinions 
were cheerfully laid aside, when, upon a comparison of 
views, it was found that such sacrifice would result to the 
advantage of the cause to which all were earnestly 
devoted. 

Owing to a painful accident to the wife of the Presi- 
dent, Mr. F. G. Churchill, he was unable to be present 
at most of the meetings of the Convention, and the duties 
of presiding officer were acceptably and excellently dis- 
charged by Mr. W. H. Young, of Washington, D. C, the 
Vice-President of the Union, whose persistent devotion 
to its interest have won for him the esteem and affection 
of all true Unionists. 

Upon a comparison of views of the delegates, it was 
found that the fraternity demanded, and the future wel- 
fare of the Union required a general revision and re- 
construction of the Constitution and plan of operations of 
the Union. After some discussion as to the best mode 
to effect this, it was decided to take up the Constitution 
in Committee of the "Whole, and consider it section by 
section, making such alterations and additions as seemed 
to be required. This was a work of considerable labor, 
and occupied a large part of the time of the Convention. 
The result of this labor is before our readers and the pub- 
lic in the revised and amended Constitution, printed in 
this paper. It will be seen that these amendments and 
alterations were radical in their character. They are 
such as seemed to be demanded by their constituents, 
and we feel confident that they will be endorsed by 
nearly all the practical Telegraphers of the country. 

Most of the duties and obligations heretofore assumed 
and discharged by the general association have been de- 
volved upon the Districts. Hereafter, all relief and 
burial provisions are left to the Districts to arrange as 
they shall see fit. Each District can now provide for as 
much or as as little relief as it shall see fit, or its mem- 



bers are willing to tax themselves for. "While leaving 
this matter to the Districts, it was the general sentiment 
of the delegates that each District ought to make pro- 
vision for the relief of sick and unemployed members, at 
least as effectual as has heretofore been extended by the 
Union. 

Most of the provisions for the government of the 
Districts have been stricken out of the Constitution, 
leaving them to regulate local matters as shall seem to 
them best. The Union only provides for and retains 
control of such matters as are indispensable to render it 
a homogenous body, and make it, as it should be, one 
whole, though composed of many and widely scattered 
members. A member of any District is a member of the 
Union, and as such, is entitled to all the privileges of a 
common brotherhood. When sick, or in distress, he has 
a claim upon all for sympathy and aid, and in his turn is 
bound to render such aid and sympathy to his brothers. 
The dues to the Union have been reduced from six 
dollars to one dollar per year — a sum which it was 
thought would be sufficient to defray the necessary ex- 
penses, which will be very largely reduced under the new 
arrangement. This is to be included in the District as- 
sessments. The District treasurers are hereafter required 
to report quarterly to the treasurer of the Union the 
names of the District members, and remit the amount of 
Union dues directly from the District funds in his 
possession. 

Hereafter all of the money raised in each District 
(with the exception of the one dollar per year payable to 
the Union) will be expended under the direction of the 
District. A provision is made for an extra assessment in 
case of emergency, not to exceed one dollar additional 
for each member, but it is believed and expected that 
under the new order of things the membership will be so 
largely increased as to render any extra assessment unne- 
cessary. One of the principal items of expense of the Union 
heretofore, has been the defraying of the expenses of the 
Annual Conventions. The revised Constitution provides 
that hereafter, while the Union shall defray the incidental 
expenses of the Conventions, the Districts shall pay the 
personal and traveling expenses of their representatives. 
In view of the nominal amount to be collected for the 
Union in the future, this charge was imperative, and 
will doubtlessly be cheerfully acquiesced in by the Dis- 
tricts. "Where the Districts are so small that the expense 
of sending a representative would prove onerous, two or 
three of them can combine and delegate to one represen- 
tative the duty of attending to their interests, and repre- 
senting them in the Annual Conventions. It is however 
desirable that, whenever practicable, each District should 
send the number of representatives to which it is entitled 
under the Constitution. 

Other changes have been made, which it is believed will 
be acceptable to the fraternity, but which we have not 
room to detail here. 

For the first time since the formation of the Union, 
our brethren in the British Provinces are invited to join 
with us and form districts of the N. T. U. This was 
done as a matter of justice, and in accordance with the 
expressed wishes of a portion of the fraternity in the 
provinces to unite with us. We hope they will at once 
avail themselves of this provision, and make early appli- 
cation for charters. They will be cordially welcomed 
into the Union. 

Hereafter all new districts organized are to receive 
charters, and the Executive Committee will probably 
soon make arrangements to issue charters to Districts 
previously organized. By an amendment to the By- 
Laws, provision is made for quarterly meetings of the 
Executive Committee at New York, between the 15th 
and 30th of the months of October, January, April and 
July, respectively. Great difficulty and embarrassment, 
and much injury to the Union has resulted from the 
Executive Committee not being able to meet for the dis- 
patch of important business. This is to be obviated in 
the future. 



Two or three improvements which have been proposed, 
and which we have advocated, it was not considered 
judicious to inaugurate this year. One of them was the 
establishment of a headquarters of the Union in this 
city, and another the inauguration of a trial of skill, or 
Telegraphic tournament, under the auspices of the Union. 
In the wisdom of the postponement of these we concur, 
but hope in the course of another year the Union will be 
in a position to inaugurate these and other desirable 
measures. 

The list .of officers elected for the ensuing year, we 
think, will meet with the hearty approval of every mem- 
ber of the Union. Of our new President, Mr. "W. H. 
Young, it is scarcely necessary for us to speak. From 
the inception of the Union to the present time he has 
been an earnest, unselfish laborer in its cause. Equally 
in adversity and prosperity he has adhered to and labored 
for it. No better selection could have been made, and 
we are confident that he will bring to the discharge of 
his new duties ability, persistence, and fidelity which 
will do much towards making the Union even more use- 
ful and influential than it has ever yet been. 

Mr. "W. P. Merrill, of Portland, the newly-elected 
Vice-President, has served the Union long and well. 
His devotion to it is no less earnest than that of the Pre- 
sident. He has brought the Maine District up from a 
feeble condition to the position of the Banner District. 
His election is but a just recognition of his services in 
the cause, and his aid will prove of great advantage to 
the President, the Executive Committee and the Union. 

Mr. A. L. Whipple, of Albany, was re-elected Trea- 
surer. His administration of the finances of the Union 
in the past has been highly satisfactory. His position 
has been a laborious and thankless one, and his re-elec- 
tion was only a just compliment to an able and faithful 
officer. 

The selection of Mr. Duxbury, of Boston, as Record- 
ing Secretary, and Mr. F. L, Pope, of New York, as 
Corresponding Secretary, we are confident will prove ad- 
vantageous to the Union. They are both woll known as 
earnest Unionists, and will, without doubt, prove accep- 
table to the fraternity generally. Mr. Pope's superior 
literary and scientific abilities and acquirements are too 
well known to the readers of The Telegrapher to need 
any eulogy from us. 

"We congratulate the Convention and the Union upon 
this happy selection of officers for the ensuing year, and 
expect to see a revival and increase of the prosperity of 
the Union under their administration, which shall eclipse 
anything in the past, and render it a powerful organiza- 
tion for good to the Telegraphic profession. 

The present editor of The Telegrapher was unani- 
mously re-elected its editor and publisher for the ensuing 
year. The approbation of the course and conduct of the 
paper, under its present management, could not but be 
highly gratifying to us personally. "We return our heart- 
felt thanks to the gentlemen of the Convention for their 
expressions of confidence and approval, and more es- 
pecially do we thank them for the determination mani- 
fested to labor zealously and determinedly to sustain the 
paper in the future, even more energetically and effectu- 
ally than in the past, and increase and extend its circu- 
lation, usefulness and influence. However arduous may 
be our labors, they will be greatly cheered and lightened 
by the knowledge that we are sustained by the Tele- 
graphers of the country. 

It was determined, also, that the Insurance Bureau 
should be made a success. Mr. A. L. "Whipple, in addi- 
tion to the duties of Insurance and Supply Agent, takes 
charge of the Bureau as its Actuary, relieving Mr. Stover, 
the nature of whose present duties prevent his giving 
to it the necessary attention. "We hope that every mem- 
ber of the Union, who has not already done so, will avail 
himself of the advantages of the Bureau without further 
delay, and urge his friends and associates to do likewise. 

Portland, Maine, was selected as the place for hold- 
ing the next Convention. This was cheerfully conceded 



September 19, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



31 



to that District, which, under the leadership of its ener- 
getic Director, Mr. W. P. Merrill, has literally become 
the Star in the East, in the Union organization. The 
Maine delegates assured us that the members of the Con- 
vention would be hospitably welcomed by their Maine 
brethren, and they hope next September to witness such 
a gathering of Telegraphers at the Forest City as shall 
attest the great prosperity of the Union. 

In conclusion, we desire to say that the members of 
the Convention deserve the highest encomiums for their 
devotion to their duties, and the manner in which they 
discharged their trusts. 

There could not have been selected a more earnest, 
respectable, and creditable set of men to represent the 
Telegraphers of the country. For intelligence, respect- 
ability and industry, they would compare favorably with 
any similar number of men from any profession or call- 
ing in life. We are pleased to have been enabled to meet 
them in Convention, and hope that another year may find 
them again assembled, and that they may witness the suc- 
cess of their labors at Albany in a powerful, united, and 
numerous association. 

This article has already far exceeded the limits intended, 
but we cannot close without returning our acknowledg- 
ments to the Telegraphers of Albany for the many cour- 
tesies extended to us and to the Convention. The Al- 
bany District stands next to Maine in point of numbers, 
and is in good condition, and a personal acquaintance 
with the Telegraphers of Albany confirmed the favorable 
impression which that fact had already created. We are 
especially indebted to Mr. Charles E. Ferry, Superin- 
tendent, and Mr. C. L. Goodwin, of the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific line, for the transmission of our special dispatch to 
The Telegrapher, informing the readers of its last weeks' 
issue of the proceedings of the first day's session of the 
Convention. 

We are also greatly indebted to the Editors of Albany, 
and to Mr. Manning, the Albany Agent of the Associated 
Press, for courtesies received, and which we are happy to 
have this opportunity to acknowledge. 

We can only regret that the Couvention so fully occu- 
pied our time that we were unable to cultivate more in- 
timate personal acquaintance with them. 

We intended to have made some remarks upon the 
duties of the Telegraphic fraternity to respond to the ac- 
tion of the Convention, but must postpone them until 
next week. 

Justice. 

We always intend to do justice towards all parties in 
the columns of The Telegrapher. If sometimes we, 
through misapprehension, make a statement which proves 
to be incorrect, we are always willing to make the pro- 
per correction. We have several times, in commenting 
on the treatment of operators by the Western Union 
Company, stated that it did not pay them for extra work. 
We have recently learned that this is not strictly correct. 
In the New York office, and in offices east of New York, 
extra compensation has been paid to operators by that 
Company for some time past. 

In offices south and west of New York, however, the 
former economical system is continued, and no extra 
compensation is paid for extra services required. Prob- 
ably the proximity of New York and Eastern operators 
to the headquarters of the Company has a material influ- 
ence in ameliorating their condition. 

A Call from an Inventor. 
Wb were recently favored with a call from our es- 
teemed contributor, Geo. Little, who is now engaged in 
perfecting a new receiving instrument, adapted to both 
submarine and overland lines. It is not generally known 
that Mr. Little was the inventor of the inverted cup, or 
umbrella form of insulator, now in such general use. We 
hope soon to be able to present our readers with a des- 
cription of the instrument referred to. 



Commendable. 
We learn that Mr. C. F. Wood, superintendent of the 
Fifth District. Eastern Division of the Western Union 
lines, assented to an arrangement by which the operators 
in the Boston office were enabled to enjoy two weeks' 
vacation without deduction of salary. We are always 
pleased to give credit for such evidences of justice and 
liberality. We regret that Mr. Wood could not have 
extended the same to all the offices in his district. 

No Use. 

We learn from various quarters that the head centres 
of the Western Union Company, piqued at the success 
which has attended The Telegrapher, have recently 
issued private instructions to the superintendents and 
managers to force our grandmother's semi-monthly on 
their subordinates, whether it is wanted or not. Division 
Superintendent Stager has been particularly active, of 
late, in this work, though we are informed he privately 
expresses the opinion that the Journal don't amount to 
anything, any how. 

Wanted, Particularly, 
the present address of Mr. John L. Jones, formerly of 
the Western Union office at Troy, N. Y., and more re- 
cently at No. 145 Broadway. If this should meet his 
eye, it would be well for him to communicate with the 

editor of The Telegrapher at once. 

-~- -»» - 

To Our Correspondents and Contributors. 

The Convention and its doings absorb so much of our 
space this week, notwithstanding we publish an extra 
sheet, that much valuable and interesting matter pre- 
pared for this paper is crowded out. 

We are very much pleased at the renewed evidences 
of interest in The Telegrapher which we are daily re- 
ceiving, not only in the accession of many new sub- 
scribers, but in contributions for its columns. We will 
endeavor to give all a chance to be heard as promptly as 
possible. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

.Vo notice urill be taken of anonymous communications. 



The Overworking Policy. 

TO THE EDITOB OY THE TeLEGBAPHEB. 

The article entitled " Requirement of Excessive 
Labor from Operatives," seems to elicit encomiums of 
praise from all quarters, and is by many considered an 
omen of a general agitation of that all important subject. 
My present purpose is simply to call attention to a misap- 
prehension of the motives which prompted the reply of 
the various Telegraph companies to the communication 
addressed to them by the Postmaster General. 

From the letter compiled by Mr. Reid and signed by 
Messrs. Sandford, Orton and Wade, you quote " Six 
hours' 1 continuous service of this character (telegraphing) is 
all that a young man is capable of performing and main- 
tain health." 

You add: " If this was true in 1866 * * * it is no 
less true now." 

So far as the endurance of operators is concerned, you 
are certainly correct, but let us examine the policy of the 
companies, and note the change which has taken place 
during the past three or four years. We must view the 
correspondence between the Postmaster General and the 
officers of the Telegraph companies as a purely business 
matter, dealing with dollars and cents, not with the less 
important commodity known as human life. 

During the war operators were, as they now are, indis- 
pensable, which fact, taken in connection with their 
scarcity, made their lives valuable to the country, for the 
simple reason that their places could not be immediately 



filled ; and again, tyrannical exactions would not be 
tolerated by them, for vigorous competing lines proved a 
ready refuge for an overworked or underpaid Telegrapher. 

To-day our operators' position is more easily filled, and 
if the " exhausting absorption of the mind," continued 
daily for ten, twelve, or perhaps sixteen hours, should 
eventually prove fatal to the defenceless victim, does his 
loss increase the general expense of the company by 
which he is employed ? Certainly not. He cost nothing ; 
all that he has drawn from the exchequer of the company 
has been amply repaid by services rendered. And will 
it cost anything to supply his place ? By no means ; for 
until another man may be secured to assume his duties, 
extra service is required from his fellow operatives, and 
the mill grinds on as before. It is but an additional proof 
that " Man's inhumanity to man makes countless thou- 
sands mourn." 

No superintendent would allow a corporation horse to 
be abused or overworked, for his loss would appear upon 
the wrong side of the balance sheet, unless it was charged 
to the account of the poor hireling who might be held 
responsible for its proper care. 

There is another and more apparent reason for this 
death-dealing policy, which is being gradually inaugu- 
rated. 

There still remains in the service many worthy men, 
who have held their present positions since the year 1864, 
and still retain the salaries then bestowed upon them 
through the more liberal policy which at that time pre- 
vailed. It has not been deemed expedient to reduce them 
directly to the level to which it is now the purpose of the 
companies to force us. Such a procedure might brew 
serious trouble. In order to bring about the same result 
in a less perceptible manner, some ingenious official in- 
vented a sliding scale, which slides the wrong way. 

By being overworked and otherwise ill treated, it ia 
hoped, by the originator of this scheme, that these men 
will feel compelled to resign their comparatively lucrative 
situations, either temporarily or permanently, and in turn, 
some newly fledged manipulator, recently drafted from 
the messenger corps, who looks upon a $75 position as 
the pinnacle of his ambition, will be promoted (?) to the 
vacancy. 

If, in the course of a few months, an invalid returns 
with recruited strength, can he assume his old grade, to 
which his experience of a dozen years entitles him? 
That is not according to the new order of things. The 
official to whom he applies says, " It may be so, but I 
know you not. You must begin anew and work up." 

This being the policy, how now stands the record ? A 
few hours' extra service every day, a few less operators, at 
a smaller compensation, brings money to the plethoric 
wallets of who ? Yes, who ? That's the conun- 
drum which the stockholders have vainly endeavored to 
solve for many yeara 

The sooner we awaken to the truth of the well known 
saying that " Corporations have no souls," the sooner we 
may exact from them the same liberal and humane treat- 
ment which prevailed when telegraph stock stood at its 
highest figure, even though we were allowed those 
welcome vacations, which, by their annual visitations, 
seemed to endow us with a now lease of life. 

I will close by endorsing your well-timed warning to 
the Managers of Telegraph Companies, that the prevail- 
ing system of economy will prove more costly in the 
long run, for in this great Republic he who serves to-day 
may rule to-morrow. More anon. Belshazzab. 



Operators Unnecessarily Waste Time. 

TO THE EDITOB OF THE TELEGBAPHEB. 

The old adage tells us that " time is money." If we 
disregard the speedy lapse of moments, and fail to oc- 
cupy them advantageously, we lose money. 

As those in authority connected with our great and 
generous monopoly are so studiously applying themselves, 
in order that the annual working expenses of their fines 



32 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 19, 1868. 



may be reduced, perhaps the following will not be unin- 
teresting to them, and may possibly lead to a grand re- 
form movement. 

On August 12th last, while the daily news, stock and 
market reports were being transmitted from New York 
and received at Hudson, Poughkeepsie, Albany, Schenec- 
tady, Utica. Syracuse. Auburn, Rochester, Lockport and 
Buffalo, in direct circuit, your correspondent, out of curi- 
osity, kept a correct account of the number of breaks 
which occurred during the entire day. 

Forty-two (42) was the result. The wires worked admir- 
ably, and it is reasonable to suppose that carelessness 
was the cause. 

Allowing that eaah break occupies on an average one 
half minute, we have twenty-one minutes per day, ten 
(10) hours thirty minutes per mouth, and ten and one half 
days (twelve hours each) per year occupied simply in 
breaking during the transmission of daily reports. 

I am confident that 42 breaks per day is far below the 
average. On the day previous to the one above spoken 
of, one office alone broke 59 times. 

Who dare deny that the operators of the Western 
Union Company are carelessly squandering valuable time ? 
Just think of it, oh ye officers — ten and a half days a 
year! How many messages might be sent during that 
time, which, with a very little care, might be saved to the 
Company? Without joking, it ia notorious that much 
unnecessary delay is thus occasioned, and in my opinion 
it is almost wholly attributable to carelessness. 

Look out for squalls. Agitator. 

A New Way to Pay Old Debts. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Is the Journal of the Telegraph read by operators as 
much as it ought to be ? It often contains much of in- 
terest to the fraternity. In its eagerness to support and 
justify the management of the Telegraph lines of the 
country it sometimes exposes weak spots in what it 
would defend, and makes valuable acknowledgments and 
concessions. An article in the August number of that 
sheet, written by Judge Caton, of Illinois, one of the 
oldest Telegraphic chieftains in the country, makes some 
concessions which are worth appropriating in discussing 
a subject which, I believe, has received too little atten- 
tion from The Telegrapher — a subject which ought to be 
thoroughly ventilated, with its gross iniquity and oppres- 
sion. I refer to the infamous rule of the present grand 
monopoly, which holds the hard-earned salaries of opera- 
tors responsible for errors in the transmission of business. 
With this subject in view, some of the remarks of Judge 
Caton, coming, as they do, with a quasi endorsement 
from the Journal, have great force and significance. In 
defending the system for the insurance of messages, the 
article devotes itself to showing that errors in the trans- 
mission of unrepeated messages are sometimes absolutely 
unavoidable. The causes of error are summed up under 
three heads. First, the sticking of the relay, to which 
the true cause is assigned, and which is shown to be un- 
avoidable. 

Second — Irremediable defects in the insulation of 
wires, and the incalculable influences of escapes. 

Third — The very serious influence of atmospheric 
electricity. He might also have spoken of the nature of 
the business itself, which is often such that operators can- 
not determine whether they receive it correctly or not, it 
being entirely unintelligible to them. 

Judge Caton introduces these arguments, with the re- 
mark: " I will therefore state .... how it is that 
such errors must inevitably sometimes occur;" and in clos- 
ing, he says of these various influences which he has 
mentioned, " necessarily they must sometimes lead to 
mistakes which the highest possible care cannot avoid." 
Forcible as is this language, it is not, after all, so strong 
as that by which the Telegraph companies have con- 
demned themselves in regard to this matter by the head- 
ings of their message-blanks, which declare that " insur- 



ance" is absolutely indispensable to guard against mis- 
takes. American liues are generally poorly and cheaply 
built, by most wretched economy, while a shrewdness in 
official circles, worthy of such economy, has found a way 
to transfer all the risk resulting therefrom to their de- 
fenceless operators. There must, of course, be some check 
upon the carelessness of operators! Companies thus got 
up cheap, and with no risks to run, may possibly become 
rich, and can afford to be generous afterwards! There 
are other grounds upon w T hich this rule ought to be con- 
demned, by even a shadow of justice. The responsibility 
by it imposed upon operators is greater than that for 
which very large salaries are considered cheap in any 
other business. The rule is, besides, extremely unequal. 
A man working from Baltimore to Washington, from 
Philadelphia to New York, or on any short circuit, 
may make as many " bulls" as he can find time to 
enjoy, at a very moderate expense, while one who 
works from New York to San Francisco must calcu- 
late his indulgences at the rate of nearly ten dollars 
apiece. Add to all this the fact that it is often impossi- 
ble to locate errors correctly, so that innocent operators 
have to pay for the blunders of others, and the rule will 
stand out in all its penuriousness. oppressiveness and 
injustice. But it is worth while to ask, what is accom- 
plished by this most beautiful and economical system, 
over and above the fact that the companies themselves 
shirk all financial risk? Are operators less liable to 
make mistakes ? It has not so proved. There is a large 
official bite taken from somebody "s salary after every 
storm. But three most excellent and desirable objects 
are accomplished most effectually. Even tne most 
faithful operators readily learn the lesson that their own 
interests imperatively demand that they shall touch 
as little business as possible, and shall avoid all the im- 
portant circuits. Is any one fool enough to take hold 
and work with alacrity where the more work he does the 
more risk he runs, and the less work he does the more 
sure he is of his salary ? Our " artists" are rarely so 
enthusiastic as to require any restraint upon their eager- 
ness for business, and therefore, under the present rule, 
it must require lynx-eyed managers iudeed to secure in- 
dustry. There is constantly growing among the frater- 
nity a talent for delaying and avoiding business which is 
truly marvellous, and which the business public cannot 
readily account for. The second result accomplished by 
this rule is somewhat similar to the above, and is equally 
indicative of a shrewd management of employes. What 
encouragement is there for an operator to work patiently 
at a hard-working line, in stormy weather, when his very 
perseverance and faithfulness will surely appear against 
him on the pay roll if the condition of the line in the 
smallest degree affects his accuracy? Do we not find it 
much easier to abandon the hard-working wires, and to 
take it easy without risk, than to exhaust our patience 
and our salaries together ? Is it not shrewd manage- 
ment which offers such powerful incentives to employes 
to be faithful? A third excellent result from this rule is 
equally plain. There are all sorts of characters in the 
fraternity. Some of them do not part with their earn- 
ings so tamely. H flashing eyes and resolute words ever 
mean anything, they mean, in some of these cases, that 
the extortion shall be made to cost all it came to. The 
power is by no means all on one side. No great trust is 
ever committed to any one without a great deal of power 
also. Will not the simple desire for revenge which this 
rule awakens cost the companies in the end many times 
the amount which their extortion secures them ? 

The true and honest way to check operators is to pub- 
lish freely before the fraternity all the bad " bulls" made. 
This, followed by a prompt discharge for repeated care- 
lessness, is more security than is to be found in any other 
business, and would be found quite as efficacious, al- 
though not so lucrative as the present rule. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to suggest to those in au- 
thority a companion rule to the one now in force. It 
promises to make the Telegraph entirely self-sustaining 



' in connection with the above rule. It promises to make 
Telegraphing a kind of perpetual motion, inasmuch as it 
will be kept running entirely by resources evolved out 
of itself. It is upon a similar principle to the one above: 
11 Be it enacted," that when a line il opens" between two 
offices, the operator who shall first discover and report 
the fact, shall bear the expense of repairing it. These 
two rules would make the receipts all profits. If the 
Journal is to prove a faithful ally to the fraternity, let it 
hereafter be found in the hands of every operator, side 
by side with The Telegrapher. But can it be that the 
editorial discretion which will publish such a tell-tale ar- 
ticle as the one I have used here, is anything more than 
the mere drainage or sewerage of such talent among the 
chieftains as originated the ingenious and most effective 
rule I have been considering above? A. C. T. 

Telegraphic Notes. 

Lee, Mass., Aug. 27, 1868. 
To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

I hope that an operator on a way line, even if subject to 
contumacious treatment when he dares to break in with 
his business on the line, may not meet with such un- 
gentlemanly rebuffs at the hands of the Editor of The 
Telegrapher. 

I send you a few notes of Telegraphic matters here- 
abouts which may prove of interest to at least a portion 
of your readers. 

Another of our ladies of the key has departed from us. 
Miss Nettie Lamsox, well known to many of the frater- 
nity by reputation and personal acquaintance — a skilful 
operator, who has been in a number of offices in Con- 
; necticut, Massachusetts, Vermont and New York — was, 
yesterday afternoon, at two (2) o'clock, united in mar- 
riage to Mr. Matthew Adgate. The ceremony was 
performed in Pittsfield, Mass., and the happy couple 
passed through this place this morning on their trip. 

R. W. Pope, of the Bankers and Brokers' line, Broad 
street office, has been acting as substitute in Pittsfield 
office for about a week, while Charley R. took a vaca- 
tion. Mr. Pope returns to New York rested, and feeling 
like a new man. 

Business is despatched very promptly (?) on this line. 
One office south breaks a wire in the office and knows 
not what the matter can be, and the fault is discovered 
when the repairer reaches there. Another one finds the 
same difficulty and remedies it after seven or eight hours- 

Miss M anlet, of Barrington office, took a short vaca- 
tion of a month or so, and is now attending to the duties 
of her office again. The lady operator at Fall Village 
has been very ill but is recovering slowly. One item 
more and I close. This town of 5,000 inhabitants has 
no hotel accommodations, the large hotel which for- 
i merly stood on Maine street having been destroyed by 
fire about two vears ago. and none built since ! 

M. A. 



« « »■ 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
Operators — Chicago. — Reluctantly compelled to 
postpone your communication this week. Will appear 
in our next issue. 

The Telegraph in England. 
There are in England, under agreement with the Tele- 
graph companies (hereafter to be managed by the Govern- 
ment). 1,280 miles of railway and 4,226 miles of wire, 
under a term of agreement of from 1 to 5 years ; 3,988 
miles of line and 20,308 of wire, under a term of agree- 
ment of from 6 to 10 years; 3.21U miles of line and 
13,397 of wire under a term of agreement of from 11 to 
20 years ; 3401 miles of line and 1,247 of wire, under a 
term of agreement of from 21 to 30 years; 4,650 miles 
of line and L556 of wire, with a term of agreement of 
from 31 to 99' vears— making a total of 13.470 miles of 
line and 54,744 of wire, under various term* of agree- 
ment with the Telegraph companies, the average dura- 
tion of these agreements being 26.2-3 years per mile of 
line, and 25£ years per mile ofVire. 



Septembek 19. 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



33 



MISCELLANEA. 

The Telegraphing " Floating Pen" Litigation. 
Before Judge Bakrett. 

Hidden vs. Little. — This case, involving disputes about 
patents for Submarine Telegraphy, was again called up. 
The motion was to vacate an injunction which bad beeu 
granted restraining the defendant from all interference 
with a patent for a "floating pen." Application was 
made by the plaintiffs counsel for an adjournment, upon 
the ground that Mr. Seward (who had been retained as 
counsel for the plaintiff) had not returned from Europe. 

Edwin James, counsel for the defendant, opposed the 
application. The injunction restrained his client from 
negotiating for the sale of the patent, which was of great 
value, and was being tested on submarine lines in this 
country and in England. 

The Court granted a postponement until Wednesday 
next, the case to be heard peremptorily. 

Painful Accident. 
The wife of Mr. F. G. Churchill, of Buffalo, late Pre- 
sident of the National Telegraphic Union, met with 'a 
very painful accident on Tuesday night, September 8th. 
While on the night boat from New York to Albany, ac- 
companying her husband, who was en route to preside at 
the Annual Convention of the TJniox, in changing from 
an upper to a lower berth in the state room, her foot 
caught and she fell, causing a compound fracture of the 
left arm at the wrist. 

Serious Fire. 
The shop of the Western Union Telegraph Company, 
in Williamsburgh, where the manufacture and repair of 
Telegraph Instruments for the Eastern and Southern sec- 
tions of its lines has been carried on since the consolida. 
tion, took fire on Saturday morning last, and was entirely 
destroyed. Loss from five thousand to eight thousand 

dollars. 

►-«♦♦-« 

Freak op Electricity. — The Paris correspondent of 
the London Star relates the following incident : At the 
last meeting of the Academy of Science the learned 
members of that body were much surprised at seeing a 
deal box, containing an old boot, placed on the table. 
It proved by no means to be an historical article of dress, 
but simply the boot of a poor workman, and yet it was 
brought into this erudite assembly uuder no less high 
auspices than those of M. Becquerel, whose special study 
is electricity. The story of this wonderful boot is thus 
related: On Sunday, the 2 2d ulfc., a violent thunder storm 
burst over Paris. A workman was crossing the road lead- 
ing from Bercy to the Jardin des Plantes, when he sud- 
denly felt an oppression on his chest, and was in a few 
seconds thrown on his face by an irresistible but invisi- 
ble force. He lost the use of his senses, and in this con- 
dition was picked up and carried home. On examination 
of his body there was no external marks of violence, and 
there was not even a scratch visible. During the two 
days which succeeded his fall he was unable to control a 
violent trembling. At the expiration of that period he 
however revived, and it was thought that no trace re- 
mained of his strange accident. This was a mistake, how- 
ever, for his boots remained. The said boots were heavi- 
ly hobnailed workman's boots,, and the lightning had ex- 
tracted the greater part of the nails. 

Two members of the Academy, after listening to M. 
Becquerel's statement, said that this phenomenon was by 
no means new. Gen. .Morrin stated that at Charenton 
cannon balls piled in pyramidical heaps had been suddenly 
projected in every direction under the influence of the elec- 
tric fluid, during the same thunder storm. Marshal Vail- 
lant related that a few years ago, in the Bois de 
Vincennes, a soldier was knocked down bg.the same fluid, 
his shoes dragged off his feet, all the nails of the said 
shoes having been extracted, as in the case of M. Bec- 
querel's workman. 



Freaks of Lightning. 
During the storm of August 30th several houses in 
Palmer, Mass., were more or less damaged. A servant 
girl iu one house had a milk pan she was wiping taken 
out of her hand and thrown on the floor. In another 
the lightning visited the pantry, smashing crockery, bo- 
ring holes through the tea and coffeepots, and transferring 
the liquid coffee from its own receptacle to the tea-pot. 

The Telegraph Corps attached to the army at Chalons 
appears, from accounts we have seen, to have been a suc- 
cess. 

Experience, gathered from all quarters, and especially 
from America, has had the effect of producing, assisted 
by members of the Telegraph service, a most efficient 
branch of the army. 

A gentleman by the name of Lake has patented in 
England a system of Telegraphing, in which he uses an 
induction coil in connection with a polarized relay at each 
station, the inductive to and fro current being used 
instead of the battery current. This system seems to be 
identical with that of Elisha Gray, of Cleveland, Ohio. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION 



Nos. 



16 & 18 NEW STEEET, NEW YORK. 

[OVEB THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



< « » » 

MARRIED. 
Robikson — Stead. — At Niles, Michigan, Tuesday, September 
1st, by the Rev. Mr. Jot, Mr. S. L. Robinson, of the Western 
Union office, Chicago, to Miss Lizzie E. Stead, of Niles. 

Doubtless Robinson experienced much Joy when the change 
took place from his former lonely condition to one of double 
blessedness. 

Stead of a lonely welcome after his duty is done, he is re- 
ceived with bright smiles and cheerful greeting at his home. 



DIED. 

Griffith. — At Roxbury, Mass., August 8th, Florence 
Griffith, daughter of D. C. Roberts, aged three months. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S B GILDINGS, 

Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are: 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Gauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 
and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Eegulators, &c, &c. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and perbistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 

number of „ 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and - 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be— a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " " 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

gy Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 ctt., 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and trie west coast of South America, $a.l2 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinueb when the paid 
subscription expires. 

t&~ Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk— the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 16 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

IjSg- No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 
Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

4®-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Rliss, A. & P.. and M. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
John Lenhart, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, 
W. H. Young, B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 

A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, " " 
R. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 

B. Frank Ashley, Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 
J as. M. Warner, " " Aurora, N.Y. . 
K.McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 
J. A. Torrenoe, " " " 
C P. Hoag, " " Sau Francisco, Cal. 
M. Raphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher .must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 19, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, iV. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVEBY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



"SB- 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFIXE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eof a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 



Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
Bince; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DLVL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER" that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN" LINE SOUNDERS made. 



Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amouut of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool Job and. Commercial Printini. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



TELECRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successob to Hinds & "Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 
Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Calvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wlwlesak and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANCFACTCBEB OF 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 



OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP fflJTU PERCH! COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO., 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining at. 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AND OTHEB 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cu tta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in Oiit country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 



We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others Cable8 
interested, the best 

AIR IjINTE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 



N. B We are prepared to lay down and wabbant Submarine 



that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 113 LIBERTY STREET, 



Hew York. 



September 19, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



35 



REMOVAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. li DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegrapjj Instruments anir Supplies 



OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 

" C. F. Varley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 

' ' Gutta-Pereha covered "Wire and Cables, American 

" Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 
Wire. 

" of American Compound Telegraph "Wire Co. 
Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSOJY & CO., 

126 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Celegrapjj Utacjnnerg anb Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson &, Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

-Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollats, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the nest insured party 
deceased, anfl the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages "this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 

SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 

29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa, 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KXNDS OF 
MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

11 The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
Ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAY. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

TJTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of (he " Pony Sounder" Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AXD DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

jfcySwitches made to order. AH articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 7 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, N. «7«, 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and ftneb than brass, he now presen ts 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
, their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 



PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) T 19 50 

Small Box Belays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Belays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 76 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances maybe made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 
He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 

BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, Etc. 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

Account Books, Writing Papers, Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
every kind for Business, Professional, or Private use, in quanti- 
ties to suit. 

Manifolds fob Telegraphers and Reporters, Diaries and 
Dailt Journals. 

Photographic Albums, Gold Pens, Chessmen, Pocket Cutlery, 
Drawing Materials and Paper, Mourning Paper and Envelopes,' 
Portfolios, Cards, Writing Desks, Expense-Books, Time-Books, 
Inks and Fluids, Ink Trays, etc., etc. 

Copy your Letters. 

USE FRANCIS' IMPROVED MANIFOLD 
LETTER-WRITER, 

by which Letters and Copies are written at the same time. Copy 
ing ahdSeal Presses. Please call or send all your orders to 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 
Stationers, Printers and Book -Binders, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 



36 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 19, 1868. 



W. E. PACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AND DEALER IN ALL KINDS OP 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, -• 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects : „ 

Register No. l,.of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

" 2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" " Pony Size '.. 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIEE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wiie has already been pu,t up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, witit 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON k Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nos. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



L. C. SPRINGER, 

.< MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 
BRADLEY'S RELAYS, , 

and other desirable instruments of Eastern manufacture on hand 
and for sale. Repairing done promptly. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

BLASTING BY ELECTRICITY. 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 

FOR 

EXPLODING NITROGLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFME INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

38 South Fifth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY OP 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AND OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on hand. 
J8S*Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be si veil to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 18G8. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will couut as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
casus, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, " Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
"Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal varus. 

For twelve subscribers, "Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or "Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. • 

W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will presenL^aplendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity, " b^A. D<*La Kivfe, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of whs^Tis $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



SHAFFNER, T. P.— Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with G25 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentucky. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY,R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., Illustrated. London, 1867 5 25 

SABIN, ROBT.— The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the U. S. and Europe. 1 vol., 8vo. Mustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. London, 1867 C 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, by Dr. 

LARDNEB. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. B. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Illus- 
trations. London.1867 2 50 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged by the Professors of " Morse's Telegraph 
Institute." 1 vol. 12mo 125 

TURNBULL, L.— The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 50 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. Snow.) A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NO AD. H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol. , 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

DE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Elecjtricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 60 

NOAD, H. M .—Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol., 12mo. 400 Hlustrations. London, 1866 6 26 

FERGUSON, R. M .-Electricity. 1vol., 12mo.... 1 75 

BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

DU MONCEL.— (Lee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 60 

HICHTON E .—History of Electric Telegraph 1C0 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol. , 12mo 2 50 

US' A Neiv and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Works 
ready October 1, sent Free on Application, 

New York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 5. 



New York, Saturday, September 26, 1868. 



Whole No. 115. 



[Written for The Telegrapher.] 
EARLY TELECRAPHIC EXPERIENCES. 

Boston, August 29th, 1868. 
I HAVE sometimes thought the story of a certain tele- 
gram, which fell beneath my notice years ago, was good 
enough to tell, although not on a par with many of 
the really funny things that have at different times 
found place in the columns of The Telegrapher. 

Poets in all ages have loved to sing the charms of 
blushing, gushing, girlhood, ripening into womanhood. 
So far as I am informed, those of Telegraph studentship 
merging into operatorship remain unchronicled in verse 
or elsewhere. We were all " plugs" once ; we, 'who are 
now first class men and smart fellows, and who are 
making so much noise in the world. Doubtless, in the 
transition state between plugism and proficiency, we one 
and all developed merits peculiar to that condition. The 
time may come when these merits shall be defined and 
published abroad. Perhaps the near future contains 
some lofty genius whose eloquent pen — but, stay I 
these reflections are very foreign to the purpose, except 
in so far as they lead up to a certain inevitable acknowl* 
edgement. 

"When / was a student— to choose the least offensive 
term — I had in charge a country office, of which the lo- 
cality need not be specified. This was a long time ago, 
but I vividly remember that many matters among the 
a b c's of Telegraphy were then mysteries to me. I was 
wont to wonder why the stroke of the register should 
follow that of the relay -magnet ; and whenever renewing 
the local battery it was my custom, before disconnecting 
the wires, to mark them with an ingenious, although 
rather complicated system of labels, that I might know 
how to return them to the proper screw-cups. Recalling 
these things quite brings the old days back, and I am re- 
minded of an early experience in initiating an inquirer 
into the secrets of our craft. Mine was a railroad office, 
and it happened one day that a lady, having to wait for a 
train, could find no better way of killing time than to ask 
of me an explanation of the Morse system. Of course, 
I instantly invited her into the sanctum sanctorum be- 
hind the counter, and bowed her into the easiest chair. 
Of course, I at once commenced a compliance with her 
request, beginning at the very beginning, and going 
thoroughly over the ground to the very end. Consider- 
ing the youth and beauty of this lady, who would not 
have done the same ? And, of course, my efforts did me 
a vast deal of credit. Not long before I bad been waited 
on by a committee of girls from a neighboring Normal 
School, appointed by their fellows to arrange with me for 
a series of private lectures upon Telegraphy. The sub- 
ject, " Electricity," had been given them, and they felt 
incompetent, out of their own knowledge, to prepare the 
required themes. The lectures had come off accordingly, 
and for a week or more I had received daily classes, 
which, after protracted sessions, had gone on their way 
rejoicing, while I, myself— considering I had yet the rudi- 
ments to learn— had become quite an adept in expounding 
the wrokings of the wires. Leading off with a general 
sketch of the history of the Telegraph, I followed with an I 



elucidation of the electro-magnetic principle, and con- 
cluded with a minute exposition of how that principle 
was applied — the whole illustrated wiih diagrams and 
experiments with the instruments. My auditor gave the 
strictest attention, speaking only at rare intervals, and 
then only to say that she quite followed my discourse. 
Her every look and gesture, from first to last, went to 
assure me that my labors were earning a rich reward. I 
was somewhat nonplussed, therefore, when on rising to 
leave, she laid her hand on the register'Strip and said: 

"I'm sure, sir, I am abundantly obliged to you for your 
goodness I Tour explanation has been extremely lucid — 
a child could comprehend it. Allow me to put two 
questions and I shall have become better versed in the 
operation of the mystic wires than I ever dared hope to 
be. Tell me before I go (and I'm sure I thank you 
heartily for your trouble and kindnessi, does this paper go 
to Boston ; and, if so, how does it get by the posts ?" 

The story first spoken of concerns a decent looking, 
middle-aged man, who called at my office one morning 
when I was cleaning the battery zincs, and who wished 

to notify his brother in P that another brother lay 

at the point of death at home. His manner plainly in- 
vited me to write out a despatch at his dictation, but 
being too bewildered as to which wire went into which 
screw cup to act as a scribe, I evaded his eye, and fur- 
nished pens, ink and paper, over which, with a sigh of 
perplexity as profound as my own, he went at once to 
work. And such work I I almost repented not having 
spared to him a moment on seeing what labor he made of 
his task. Dickens has given us a good picture of the un- 
skilful penman in the person of Joe Gargery. My 
customer was much like Joseph in the management of 
the quill. He turned up his sleeves to begin with, and 
squared himself resolutely at the desk, throwing his left 
arm far around the paper, and hanging his head very 
much on one side. His eyes scowled sheepwise at the 
growing pothooks beneath them, and his tongue thrust 
out to its fullest extent, followed in its motions those of 
his cramped fingers. The hand that grasped the pen was 
a fist, and its clutch quite disregarded the presence of 
ink, as was made manifest by the deep stains that soon 
covered his fingers, or were communicated to his 
face, in the absent-minded pauses incident to his 
literary effort. Many a fresh pen did he try — 'many a 
fair sheet ruin and cast aside before suited in the result 
of his toiL And when he was suited, indeed, it was a 
pleasant thing to note the look of solid satisfaction — of 
exultation, even — show out upon his honest counten- 
ance, in spite of the tear-marks down his cheeks and his 
watery eyes, as he passed the scrawl over to me. 

"To Bill Blank, P — ~ ," 
that production ran, 

"Deer bill ; Ten to one Jim '11 die afore mornin'. 

Jo Blank." 

The truth of this last story, and also of the one about 
my intelligent woman guest, I am prepared to avouch ; 
as for that about the school-girls— •! give it a gooi deal 
of credence myself— but, whether I do so on proper 



grounds, or whether, from having told it so often, I 
have grown to believe in a gradually enlarged version, I 
will not undertake to say. Beta. 

An Electric Safety Lock. 
MM. Duve and Lemaire, two young mechanicians in 
Paris, have invented a new kind of safety lock. The 
key opens the lock without ringing the bells ; but if a 
false key be introduced, a " jemmy," or any piece of 
metal, the bells are set going as long as the piece is ap- 
plied. This is effected by the disposal of the several 
tumblers with regard to a small lever which completes 
the battery circuit when elevated. When all the tumb- 
lers are lifted simultaneously, as by the master-key, the 
lever is not raised and no alarm is given ; but if one, or 
two, or three be lifted, the alarm lever is raised and the 
ringing takes place. If the burglar, knowing the mech- 
anism of the lock, try to force the lock plate by any of 
the usual burglars' instruments, as soon as the metal is 
attempted to be wedged in the ringing commences. The 
safety lock can be applied to all dojrs or fastenings with- 
out distinction. The acting agent of alarm is a feeble 
current of electricity, produced by a small battery of 
two elements. The pile used is that of Leclanche (small 
model), with peroxide of manganese and a single liquid, 
which does not require touching for several months, and 
then even a little water is all that is necessary to replace 
that lost by evaporation. The master-key is protected by 
an insulating substance, so that when introduced it es- 
tablishes no contact, nor does it raise the alarm lever 
when the tumblers are lifted. Now, supposing a burglar 
to have a dozen or so isolated keys, he could introduce 
any one of them silently, but, on his attempting to turn 
it, the wards, not being those of the master-key, the 
alarm would be continuously given, and put an end to 
his experiments, so that he could not try one key after 
another. 

Can Travel like " Pizen." 

The electric Telegraph is bound to remain a mystery to 
the million, and the ludicrous conceptions of its modus 
operandi, which some of the most ignorant people have 
formed, are as mirth-provoking as anything out of Rabe- 
lais or Smollet. The last illustration of this that has 
fallen under our eyes is the following story from the 
Pittsburg Journal ; 

Not long since an old lady entered O'Reilly's offico in 
this city, and said she had a message to send to Wheel- 
ing. In a few minutes her note was deposited in a dumb 
Waiter, and ascended in a mysterious manner through the 
ceiling. 

" Is that going straight to Wheeling ?" inquired the old 
lady, with her eyes bent upon the ceiling. 

" Yes, ma'am," answered the clerk. 

" I never was there," continued she, "but it hardly 
seems possible that the town lies in that direction. When 
will I get an answer, Mr. Telegraph ?" 

" I can scarcely tell, ma'am ; it may be two or three 
hours." 



38 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 26, 1868. 



The old lady went away, and returned exactly in two 
hours. Just as she entered the door the dumh waiter 
came down through the ceiling. 

" There is your answer, ma'am," said the clerk. 

The old lady took the neat yellow envelope in her 
hands with a smile of mingled gratification and astonish- 
ment. 

" Now, that heats all" exclaimed she. " Bless my 

heart ! all the way from Wheeling, and the wafer still 

wet That's an awkward looking box — hut it can travel 

like pizen." 

> »♦> < 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are op'n to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

Xo notice wiU be taken of anonymous communications. 



Bradt Islakd, Neb., Sept. \2th, 1868. 

TO THE EDITOB OF THE TELEGBAPHEB. 

A few little incidents have transpired with us, that, 
although not strictly and exclusively pertaining to the 
advancement and science of Telegraphy is nevertheless 
associated with the life of the Telegraph fraternity out 
here, and I trust will be interesting to your readers. 

One accustomed to the Eastern States, those more 
particularly from densely populated districts, transferred 
to this country, will look out over these vast rolling 
plains and wonder sometimes if there is not a nice farm 
house just beyond the hill, that he could repair to for an 
evening's recreation after the labors of the day. "When I 
first came out here I could scarcely realize that so beau- 
tiful a country, so inviting, was so nearly exclusively 
inhabited by the savage Red Man : and often and often, 
in the quiet still evenings, while enjoying a solitary walk 
over the green sward, when the sun was sinking behind 
the western mountains, casting deep, dark shadows 
aslant over the plains, have I been suddenly startled 
from my reflections by hearing, in imagination, the tinkle, 
tinkle of old " crumpled horn's - ' bell, as her ladyship, 
with her companions, were being driven from the green 
pastures by the fair, rosy-cheeked milk-maid ; or, the 
"ma, ma,'' from the sheep fold, as it reaches over the 
meadows. As I look up I am awakened to reality and 
my now pleasant condition. 

There was a very large flock of grasshoppers over us 
here a week ago. They commenced to fly early in the 
morning — 7 o'clock — and continued until 3, P. M. 

I have read of these insects flying in such numbers as 
to darken the sun, but have never seen it — whether it is 
owing to my not having been in the country long enough 
or not, I can't say — but I do know that it would have 
required greater ingenuity to have put another between 
these as they flew than it would to dodge between 
rain-drops. As far. in every direction, as I could see. 
there was one living mass of these insects ; and as they 
passed between me and the sun, they resembled, for all 
the world, large snow flakes. They were all going east 
— to Iowa, I presume. None stopped here, except an 
occasional one, that became exhausted and tarried for 
refreshments. I secured a couple, and added to my 
collection of curiosities. 

All summer the Indians have been surprisingly quiet, 
and we don't anticipate any serious trouble with them 
this fall or winter now. Last April and May, during the 
Indian troubles, quite a stampede occurred among the 
operators of this line. Many holding good positions 
became suddenly interested in their scalps, and rushed 
east with them for preservation. The same feeling came 
very near carrying me off, but by some unaccountable 
means I was induced to remain, which I do not regret, 
and don't think I ever shall. There were a few persons 
killed by Indians last spring — but very few — and princi. 
pally persons disconnected with the road. Those of the 
road that were killed wandered further from the station, 
unarmed, than they should have done, and it was only 



instances of this nature that the Indians«iook any advan- 
tage of I hear there were no stations attacked directly, 
and, consequently, no operators had their hair lifted. 

We have been honored with a visit from Speaker 
Colfax and General Shermax within the last few days. 
The former was on a pleasure excursion to the mountains, 
and the General to look after old Spotted Tail, chief of 
the Sioux Indians. 

There has been another section of the U. P. R. R. 
accepted, beyond Benton. New offices are being opened 
daily — faster than operators can be supplied. 

The W. TJ. fine is not quite finished to Cheyenne yet, 
but we anticipate its completion shortly. 

A project is on foot in California to establish a Tele- 
graph line thence to China and Japan. It will be a land 
line through British Columbia to Alaska. A series of 
short ocean cables would connect the Aleutian peninsula 
with Kamschatka, which is only 500 miles from Japan, 
and from the latter country Shanghai is only distant a 
few hundred miles. This, in the event of its completion, 
will open other vast fields of labor for the Telegraph 
operator. M. J. Biggar. 

The Labor Question.— A Smart Night Manager.— The 
Creat Moguls in Council. 

Chicago, Sept. 22. 

To the Editor of the Telegbapheb. 

The exposition of the outrageous treatment of the ope- 
rators in the Western Union office here continues to stir, 
up much excitement, and cause some hard swearing among 
the great little men of the company. They are much 
exercised because they cannot fasten the authorship of 
the letters upon any of the employes in the office. My 
assurance that the author does not draw his rations from 
the great monopoly has set them on another track, and 
they think they have made a bliss-i\A discovery. Per- 
haps they have — and then, again, perhaps they haven't. 
The most singular thing about it is that they don't apply 
to the editor of The Telegrapher, who could, doubtless, 
give them the information they are so anxious to obtain. 

During Mr. Ortox's recent visit here to look after that 
little difficulty with the Pacific and Atlantic Company, a 
consultation was held on the subject, at which President 
Ortox, General Superintendent Stager and District 
Superintendent Wixsox were present, but they were un- 
able to arrive at any definite conclusion. Mr. Ortox 
seemed to be quite anxious to ascertain the authorship 
of the letters, probably to reward the individual by an 
increase of salary. 

The force in this office has not yet been materially in- 
creased, and the operators are still required to labor as 
before, for less wages than are paid to even second rate 
mechanics. The statement in the last Telegrapher of 
the fact that in New York, and offices east of New York, 
extra compensation is paid for extra services, has not in- 
creased the good feeling of the operators here. Such 
partiality is regarded as most manifest injustice. Let but 
an opportunity offer for a change of base, and vacancies 
will be plentiful in the Chicago office. 

The night manager has recently been endeavoring to 
get a card signed by some of the night operators, denying 
the statements, or a portion of them, made in this corre- 
spondence. You need not be surprised if you receive 
such a document with a few signatures. If you do, you 
will know by what influence it has been obtained, and 
what value should be attached to it. If any sign it, it 
will be to curry favor with the higher powers. 

The Telegraphers here are much pleased at your recent 
telling comments on the so-called Journal of the Telegraph. 
A few of them were induced to subscribe for it, under the 
impression that such subscription would tend to render 
their positions more secure. With all the pressure that 
could be brought to bear, with the General and Division 
Superintendents personally exerting themselves to secure 
subscriptions, its circulation never exceeded the propor- 
tion of one to ten of The Telegrapher, and most of those 
who did subscribe have either left the office or manifest 



no interest in reading that production of genius. If its 
feeble light should incontinently expire, and the paper be 
consigned to eternal oblivion, the event would not dis- 
tress the Chicago Operators. 

Marriage of an Old Friend. 

Provtdexce, Sept. 22, 1868. 
To the Editor of Ths Telegrapher. 

Ik a recent number of The Telegrapher the marriage 
of Albert Ltox Suesman, of this city, and Miss Ade- 
laide MiRiA Hutchixsox, of Fall River, Mass., was an- 
nounced. Mr. Suesmax is an old friend. We have 
grown up together from boyhood to manhood. Like an 
oak and elm growing from one trunk we have grown — 
albeit, we have branched out differently, and our foliage 
is of a different character. At the trunk, or, more prop- 
erly, at heart, we are identical. 

Of the bride it may be truly said, 

" Xone knew her but to love her, 
Xone named her but to praise." 

Whilom we heaved a sigh because we were to be sup- 
planted in the place which we had occupied in his affec- 
tion, but upon becoming acquainted with our beautiful 
successor, we cheerfully resigned in favor of her whom, 
we are satisfied, can fill it as man could never do. 

Seldom have we seen a couple more auspiciously 
launched on their matrimonial voyage. May their lives 
be as a summer morning, their sky one broad expaiise of 
happiness, dotted by never a cloud of sorrow. But 
should dark clouds overshadow their happy horizon, may 
heaven grant them fortitude and strength to resist their 
baleful influence, and to await the unveiling of the silvery 
lining, which, though sometimes long deferred, comes as 
surely as the bright morning comes after the long and 
dreary night. P. 

Inconsistency. - 

Laramie, W. T., Sept. Uth. 

The following has been clipped from The Telegrapher 
of August 15, 1868 : 

'• Mr. Lexxert, who left Indianapolis a fewweeks since 
for the west end of the Union Pacific R. R.. has returned 
home. He says a short residence in that country is 
enough to satisfy him. The U. P. R. R pay operators 
5-75 per month only, while the Western Union Co. are 
paying double that in their repeating offices in that sec- 
tion.'' 

Mr. Lexxert resigned his position on this road on ac- 
count of his hearing. The annexed letter was received 
at Laramie, and is given for the benefit of all : 

'• Bridgeport Station, Aug. 13, 1868. 

Please accept many thanks for the kindness shown me 
while at Laramie. My hearing is no better, and I fear I 
will have to leave the business entirely. I left Mr. H. at 
Omaha, getting along finely. This is a little country 
town, and, as I despise loafing, I have taken this office 
for a few day3 to let my friend here go home on a visit. 
If you get any letters for me, please give them to 
Doc. Again I thank you, and may success attend you. 
73, and to boys also, 73. Yours, 4c, Lexxert." 

The gentleman who accompanied Mr. L. to this country 
is now chief operator of a Division, at a good salary- 
Promotion rapid for those who work with a will. 

Employe. 

A Fleet Telegrapher. 

Foxda, N. Y., Sept 17, 1868. 

TO THE EDITOB OF THE TELEGRAPHER. 

Ax exciting foot race was run this morning between 
Mr. Charles L. Rogers, operator on the N. Y. C. Rail- 
road Telegraph, and Mr. Peter BArii. a professional 
The race was for $5 — one half mile. Rogers won it 
j by four feet, making the distance in one minute and forty- 
two seconds. A large crowd assembled as spectators, and 
considerable money changed hands. 

Hurrah for Telegraph Rogers. 

Foxda Office. 



September 26, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



39 



The Anti-Trunion Key. 

Du Poxt's Mills, Del., Sept. 15. 
To the Editor of the Telegbapheb. 

After an absence of some four months, and while post- 
ing myself up in electric matters generally, by reading 
over the back numbers of your excellent paper, I 
was not a little surprised to find an engraving and de- 
scription (both admirable), in the 27th of June number, 
of Mr. Bextox's Patent "Anti-Trunion Telegraph Key," 
an invaluable improvement on the old style, combining 
both durability and that most essential of all improve- 
ments, economy in manufacture, and consequent cheapen- 
ing of the 'article under consideration — conforming in 
almost every particular with the model I had made last 
fall, and had deferred acting upon owing to pressing en- 
gagements at the time. The " feather," however, is origi- 
nal with Mr. B. ; my circuit closer consisting of a small 
slide and knob attached to the upper side of the key-bar, 
allowing a forward and backward motion, and which I can 
hardly think is inferior to the " feather," as every careful 
operator will always see that his key is closed before 
leaving his table. I do not wish to detract anything 
from the praise due Mr. B.'s inventive genius, but on the 
contrary am always glad to see operators taking a prac- 
tical interest in the working of their instruments, and 
especially in the subject under notice — nor from his right 
of precedence, as I have no one to blame but myself for 
not having pushed it through at the time, but merely to 
show that Mr. B. is not the first inventor of this peculiar 
key. Although I am left out in the cold, I can still wrap 
myself up in the blanket of consolation, knowing that 
our profession are gainers, whoever the inventor. I wish 
Mr. Bextox all joy of his improvement, and hope the 
same will prove abundantly remunerative to him-. 

Thomas H. Williamsox. 



Mr. H. Beowx, of Manchester, N. H., has accepted 
the position at Sterling Junction (Mass.) office vacated 
by Mr. Bathrick. 

Mr. E. S. Morse, formerly of Lake City "Western Union 
office, is now operator on the International Ocean Tele- 
graph Company's Line at St. Augustine, Florida. 

Mr. "Wm. Log.ax, of Griffin, Ga., has taken charge of 
the "W. TJ. office at Forsyth, Ga., in place of Mr. Philips, 
transferred to Rome, Ga. 

Mr. J. H. Presley has been promoted to the manager- 
ship of the Atlanta (Ga.) office, in place of Mr. Gregg, 
resigned. 

Mr. J. C. Gregg has resigned his position as manager 
of the Atlanta (Ga.) office and taken a position as opera- 
tor upon Gen. Meade's staff. 



TELEGRAPH. 

Lower Rates Increase 



Omaha, Sept. 8ih. 

TO THE EDITOK OF THE TELEGBAPHEB. 

I desire to correct a statement made in your paper 
some time since, in regard to the promotion of R. C. 
Healy_ Tour statement read as follows — " J. F. Kxapp, 
train dispatcher on the TJ. P. R. R., has been relieved, and 
an operator by the name of Healy appointed to take his 
place temporarily." Mr. Healy was permanently ap- 
pointed train dispatcher on this division, and has given 
the best of satisfaction, according to the General Super- 
intendent of the road. Tou will oblige a number of Mr. 
Healy's friends by making a correction. 

A Friexd of Healy. 



prob- 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Brlax Boru. — Your favor shall appear soon 
ably next week. Hope to hear from you again. 

We would remind our friends that, owing to the limited 
space at our command, and the number who desire to be 
heard through The Telegrapher, brevity and condensa- 
tion are very desirable and essential. 

> < •> < 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. F. H. "Whittlesey, of the Franklin Telegraph 
office, Hartford, Conn., wants the present address of Mr. 
C. "W. Jaques. 

Mr. M. Powers, formerly of the New York office, has 
accepted a position in the "Western Union 
office. 

Mr. Hiram Thompsox, operator, Franklin office, Nor- 
wich, Conn., has returned from a summer vacation, look- 
ing well. 

Mr. Geo. Brigham, from Franklin office, New York, 
las been subbing at the Norwich (Conn.) office of that 
iompany. 

Mr. L. E. Bathrick, formerly of Sterling Junction, 
tfass., "W. U. office, has accepted a position as operator 
n the "W. U. office At Fitchburg, Mass. 

Mr. Thel Philips, late of Forsyth office, has relieved 
tfr. Presley at Rome, Ga. 



Chicago 



The Atlantic Telegraph Cable. 
Profits. 
[From the London Post, Sept. 8.] 
The general meeting of the Anglo-American Telegraph 
Company was held yesterday at the London Tavern. 

Sir Richard A. Glass presided, and, after the Secre- 
tary had read the notice convening the meeting and the 
minutes of business transacted at the last general meet- 
ing, stated that the proportion of the earnings from the 
cable from the 1st of May to the 31st of July had aver- 
aged £496 10s. per day due to this company; the mini- 
mum tariff during that period being £5. Since the 1st of 
September the tariff for ten words, not exceeding fifty 
letters, had, with the consent of the New York, New- 
foundland and London Telegraph Company, been reduced 
to £3, and the result had been most satisfactory. The 
receipts for the first five days were £511, £545, £526, 
£534 and £517, against the average of £496 lQe. under 
the previous charge. He believed that as the reduction 
became known to the public the receipts would be in- 
creased. It was not intended to further reduce the pres-. 
ent tariff. As regarded the late accident to the cable, 
which occurred on the 3d of August, it had occurred at 
the same spot as that of last year. They were at present 
unable to give any satisfactory account of the cause of 
the accident. Some stated that it was caused by an ice- 
berg, but instructions had been given to their en- 
gineer to ascertain the cause, with a view, if possible, of 
preventing a recurrence of such casualties. Others at- 
tributed the accident to an anchor, but he (the chairman) 
could not understand how an anchor could be floating at 
a depth of from eighty to one hundred fathoms. It 
would be satisfactory to the proprietors to know that, in 
consequence of the accident, ihe expense of repairing 
which would be trivial, it had been deemed prudent to 
keep a steamship at Heart's Content or Newfoundland 
station, to be at all times in readiness to repair any dam- 
age without delay, and thus mitigate the loss the company 
would sustain by not transmitting messages. The neces- 
sity of keeping the steamer in readiness for the purpose 
was appreciated by the Atlantic Company, the directors 
having consented to contribute to the expense. "With 
these remarks he moved the adoption of the report au- 
thorizing the payment of a divideud of 10s. per share, free 
of income tax, for the three months ending July 31. 
Sir D. Gooch seconded the motion. 
A shareholder wished to know whether the Atlantic 
Company would pay half of the expense of keeping the 
steamer at Newfoundland. 

The Chairman explained that the Atlantic Company 
and the Anglo-American Company were, out of their 
paoportion of the receipts, compelled to contribute to 
the extent of £12,500 a year to provide for accidents; 
but beyond that amount any extraordinary demands upon 
the receipts were to be paid out of the gross revenue of 
the cables. 

The motion was then put before the meeting and 
carried. 

Mr. Pickersgill Coxliffe proposed the re-election of 
the retiring directors, and the auditors having been re- 



elected, the meeting separated with the usual vote of 
thanks to Sir R. A. Glass, the Chairman. 

The Franco-American Cable. 
The Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company 
are now engaged in the manufacture of the cable for the 
Franco- American Company. The Great Eastern has been 
chartered for the work of laying the cable, experience 
having demonstrated her peculiar excellence for this busi- 
ness, and is now being fitted up for that purpose. She 
will be, as before, under the command of Sir James Ax- 
dersox. 

Additional Facilities. 
The "Western Union Company have recently erected a 
new line along the route of the Troy & Greenfield R. R., 
from Greenfield to the east end of the Hoosac Tunnel, 
with stations at Shelburne Falls, Charlemont and the 
Tunnel. The line will be extended over the mountain to 
North Adams, which will give the latter place direct com- 
munication with Boston via Greenfield and Fitchburg. 
This will also form a new through route for a line»between 
Boston and Troy. 

An Excellent Combination. 

We understand that Mr. Jesse Bcxxell, after numer- 
ous experiments with Brownsox's self-adjusting relay, is 
about to apply it to his repeater, which was described on 
page 193 of our last volume. 

An illustrated description of Browxsox's relay was also 
published on page 65 of the same volume, 



New Office. 

The "Western Union Company have established an 

office for public business at the book store of Appletox * 

Co., corner of Grand and Greene Streets, in this city. 
» «♦> < 

FOREICN NOTES. 
It is stated that the directors of the Anglo-American 
Company contemplate the offering a reward of £1,000 for 
any information bearing on the rupture of the cable last 
year, or on the present occasion. This hardly agrees with 
the generally accepted version that the fault was occa- 
sioned by an iceberg. 

The engineer's report of the Electric and International 
Company states that numerous trials have been made 
with Wheatstoxe's Automatic Telegraphic Apparatus, 
between London and Newcastle, and, owing to the great 
success attending upon them, additional instruments 
upon the same plan have been brought into use between 
London, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh. 

The Electric and International Telegraph Company's 
system embraces 10,085 miles of line, 50,067 miles of 
wire, and 7,655 instruments. 

The cable from Sicily to Algeria has been repaired. 

During the autumn of 1859 Mr. Harley succeeded in 
measuring the strength of auroral currents upon the line 
between London and Ipswich, and was obliged to intro- 
duce an opposing battery of 140 Daxiell's cells to 
balance the current, showing, therefore, in the earth at 
Ipswich, compared with the earth in London, a difference 
of electric tenison amounting to 140 cells Daxiell's 

battery. 

~^~^ — ..*» 

Another Suicide. 
Mr. H. A. Allex, a Telegraph operator in the Mobile 
office, committed suicide on the first instant. No cause 
is assigned for the act. — Xew Orleaiie Times, Sept. 12th. 

A Bull. 

A "Western correspondent sends us the following : 

About two weeks ago a message was sent to St. Louis, 
saying : 

" Dora will wait. Come without fail." 

"When it had been manipulated, and was ready for de- 
livery at St. Louis, it read : 

" Dora will wait. Come with our pail." 



40 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 26, 1868. 




• SATURDAY, SEPT. 26, 1868. 

NOTICE. 

An adjourned meeting of the New York District of 
the National Telegraphic Union will be held on "Wed- 
nesday evening, Sept. 30, at 8 o'clock, at the Western 
Hotel, in Cortlandt Street. The report of the delega- 
tion to the Annual Convention will be made, and other 
business of great importance, arising out of the changes 
made in Uae Constitution of the Union by the Conven- 
tion, will come before this meeting. Per order. 

M. K. Thompson, Sec'y. 

THE DUTY OF TELECRAPH EMPLOYES. 

We desire to make a few suggestions relative to the 
duty of Telegraph employes, in connection with the re- 
organization of the National Telegraphic Union in- 
augurated at the Albany Convention. 

That Convention, we have no hesitation in saying, was 
preeminently a practical and unselfish body. Its mem- 
bers came together with the determination to act as 
should seem most essential to the welfare of the Union 
and the profession. No member was disposed to insist 
upon the adoption of his individual ideas and personal 
preferences, except in so far as, upon a free and full con- 
sultation and comparison of views, they should be deemed 
practicable, advisable, and for the greater good of the 
honorable and useful profession they represent. 

In our last issue we set forth, at considerable length, 
the changes which had been made in the organization. 
These changes were such aa seemed to be demanded by 
the profession, and calculated to make the Union a de- 
mocratic and effective organization of the practical Tele- 
graphers of the country. Some additional measures 
were suggested and discussed, but it was deemed ad- 
visable to postpone further action until under the reor- 
ganization the fraternity should be more generally com- 
prised in the association and represented in its counsels. 

It now rests with the Telegraphers of the country to 
make their action vital and effective. They have it in 
their power now to make the Union a power to be felt 
wherever Telegraphers are employed. It is their duty 
to do this. It is their duty at once to connect them- 
selves with the only association of practical Telegraph- 
ers, certainly in this country, and we believe in the 
world. It is no less their interest than their duty so to 
do. Failing to second these efforts to raise them from 
their present dependent condition they should hereafter 
utter no complaints whatever may be their fate. The 
means' of organization and concentration of influence are 
presented to them. We appeal to every Telegraph em- 
ploye to lay aside all petty jealousies and distrust, and 
join in this effort to make the profession honored and 
respected. 

Under the reorganization the Union becomes more 
than ever a democratic institution. It will welcome into 
its ranks every respectable Telegrapher. The dues have 
been lightened, so that Telegraphers can no longer ex- 
cuse themselves on the ground of pecuniary inability to 
maintain membership. Unless districts choose to tax 
themselves for mutual support in time of sickness and 
trouble, the amount of district and Union dues will be 
inconsiderable. We would strongly advise every dis- 
trict to institute a relief system for itself in place of that 



formerly administered by the Union. They will find 
such a system an additional and very strong inducement 
to Telegraphers to join them ; but it is a matter for each 
district to decide for itself. The districts can mike the 
relief system much more prompt, thorough and effective, 
than it was under the previous arrangement, and if tfte 
Telegraphers generally come into the organization, as it 
is hoped and expected they will, the tax on individual 
members need not be onerous. 

We trust that every district which has thus far main- 
tained itself will speedily meet and conform its organiza- 
tion' to the revised Constitution, and that wherever dis- 
tricts have not heretofore been organized, or have lapsed 
by default, measures will at once be taken to organize 
new districts. It is of paramount importance that the 
Union and The Telegrapher should be maintained. 
This Beems to us so evident a proposition that it appears 
almost a work of supererogation to argue in its support. 
With a vigorous Union and a liberally supported organ, 
the Telegraphers are in a comparatively independent 
position. Without these they are weak and powerless, 
and must submit to any exactions which their employers 
may see fit to make. We cannot therefore believe tha* 
they can be so blind to their own interests as, by their 
indifference and neglect, to allow themselves to be over- 
slaughed, and discourage those who seek to elevate and 
improve their standing and condition. 

We do not ask for the profession anything that is un- 
reasonable, or contrary to the best interests of their em- 
ployers. On the contrary, we desire to see established 
the utmost cordiality and oneness of interest and feeling 
between employers and employes. We believe that the 
interests of employers require the maintenance of the 
Union. We know that the interests of the employes 
imperatively require this. Knowing and believing thus, 
we shall labor with all the zeal and ability that we may 
have to maintain and extend the organization. 

We would also call the attention of the fraternity to 
the importance of availing themselves of the advantages 
of the Insurance Bureau. Every Telegrapher, whether 
a member of the Union or not, should at pnce send in 
his application for enrolment as a contributor to the In- 
surance Fund. The Bureau should speedily number its 
contributors by hundreds and thousands, and with proper 
appreciation and exertion may do so. 

And last, but by no means least, we urge upon every 
Telegraph employe the great importance of extending to 
their organ and advocate a liberal support. The Tele- 
grapher is not intended to be a money-making concern. 
With a more liberal support we can furnish a better and 
more satisfactory paper to its patrons. It is now self- 
supporting, and its subscribers are steadily increasing in 
number. We desire and believe it essential to the best 
interests of all dependent upon Telegraphy for support, 
that its present prosperity shall not only be continued 
but largely increased. We therefore ask every Tele- 
graph employe not only to send in his own subscription, 
but to use his influence with his friends and all whom 
he can reach to secure their support also. 

On our part no possible exertion and industry shall be 
wanting to render the paper not merely equal to what 
it has been heretofore, but to steadily improve it, and 
render it still more creditable to the profession whose 
organ and representative it is. 

.-♦♦-. 

To the Members of the New York District. 

We hope that every member of the New York District 
of the National Telegraphic Union, who can possibly 
do so, will be present at the meeting at the Western 
Hotel, in Cortlandt St., next Wednesday evening. Matters 
of the utmost importance will come before this meeting. 
The delegate to the Albany Convention will make his re- 
port, and it will be necessary for the District to take some 
action in reference to re -organization, and changes 
consequent upon the revision of the Constitution of the 
Union made by that Convention. It is desirable in these 
matters that every member should personally aid and, 



participate, and that measures should be taken to secure 
to this District the leading position which, from the 
number of Telegraphers employed in this city, it should 
take in the Union. 

Instead of being weak, and comprising but compara- 
tively a small proportion of the Telegraphers, it should 
embrace every respectable member of the profession in 
this city. This can be accomplished if we go to work 
systematically and energetically, and we hope to see the 
necessary measures for this purpose inaugurated on Wed- 
nesday evening. 

v~«*v-« 

COURTESY. 

In The Telegrapher for September 5th we alluded to 
the discourtesy manifested towards us in regard to the 
publication of an advertisement in the official journal of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company. 

Always desirous to do full justice, even to au adver- 
sary, we reprint the following from the last number of 
that paper, in order that our readers, but few of whom 
would otherwise know of it, may know what Mr. Reid 

has to say in reply : 

COURTESY. 

Under this caption the editor of this paper is accused af dis- 
courtesy to a contemporary. We certainly never received any- 
thing from the source of the accusation, under its present editor- 
ship, to elicit any peculiar respect. We have been rarely men- 
tioned by it except in ridicule, aud the paper we edit never but 
in terms of contempt. This is true of the very issue in which 
•' Courtesy" is a caption. It is the last caption which should 
ever appear under such a guidance 

The advertisement (non-publication of which is complained of) 
was handed to a lad in the office in our absence, who advised us 
by telegraph of the fact. It was ordered printed, and placed in 
the editorial page, although the paper was made up. On learning, 
subsequently, however, that it would occupy a column. We had 
to order its publication omitted. 

On our return the lad who received it knew nothing of any de- 
sire to have the advertisement appear in a later number, and its 
nature suggested otherwise. We received no note or request of 
any kind respecting it, and when the day for publication came 
it was omitted, although all ready for use. This is the extent of 
our sinning, which we only state for those who may be surprised 
at the accusation. 

In the first place we must express our-surprise at the 
extraordinary statements of Mr. Beid in regard to the 
treatment he has received from The Telegrapher under 
its present " guidance." Until the contemptuous rejec- 
tion of the advertisement referred, to we bav« never 
" ridiculed" his paper in our columns or mentioned it in 
" terms of contempt," unless he considers our speaking 
of it as the official organ of the Western Union Company 
ridicule and contempt. Our personal relations with, and 
feelings towards Mr. Reid, have been entirely friendly, 
and we have always heretofore carefully excluded from 
The Telegrapher everything which we thought likel 
to injure his feelings. 

It is most extraordinary that so little care should be 
taken of business letters to the editor of the Journal, and 
that they should be treated by his subordinates with so 
little respect. Not only did we leave the note for Mr. 
Reid, addressed to him personally, but Mr. Harrison, 
who occupies the same office, will doubtless recollect our 
calling a second time upon its non-appearance, and his 
positive assurance that it would certainly appear in the 
next paper. 

We have perhaps wasted more room upon this matter 
than it deserves, but would say, in conclusion, that we 
freely concede to Mr. Reid the right to refuse an adver- 
tisement, but we do claim that we were entitled to be 
treated with ordinary business courtesy in the matter. 
We wish it to be understood, also, that in styling his 
paper " Our Grandmother's Journal," we intended noth- 
ing personal to him, but consider the title appropriate, in 
view of the generally feeble and shaky character of the 

official organ. 

. « »» 

The Telegrapher Supplement. 

By order of the Albany Convention a Supplement to 
The Telegrapher, containing the proceedings of the 
Convention, Address to the Fraternity, and the revised 
Constitution, has been printed for general circulation. 
We hope that our friends into whose hands this Supple- 
ment may come will give it an extensive circulation, as 
it is desired, if possible, to bring it to the notice of every 
Telegrapher in this country and the British Provinces. 



September 26, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



41 



Packard's Monthly. 
The October number of Packard's Monthly is out. Mr. 
Packard has shown much tact and enterprise in the 
management ofhis magazine, and we are pleased to learn 
that it bids fair to be a pecuniary as well as a literary- 
success. The current number is a very interesting and 
creditable one, and a decided improvement upon its pre- 
decessors. The Monthly has steadily improved from the 
issue of the first number, and includes among its contri- 
butors a number of distinguished and' able magazine 
writers. Mr. Packard fully deserves the success which 
he is so rapidly achieving. 

«-*-*-« 

Lewis' Telegraphic Manual. 
We would call attention to the advertisement in an- 
other column of Lewis' Telegraphic Manual. It gives 
much information of value to new beginners in the Tele- 
graphic art. Many of these little works have already 
been sold, and but a limited number remain to be disposed 
of, so that an early application would be desirable. 

New Patents. 

81,871. — Printing Telegraph Instrument. — R. K. Boyle (as- 
signor to himself and Giuseppe Tagliabue), New York city. 

I claim, 1st, Arranging a pair of electro-magnets on each side 
of two hors -shoe magnets, which are fastened to an oscillating 
shaft, substantially as herein shown and described, so that one 
pole of each horse-shoe shall be attracted by but one electro- 
magnet, for the purpose specified. 

2d. The applic ition of the adjustable springs, d d\ to the sta- 
tionary part of the apparatus, said springs aiding to repel the 
horse-shoe magnet, and to adjust the same in the centre of 
forces, substantially as herein shown and described. 

3d. The insulated sleeve, f, attached to the horse-shoe magnet, 
in combination with the slotted pillar, g, and with the wires of 
the local magnet, all made and operating so that when the oscil- 
lations of the horse-shoe magnet will cease, the connection of the 
wire of the local magnet will be completed, substantially as and 
for the purpose herein shown and described. 

4th. Connecting the local magnet, F, by means of an escape- 
ment lever, j, with the friction wheel, H, substantially as and for 
the purpose herein shown and described. 

6th. The lever, 1, when connected with the sleeve, m, in com- 
bination with the friction whee 1 , H, and spring, p, all made and 
operating substantially as herein shown and described. 

6th. The device, herein shown and described, for locking the 
bar, n, into the toothed disk, L, by the action of the horse-shoe, 
and subsequently of the local magnet, said device consistin g of 
the sleeve, m, lever, I, spring, p, and friction wheel, H, the latter 
having upright pins, 1, and all made and operating substantially 
as and for the purpose herein shown and described. 

7th. Connecting the friction wheel, H, with the escapement 
levers, j and M, all made and operatiug substantially as and for 
the purpose herein shown and described. 

8th . Connecting the sleeve, in, which is operated by the action, 
of the local magnet, F, with the sleeve, t, which is moved by the 
action of the horse-shoe magnets E E'. substantially as herein 
shown and described. 

9th. The device herein shown and described for winding up 
the hair-spring, x, by which the sleeve, t, is turned, said device 
consisting of the cam, u, arm, w, forked bar, v, arm, c', ratchet 
wheel, y, and block or pin, b', all made and operating substan- 
tially as herein shown and described. 

10th. Combining the horse-shoe maget and the local magnet 
in such a manner with the type-wheel shaft that, by the action 
of the horse-shoe magnet, it receives the required motion, while, 
by the action of the local magnet, it is instantaneously stopped 
in the desired position, substantially as shown and described. 

11th. The arm, N, when secured to and projecting from the 
Bhaft, J, in combination with the arm, n, which projects from 
the revolving and sliding sleeve, m, and which, by being locked 
into the stationary disk, L, also locks the shaft, J, substantially 
as and for the purpose herein shown and described, 

12th. The type-wheel, O, when provided with a pin, h\ in 
combination with the turning cam, P, sleeve, i', on shaft, R, pin, 
j', on sleeve, 1', arm, T, and spring, m', all made as described, 
and operating in combination with each other, substantially in 
the manner set forth. 

13th. The sliding sleeve, i', which is moved when the type- 
wheel shaft is stopped, and which is combined with the pin, S, 
having the arms.M T and U.and operating the printing cushion, V, 
substantially as and for the purpose herein shown and described. 

14th. The feed-rollers, p' p', when receiving motion from the 
friction whjeel, H, and when combined with the support, 1 U, and 
with the printing cushion, V, all made and operating substan- 
tially as and for the purpose herein shown and described. 

15th. The printing cushion, V, when pivoted to an upright 
pin, and when operated by a spring, o', which is secured to one 
of the arms of the pin, S, substantially as herein shown and de- 
scribed, so that it will be forced with sufficient power against the 
edge of the tyjje- wheel, and will still be yielding, as set forth. 



«■»»■ > •■ 



Recent English Patents. 

M. Gray and L. Gibson, Silvertown — Covering electric con- 
ductors. 

F. H. Holmes, Gravesend. — Electro-magnetic machines. 

W. Brookes, Chancery Lane. — Electro-magnetic railway 
breaks. 

T. J. Mayall, Chancery Lane.— Electric telegraph cables. 

J. S. Gisborne, London. — Improvements in electric telegraph. 

L. M. Becker, London. — Improvements in the arrangement 
of electric telegraph, and in laying and supporting telegraph 
wires. 

W. Perkins and G. G. Tandy, London. — New preparation for 
insulating eleciric conductors. 

W. E. Gedge, London.— A new chemical product, applicable to 
the electrical pile. 

E. E. Brooman, London.— Improvements in the application of 
electricity to clocks. 

J. S. Clarke, London.— Differential galvanometers. 

W. E. Newton, London. — Telegraphic apparatus. 



MARRIED. 

Bloomer — Atwill. — At the residence of the bride's parents, 
San Francisco, Cal., by Rev. Dr. Cox, Mr. J. G. Bloomer, of 
Virginia City, Nevada, to Augusta, youngest daughter of Mr. 
Jas. S. Atwill. 

Hinchman— Orvis.— At Manchester, Vermont, Tuesday, Sept. 
15th, at the Equinox House, by Right Rev. W. H. A. Bissell, 
Bishop of Vermont, Mr. J. C. Hinchman, of New York, Superin- 
tendent of the Western Union Metropolitan District, to Miss 
Caroline M. Orvis, of the former place. 

Newell — Powlis. — At the residence of the bride's mother, 
No. 165 St. Charles Street, New Orleans, by the Rev. J. C. Car- 
penter, Mr. James Newell to Miss Laura Powlis. 

OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE:! 

Parties having OLD TELEGRAPH WIRE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 

L. Q. TILLOTSON, & Co., 
Box 1714. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

THE TELEGRAPHIC MANUAL, 

BY 

W. 0. LEWIS, 

PRACTICAL ELECTRICIAN AND TELEGRAPH 
SUPERINTENDENT. 

A few copies of this Elementary Treatise on the Art of Tele- 
graphy may be obtained, if immediate application is made. It 
should be in the hands of every person who is engaged in learn- 
ing Practical Telegraphy, and will be found very useful, even to 
those more advanced. 

Price — Single Copy 25 cents. 

Five Copies to one address, $1.00. 

Orders must be addressed to Box 2692, P. O., New York; and, 
to receive attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 

EDMANDS & HAM B LET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 

Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER] ST., Boston, 

. (Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best "Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Gauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 
and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVEB THE GOLD EXCHANGE,] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Regulators, &c, &c. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegbapheb will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegbaphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegbapheb will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all mai ters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegbapheb what it purports to be — a joubnal 
of electrical pbogbess, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TEBMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

J6fig=- Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts., 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Papeb will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscbiption expibes. 

J3T" Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 *' 

JS" No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc« 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

43TThe following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Tbavelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P., and M. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
John Lenhabt, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
L. H. Kobty, " " " 

W. H. Young, B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 

A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, " 

R. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 

B. Frank Ashley, Stamlard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 

Jas. M. Wabneb, " " Aurora, N. Y. 

K.McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo.. 

J. A. Tobbence, '* " " " 

C. P. Hoag, " " San Francisco, Cal. 
M. Raphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegbapheb ,must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



42 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 26, 1868. 



CHAELES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, N. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVEBY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



<m> 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATEXT PARAFFIXE IXSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eof a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DL\L TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 



Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool, Job ni Commercial Printim. 



TELECRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successob to Hums 4 Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 
Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURES of 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURG, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



BISHOP GITT1 PERU COMPM, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO, 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining &u 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully Inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AND OTHEE 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in thu country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 



We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now N B .-We are prepared to lay dow* and wabbam Submarine 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others ' Cablea 
interested, the best 



-A_ I I=L LjIKTB 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 118 LIBERTY STREET, 



HlW YOKK. 



September 26, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



43 



BEMOYAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



ftrtlegrapjj Instalments art* Supplies 



OP EVERT DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, 4c. " "-"3 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 

Material. 
Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 
Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 

Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. F. Varley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered Wire and Cables, American 
"*" Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

Wira 
" of American Compound Telegraph "Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

126 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

ffdegrapjj Patjjmeti gift Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two doUais, one dollar of 
which snail be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVEKED WIEES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

T£HeotriOoil Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 

SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 
CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 
29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 
MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the seveeest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

11 The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by Using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAY. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

TJTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder" Register and Key, 

manufacturer and dealer in 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

a^-Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 1 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, N. J"., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and fines than brass, he now presen te 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 60 

SmallBox Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 76 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 60 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 
He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 

BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, Etc. 

FRANCIS &LOUTREL, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

Account Books, Writing Papers, Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
every kind for Business, Professional, or Private use, in quanti- 
ties to suit. 

Manifolds for Telegraphers and Reporters, Diaxies and 
Daily Jochnals. 

Photographic Albums, Gold Pens, Chessmen, Pocket Cutlery, 
Drawing Materials and Paper, Mourning Paper and Envelopes, 
Portfolios, Cards, Writing Desks, Expense-Books, Time-Books, 
Inks and Fluids, Ink Trays, etc., etc. 

Copy your Letters. 

USE FRANCIS* IMPROVED MANIFOLD 
LETTER-WRITER, 

by which Letters and Copies are written at the same time. Copy 
ing andSeal Presses. Please call or send all your orders to 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 
Stationers, Pi-inters and. Book-Bindersj 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 



44 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[September 26, 1868. 



W. E. PACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AND DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, * 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects : 

Register >"o. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adj ustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " •' " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" " Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 

A NEW A JT0MATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in w»ry respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used ' lii country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call Jhe attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, ivith 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TLLLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume in. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nos. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANTJTACTCREB OF AND DEALER IK 

TELEaRAFH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 
BRADLEY'S RELAYS, 

and other desirable instruments of Eastern manufacture on hand 
and for sale. Repairing done promptly. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

BLASTING BY ELECTRICITY. 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 



FOR 



EXPLODING NITROGLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAIL C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT NR1FFL! INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 



I are warranted to excel the 
£ usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO, 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

38 South Fifth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY, OF 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AND OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on band. 
IKS' Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country, 



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This offer will hold good until the first of December, 1868. 

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"WORKS ON 

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FOR SALE BY 



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SHAFFNER, T. P.-Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the^emaphoric, 
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Institute." 1 vol. 12mo 1 25 

TURNBULL, L.— The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 60 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. Snow.) A Treatise on Fric- 

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DE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 50 

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vol., 12mo. 400 Illustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

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BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

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Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

HICHTON E.— History of Electric Telegraph. 1C0 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12mo 2 50 

^jT" A New and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Works 
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New York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 6. 



New York, Saturday, October 3, 1868. 



Whole No. 116. 



[Written for The Telegrapher.] 
ON A STANDARD WIRE CAUCE. 

BY F. L. POPE. 

The want of uniformity in the system of wire gauges 
in general use at the present time, throughout this 
country and Europe, is well known, and has long been 
looked upon as a serious evil, not only in its relations 
to Telegraphy but in many other branches of busi- 
ness, in which the importance attaching to the 
adoption of some recognized standard is even greater 
than in our own profession. 

A paper read before the British Association at Dun- 
dee, about a year since, by Mr. Latimer Clark, con- 
tains a table giving the sizes, in decimal parts of an 
inch, of no less than thirteen different wire gauges 
collected from various sources, from which it appears 
that the difference in weight of wires of similar num- 
bers amounts to 10 and 15 and in some cases to as 
much as 90 per cent. But even if the different gauges 
were in accordance with the published tables of sizes, 
a serious objection to their use would still arise from 
the great irregularity of variation between the different 
numbers, as will be more fully shown hereafter. 

Little or nothing appears to be definitely known re- 
specting the origin of the common wire gauge, or the 
period of its introduction. The most probable suppo- 
sition is, that the original gauge was formed by taking 
as its basis the ordinary " bell wire" of commerce, 
which is one sixteenth of an inch in diameter, and is 
known as No. 16, and forming each consecutive size 
up to No. 1 by successive additions of 25 per cent, to 
the weight, which would be equivalent to successive 
increments of 11.8034 per cent, to the diameters. If 
these are plotted out to a scale as ordinates they will 
be found to form an irregular approximation to a log- 
arithmic curve, which may be extended at pleasure 



posed. As the specific conductivity of iron is less 
than one sixth that of copper, No. 9 was fixed 
upon as the size corresponding in conductivity with 
the copper wire before used, its sectional area being 
about five and a half times that of No. 16. Telegraphic 
constructors have continued fo this day to use this 
size of wire in preference to any other, although, as 
above shown, its adoption was of purely accidental 
origin ; and it is easily susceptible of demonstration 
that the use of a larger wire would immensely improve 
the working of the lines. If aDy variation has been 
attempted it has been in the wrong direction, by the 
use of still smaller sizes. 

At various times within the past few years, practi- 
cal men have called attention to the evils arising from 
the discrepancy and want 
of uniformity in the com- 
mon systems of wire 
gauges. Mr. Joseph Whit- 
worth, of England, pro- 
posed in 1857 the adoption 
of a gauge, in which the 
number of each size cor- 
responded to its diameter 
in thousandths of an inch. 
This was, however, too ra- 
dical a reform to meet with 
general favor, and the pro- 
posed system never came 
into practical use. The fol- 
lowing year Mr. James 



h 



I 

i 

h 

'■■ r 



I 




»- i- i- t~ 

w> *. u tc 



— — — — -j— — — m © © © © 

OC -a O -' *■ CCfcd HOCSO^OOlfUtdH © © © © © 



in either direction. Mr. Clark, who has devoted 
much attention to this subject, considers the table of 
diameters given by Holtzapfell, in his work on 
Turning, as perhaps the best authority on this subject, 
both on account of his well known mechanical accu- 
racy and the early date at which his measurements 
were made. 

Upon the first introduction of the Electric Telegraph 
in this country, the lines were constructed with No. 16 
copper wire as a conductor, this size being more easily 
obtainable in large quantities than any other. It was 
afterwards found advisable to substitute iron wire in 
place of the copper, which had been originally em- 
ployed, as the former metal did not possess sufficient 
tenacity to withstand the strain to which it was ex- 



Cocker, of Liverpool, proposed a new gauge, differing 
but little from those in ordinary use, but made more 
regular in its gradations. He also introduced the 
word " mil," to designate thousandths of an inch, which 
has been found very convenient in practice. 

In the course of the year 1857 Messrs. J. R. 
Brown & Sharpe,* of Providence, R. I., who have for 
many years been engaged in the manufacture of stand- 
ard rules and gauges, and whose workmanship has 
obtained a world-wide reputation for its accuracy, pre- 
pared a standard wire gauge with a new grade of sizes, 
at the request of the leading manufacturers and others, 
which has already been adopted to a considerable ex- 
tent in this country, and it is to be hoped will in time 

* Now Darling, Brown & Sharpe. 



become universal. It is now the recognized standard 
among the American brass manufacturers, and also of the 
Bishop Gutta-percha Company of New York, manufac- 
turers of insulated wire and submarine cables. 

In 1867 Mr. Latimer Clark proposed a gauge, in 
which, as in the American gauge, the sizes vary in a regu- 
lar geometrical progression, although the ratio of incre- 
ment is somewhat different. 

The annexed diagram shows the curves formed by 
plotting out the different gradations to a scale, in which 
the continuous line shows the common or Birmingham 
gauge, according to Holtzapfell, the light dotted line 
the American gauge of Darling, Brown k Sharpe, and 
the heavy dotted line the proposed gauge of Mr. Clark. 
At the recent meeting of the British Association at Nor- 
wich, England, this diagram was presented, and a sug- 



B 



oooo ■ 



coo- 



0000 



-000 



15 






New Standard. 


Old Standard. 


£ 

tr 

— *< 


o o 

w © ^ 
CO 


DO OS) 

P c o 
o-oa 

a 

*; a cs 

. » 

Pfcg. 


0*5. 
o ° a 

° c 5 

N 


& o 

. . « 

fifcS. 


0000 


.460 




.454 




000 


.40964 


.05036 


.425 


.029 


00 


.36480 


.04484 


.380 


.045 





.32495 


.03994 


.340 


.040 


1 


.28930 


.03556 


.300 


.040 


2 


.25763 


.03167 


.284 


.016 


3 


.22942 


.02821 


.259 


.025 


4 


.20431 


.02511 


.238 


.021 


.5 


.18194 


.02237 


.220 


.018 


6 


.16202 


.01992 


.203 


.017 


7 


.14428 


.01774 


.180 


.023 


R 


.12849 


.01579 


.165 


.015 


9 


.11443 


.01406 


.148 


.017 


10 


.10189 


.01254 


.134 


.014 


11 


09074 


.01105 


.120 


.014. 


12 


08081 


.00993 


.109 


.011 


13 


07196 


.00885 


.095 


.014 


14 


06408 


.00788 


.083 


.012 


15 


.05707 


.00702 


.072 


.011 


16 


.05082 


.00625 


.065 


.007 


17 


.04526 


.00556 


.058 


.007 


18 


.0403 


.00495 


.049 


.009 


19 


.03589 


.00441 


.042 


.007 


20 


.03196 


.00393 


.035 


.007 


21 


.02846 


.00350 


.032 


.003 


22 


.02535 


.00311 


.028 


.004 


23 


.02257 


.00278 


.025 


.003 


24 


.0201 


.00247 


.022 


.003 


25 


.0179 


.00220 


.020 


.002 


26 


.01594 


.00196 


.018 


.002 


27 


.01419 


.00174 


.016 


.002 


28 


.01264 


.00155 


.014 


.092 


29 


.01126 


.00138 


.013 


.001 


30 


.01002 


.00123 


.012 


.001 


31 


.00893 


.00110 


.010 


.002 


32 


.00795 


.00098 


.009 


.001 


33 


.00708 


. 00087 


.008 


.001 


34 


.0063 


.00078 


.007 


.001 


35 


.00561 


.00069' 


.005 


.002 


36 


.005 


.00061 


.004 


.001 


37 


.00445 
.00396 
.00353 
.00314 


.00055 
.00049 
.00043 
.00039 






38 






39 






40 







46 



THE TELEGRA.PHER, 



[October 3, 1868. 



gestion made by Mr. Clark that the Association would 
confer a great boon upon the manufacturers if they would 
refer the question to a competent committee to be re- 
ported upon. 

In the American gauge the gradations are calculated 
as follows : 
Let A = the first term in a geometrical series of num- 
bers. 
B = any other term whose number from A is N. 
N = number of terras between A and B. 
R = ratio or factor by which the terms are mul- 
tiplied. 
Therefore, if A = .005 in. or No. 36 gauge, B => .46 in. 
or No. 0000, and N == 40 : 

~ I \/. = 0.0503536. 

A 

Each term, commencing with .005 or No. 36, being 

successively multiplied by this factor, gives the successive 

sizes, and any intermediate size may easily be found by 

calculation. 

In order to exhibit the comparison between the ordi- 
nary gauge and the American standard gauge, the an- 
nexed diagram has been prepared, in which the two lines 
A C and B C, meeting at C, represent the opening of an 
angular gauge. The divisions on the line A C, — which it 
will be observed are very irregular, — show the sizes of 
wire by the common gauge, and those on the line B C by 
the new standard. 

In order to measure a wire by this gauge it is passed 
into the angular opening till it touches both sides, the 
division at the point of contact indicating the number ; 
thus it will be seen that No. 15 by the old gauge is almost 
exactly equivalent to No. 13 of the new. 

The table accompanying the diagram shows the actual 
dimensions of the old and new gauges, in decimals of an 
inch, and also the difference between consecutive sizes 
of each gauge. 

The gauge proposed by Mr. Clark also starts from a 
given point, forming a logarithmic curve. The rate of 
increment for each succeeding number amounts to twen- 
ty-five per cent, on the weight of any unit of length of 
the preceding one, commencing with No. 16, which is 
assumed to be of the diameter of .065 in. as in the ordi- 
nary gauges. 

It is hot in itself a matter of any great moment which of 
these two gauges is adopted as the universal standard, 
but as the American gauge has already been manufactur- 
ed and in use for over ten years, it would seem desirable 
that it should also be sanctioned by the British Association. 
In order that the full benefit of the change may be real- 
ized, it is necessary that the gauges should be made to 
correspond exactly with the sizes given'in the table, and 
it is universally conceded that Messrs. Darling, Brown 
& Sharpe have satisfactorily accomplished this result in 
the gauges which have been manufactured and sold by 
them. We would therefore urge upon the members of 
our profession the importance of usiDg their efforts to 
bring this gauge into use, to the exclusion of the irreg- 
ular and unsatisfactory systems which have heretofore 

been in vogue. 

*-*♦»-« 

Rapid Telegraphic Communication. 
It may be mentioned, by way of showing the import- 
ant aid rendered to modern commerce by the wonderful 
operation of the magnetic telegraph, that a mercantile house 
in this city on Tuesday received a dispatch dated Cal- 
cutta, September 21, which had been less than twenty- 
four hours on its way, and which conveyed the fact that 
their ship was ready on that date to sail for Boston. We 
believe this is the quickest time yet employed in com- 
municating between these two commercial cities — so 
wide apart and yet so near together. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Novel Application of Electricity. 

Dr. Burton, of Boston, has invented an apparatus for 
heating railway cars by means of heat evolved by elec- 
trical currents, radiated from metallic plates. 



A Correction. 

St. Paul, Minn., Sept. lid. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I would respectfully suggest a correction in my state- 
ment in regard to night duty, published in The Tele- 
grapher of August 29tb. You made me say that we 
were expected to remain on duty until three o'clock 
A. M., whereas I think I said " 30" (good night) on 
night report. The difference, though slight, sometimes 
is broad enough to warrant a belief that I am more on 
the Lark than the Owl. 



Duty of Telegraphers, Politically and Electrically. 

To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

A number of Telegraphers in this vicinity desire to 
join a political campaign club now forming. 

Noticing, in your respected cotemporary, the advice 
given to an office manager not to become associated with 
any political organization, for fear of the effect it might 
have upon the opposite party, we feel impelled to ask 
your opinion as to whether we can safely, and consistently 
with our duties as knights of the key, join such an or- 
ganization, which is to occupy our time only after office 
hours. 

'Tis true we are none of us office managers, but we 
may possibly be before the campaign closes, and then 
again we mightn't ; and the question arises, shall we sac- 
rifice the possibility of doing some sort of good to the 
party we act with, and prospective good times, because 
of the bare chance of becoming an office manager within 
the next few weeks ? Then, again, would not the fact 
of our belonging to a political club act as a bar to our 
promotion, should there be a chance of our becoming an 
office manager ? We are vexed with the questions that 
come up ! We want to belong to the club, and we do 
want to be an office manager, should there be any advan- 
tage, pecuniarily or otherwise, in such a position. 

We ask you thusly, Mr. Editor, because not know- 
ing your opinion in this matter, while we do that of your 
neighbor ; and believing you to be a fair-minded, unpred- 
judiced person, we have a lingering hope that you will 
give an opinion that we can belong to the club, which 
will be as satisfactory as that of your neighbor that the 
office manager ought not to. 

Without any intention, Mr. Editor, of influencing your 
opinion, may we be permitted to express our opinion 
that the ideas of the Journal are rather far-fetched. 

All Telegraph employes have their political prefer- 
ences, and being, as a class, intelligent and well informed, 
they are usually outspoken in their views. Are they 
any more apt to be "swayed in their movements," hold- 
ing public political positions, than they are with their 
views well known by all who know them, though ex- 
pressed privately ? Does not every person in Telegraph 
employ knoiv that, while on duty as a Telegrapher, he 
knows no party, and is " swayed " by no political or so- 
cial preferences, but must execute the work set before 
him "without fear or favor;" and doesn't the public 
know that, should it happen that any of their messages 
are " swayed " by a difference of opinion on the part of 
the Telegrapher, that damages can be collected from the 
Company, while the services of the Telegrapher himself 
would be immediately dispensed with ? We pause for a 
reply. Politico. 

Answer. — If so be as the club referred to is of the 
right party, we think there could be no objection to ope- 
rators joining it, and we don't think their chances of be- 
coming office managers are sufficient to warrant any 
non-use of individual rights during the present political 



campaign. Seriously, as our correspondent well puts it, 
as Telegraphers, operators should know neither pajty 
nor sect. As private citizens, whether office managers 
or not, they are entitled to all the rights and privileges 
which are legally theirs. Whether they shall exercise 
them or not is for each person to decide, as shall seem to 
him most advisable. Editor Telegrapher. 
> <♦> < 

An Appeal for the Union. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

" Can such things be, and overcome us like a summer 
cloud, without our special wonder ?" Yes, it seems they 
can, as is demonstrated by the existence of a Telegraphic 
paper for over four years. Having been under the im- 
pression for a long while that our old stand-by had shared 
the untoward fate of all its predecessors, you can imagine 
my surprise, the other day, when a copy was handed me. 
BeiBg one of the original supporters of the paper, I. was 
well pleased to see it still progressing. May its form 
never grow less. 

What has become of all the old correspondents? 
Where are all of our old District Directors? Why can 
the old Union not be revived throughout the country as of 
old, now that there are several competing Telegraph 
Companies ? Are operators degenerating ? 

These are questions easily asked, you will say, but hard 
to answer. Yet, I presume, there are very few operators 
of five years' experience bat will agree with me in saying 
that, had the rules of the old association been carried out, 
Telegraphers to-day would have been the most indepen- 
dent class of employes towards their employers on this 
continent. But in its stead what do we see ? The pro- 
fession is crowded with operators of inferior ability. The 
very best positions are in the hands of men or boys who 
have learned within the last three or four years. Salaries 
are being generally and steadily reduced by Telegraph 
and Railroad Companies, every village or town turning 
out from three to four operators yearly — such as they 
are — with a bright prospect before us of working for our 
board ere long. 

When our association first started many operators ob- 
jected to it, on the ground that the leaders were men who 
would take advantage of their positions, and that it was 
merely gotten up to make money out of gullible opera- 
tors. This argument, we always contended, was a bad 
one, even admitting the case. Then so much the more 
reason why every operator should join- it, to take that 
power out of the hands of those men, and place it in the 
hands of others whom they knew ai.d could trust. Every 
association has its advantages and disadvantages. Ours,, 
of course, could not be expected to be perfect at the start. 
It requires time to perfect anything. If the same feeling 
had continued to exist that existed in '64, our association 
to-day would have been one of the strongest on this conti- 
nent, but immediately after the war. closed a general 
apathy appeared to take possession of the operators. This, 
we presume, originated, to some extent, from the fact that 
many operators returned to their native cities or towns, 
and at the time did not see as great a necessity for the 
organization as they did when from home, losing sight of 
the fundamental principle of the organization, i. e., self- 
protection at home. How many operators have found, to 
their sorrow, since then, that their places are being filled 
by students who have commenced to learn the profession 
within a year. Some will say, "Well, it's too late now." 
But no ; now is the time. Let old Districts be reorganized, 
and old operators take hold of them. Enforce the rules. 
Stand by each other. Scribbler. 

The Reason Why.— Progress of Competition. 

Chicago, Sept. 16, 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

To show the proscriptive character of the Western 
Union Company and its chief officers, I will narrate a little 
incident that ha9 come within my notice. When the Re- 
publican Convention met here some months since, all, or 
nearly all of the principal officers of the above mentioned 



October 3, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



47 



company were here and stopping at the Tremont House. 
A card was printed and published in all of the papers 
(and, for aught I know, was telegraphed to all parts of 
the country,) laudatory of the Tremont House and its 
management, &c, &c. Previous to this an office had also 
been opened in this hotel, *. e., an instrument was set 
up in a little nook, in which was a segar stand, and the 
operator was expected to sell segars also, the owner of 
the stand paying half of said operator's salary, as a matter 
of economy. But what does all this mean ? "Why should 
the Tremont House come in for all these extra puffs and 
attention ? Said hotel ranks as a first class house ; but, 
compared with the Sherman, stands about like the Astor 
House as compared with the Fifth Avenue Hotel. The 
answer is : Mr. David A. Gage, the proprietor of the 
Sherman House, is President of the Great "Western Tele- 
graph Company. The G. W. Co. have now raised over 
400,000 cash subscriptions. They have forty-four miles 
of poles up between here and Milwaukee, and in a few 
days the line will be completed and in working order to 
that city. The M. V. N. T. Co. are also rapidly approach- 
ing this city. These Companies, with the P. & A. and A. 
k P. Co.'s, will, within a few short weeks, give Chicago 
what it needs above everything else, competition — strong 
and active. The Chicago Chamber of Commerce have 
pledged themselves to support the new lines. More 
anon. Wabash. 

Officers Elected.— Complimentary Resolutions 
Passed. 

Peoria, III., Sept. 22d. 

TO THE EDITOB OF THE TeLEGBAPHER. 

The following officers were elected by this District of 
the N. T. U". for the ensuing year : 

Prank C. Belden, District Director ; S. F. Boyd, 
Secretary, and T. O. Cord, Treasurer. The gentleman 
elected as delegate to the Albany Convention could not 
get leave of absence to attend the Convention, and did 
not inform us of the fact until it was too late to send any 
one eke, so that we were unrepresented. 

At a special meeting of the Peoria District, held Sep- 
tember 21st, the following resolutions were offered by 
Mr. T. O. Cord and unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, "We learn with regret that Mr. George S. 
Walker, train despatcher T. P. & W. R. R., has tendered 
his resignation to that company, to take effect October 
1st, and also to the N. T. U., as District Director of the 
Peoria District ; 

Resolved, That the operators of the T. P. & W. R. R. 
Telegraph line, and the members of this District N. T. U., 
tender to Mr. Walker our sincere thanks for his 
courtesy, and the impartial manner in which he has dis- 
charged the duties of his position toward us. 

Resolved, That Mr. Walker merits and deserves our 
highest esteem, and in leaving us our best wishes go with 
him for his future success and prosperity, and we hope 
to find in his successor a man equally deserving our 
respect and praise, in which case we pledge ourselves to 
give him all the aid and assistance in our power. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded 
to The Telegrapher for publication, and a copy placed 
ou file in the Secretary's book of this District N. T. U. 

__ S. F. B. 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. Geo. L. Walker, train despatcher on the Toledo, 
Peoria and Warsaw Railroad, has resigned on account of 
ill health. He is succeeded by Mr. W. A. Walker, form- 
erly of Elvastou, Illinois, and Mr. H. B. Henderson', 
formerly agent at Warsaw, but more recently agent and 
operator at Chatsworth. 

Mr. M. A. Wheeler succeeds Mr. Henderson at 
Chatsworth. 

Mr. J. S. Reployle is night operator for this road at 
El Paso. 

Mr. Sam. Allen is operator at Canton, 111 , Mr. G. A. 
Leids at Bushnell, and Mr. W. A. Tkesslon at Klvaston, 
on the T. P. & W. R. R. 



Mr. J. F. Price, agent and operator at Warsaw, has 
removed to the General Ticket Office at Peoria, 111. 

Mr. Cary H. H. Pannell, well known as a Tele- 
grapher, is about completing his Theological studies. He 
is an active and effective member of the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Brooklyn. It is understood that 
he will be ordained about the first of January next. 

Mr. J. H. Stearxb has resumed his place in the West- 
ern Union Chicago office. 

Mr. Chas. A. Stearns has returned to his studies at 
the University of Chicago. 

Mr. G. "W. Dyer, of Bainbridge, Indiana, has accepted 
a situation on the Burlington and Mo. Railroad. 

Mr. "W. A. Thomas, of Bloomington, Ind., has accepted 
a place on the U. P. R. R., at Benton, "W. T. 

Mr. J. D. Watt takes charge of the St. James Hotel 
Telegraph office at Cincinnati. 

Burt Allen, who is always on the move, has left the 
"Western Union Cincinnati office and gone to Omaha, 
Neb. 

Mr. Minah Chettle, the " Brignoho " of the "West, 
has returned to the Indianapolis office, "Western Union 
Company. 

Mr. J. "W. Unwin has resigned his position in the 
Western Union Chicago office, and has taken a place in 
the Quincey, 111., office. 

Mr. E. M. Harris, recently of Chicago, 111., » has 
taken a place in the Western Union Company's office, 
Cincinnati, O. 

Mr. R. Valentine, of Janesville, Wisconsin office, 
who has beep to Lake Superior during the past month, 
for his health, resumed work on the 20th ult. 

Mr. H. L. Bross has taken a place in the Milwaukee 
(Northwestern) office. 

Mr. L. Lee Morris is operating in the W. U. office 
at Norwich. N. Y., during sickness of D. M. Bowers, 
operator at that place. 

J. J. Sabin, after two months' absence on leave, has 
returned to Salt Lake City, and resumed his duties in 
the Western Union Telegraph office. 

Mr. J. Ingle has resigned his situation in the Western 
Union (Indianapolis) office, and gone to Bloomington, 
Ind. 

Mr. Charles Paxson has resigned the position in the 
Western Union office at Omaha, which he so long and 
creditably filled, and accepted a position on the Union 
Pacific Railroad at North Platte, Nebraska. 

Mr. E. L. Armstrong succeeds Mr. Paxson in the 
Omaha office. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 



The Franco-American Cable. 

(By Atlantic Telegraph.) 

The Paris Moniteur of Thursday, September 24th, an- 
nounces that the concession of the French Government 
to MM. Erlanger and Reuter, for the new Cable 
Telegraph between France and America, has become de- 
finitive, the capital required, twenty-seven and a half 
million francs, having been subscribed. Should no un- 
toward accident occur, it is now certain that another 
year will give us two independent lines of Telegraphic 
communication with Europe. 

Telegraphic Extensions West. 

The Mississippi Valley National Telegraph Company 
have put up their lines through the city of Chicago. 
They have put two wires on their poles through the city, 
and have prepared them with cross-arms and insulators 
for three more. There are three gangs of builders at 
work on the lines of this Company between Chicago and 
Dubuque, and the line may be expected to be completed 
and in operation to Chicago within a few days. 



The wires will be run into the office of the Atlantic 
and Pacific Company at that point. 

The wires of the A. & P. Co. are rapidly approaching 
Chicago, and it is expected that the connection with that 
place will be completed within a week or ten days at the 
most. The Mississippi Valley and the A. & P. Co.'s line 
will connect and exchange business at Chicago. 

The Northwestern Telegraph Company have completed 
the construction of a new wire between McGregor, Iowa, 
and St. Paul, Minn. This Company and the Western 
Union are practically consolidated. From the first of 
October all business to points on the Northwestern lines 
will be checked from Chicago instead of Milwaukee, as 
heretofore. 

Improved Telegraph Facilities. 

We are glad to announce the completion, by the North- 
western Telegraph Company, of the work of stringing a 
new wire along the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. 
Heretofore their patrons have been mainly confined to 
their river route, some portions of which run through sec- 
tions of country where it is difficult to keep the lines in 
working order, and hence the frequency of the reports, 
"lines down," or " not working." We anticipate that 
there will be few such announcements in the future, as 
the facilities which a railroad affords will enable the 
company to keep the line constantly in repair. Our 
telegrams to-day are the first received over the new wire, 
the connection having been made Saturday night. We 
congratulate both the company and the public upon 
these increased facilities, and shall eudeavor to give our 
readers the benefit of them. The public are further in- 
debted to the company' for the employment of first class 
operators in the St. Paul office, an advantage, which any 
one can appreciate who has business to transact by Tele- 
graph. 

We also learn that the tariff from St. Paul to La 
Crosse, McGregor, Prairie du Chien, Dubuque and other 
river towns, has been materially reduced, which announce- 
ment is not less satisfactory than the others. — St. Paul 
Evening Dispatch. 

The French Atlantic Cable. 

The manufacture of the new Traus- Atlantic Submarine 
Telegraph Cable for the French Company (Societe du 
Cable Trans-Atlantique Francais, Limited) was, accord- 
ing to the contract with the Telegraph Construction and 
Maintenance Company, Limited, commenced at tho 
Gutta Percha Works, Wharf-road, City-road, yesterda_v. 
It is understood to be intended to submerge the cable 
next summer, between Brest and the United States, via 
the Island of St. Pierre (Gulf of St. Lawrence). The 
Great Eastern steamer has been chartered by the con- 
tractors for the purpose of assisting in the operation, and 
arrangements are perfected for mooring her in the Med- 
way, wbere she will be brought round from Liverpool 
directly after the equinox, so that she may receive the 
cable as manufactured and shipped at the contractors' 
Greenwich works, where the process of putting on the 
outer covering or sheathing is carried on. — London News, 
Sept. 15. 

Culpable Negligence. 

Telegraphy between England and India is iu a deplo- 
rable state. It is reported that, out of twentj'-two mes- 
sages sent by a business firm of Glasgow, only oue 
reached India within two days; the transmission of the re- 
mainder occupied various periods of time, varying from 
six to fifteen daj-s. One did not reach India until twenty- 
six days after it had been forwarded, and one never 
reached its destination at all. The errors are still a 
greater grievance. There were forty-six mistakes in the 
twenty-one messages, and only two were transmitted 
correctly ; in one message there were fifteen errors, and 
the rest averaged five mistakes each ; the average price 
of these messages was £5 19s. 



48 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 3, 1868. 




SATURDAY, OCT. 3, 1868. 

OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. H. Toukg.. ..Box 248 P. O., Washington, D. C. 

Vice-President. W. P. Merbiix..W. U. Tel. O., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple. .Box 39 P. O., Albany, X. T. 

Recording Sec.. J. W. Duxbtjby . . W. U. Tel. O., Boston, Mass. 
Corret. Sec ... .F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. O., New York. 



THE INSURANCE BUREAU. 

Is consequence of the inability of Mr. Stover, from 
the pressure of other business engagements, to give that 
attention to the interests of the Insurance Bureau of the 
National Telegraphic Union required, at the late Al- 
bany Convention he resigned the position of Actuary, 
and Mr. A. L. "Whipple, the Treasurer of the Union, was 
appointed. It was resolved at the Convention that 
special effort should be made to bring the advantages of 
the Insurance system prominently before the members of 
the Union, and efforts made to induce them generally to 
avail themselves of its beneficent provisions. 

"We have so frequently presented this matter to the 
readers of The Telegrapher, that we find it difficult to 
add anything to the arguments already adduced in its 
favor. It certainly deserves the earnest favorable con- 
sideration of every Telegraph employe. It is not intended 
to confine it to the members of the Union, although, as a 
Union institution, it has peculiar claims upon them for 
support. 

The importance, while in life and health, of making 
provision for the inevitable contingency of decease, must 
be patent to every Telegrapher. The plan has worked 
well and proved highly beneficial to those employed in 
other lines of business, and has been very generally 
adopted. For instance, the policemen of the Metropolitan 
District have such an organization, as have also the 
clerks in the New York Post-office, and every policeman 
and clerk belong to them. The consequence is, that 
when a member of either dies, a handsome sum is on 
hand, and at once paid over to his friends or family, thus 
making timely and highly acceptable provision in the 
time of necessity. 

Shall the Telegraphers of the country prove less provi- 
dent and regardful of the wants of those dependent upon 
them for support? Are our Telegraphic brothers so 
much attached to the old custom of passing round sub- 
scription papers, and appealing to the charitable feelings 
of late associates in case of decease, that they prefer this 
to making such provision as is in their power to prevent 
the necessity for such an appeal ? We, cannot believe 
this. If this matter is only presented properly to every 
Telegrapher, we believe there are few who will not re- 
lieve their friends from such a humiliating necessity. 
This is not a charily — it is a provision which has been 
paid for and which is received as a right. "We know that 
when appeals are made to the charity of Telegraphers 
they respond liberally, but there should be no necessity 
for such appeals. 

The larger the number of members of the Bureau the 
more effectual is the relief afforded. "With a membership 
of two thousand, in case of decease two thousand dollars 
would be in the hands of the Treasurer, to be paid over. 
This would not only defray funeral expenses, but leave 
a handsome surplus to aid the families of deceased Tele- 
graphers until they can make permanent arrangements for 



future support. As Telegraphers are generally young, 
the calls are not likely to prove onerous, and are only 
such as any reasonably prudent Telegraph employe can 
easily meet. 

When the number of persons Telegraphically employed 
in this country is taken into consideration, it is not un- 
reasonable to expect that at least two thousand should 
avail themselves of the benefits of this provision. 

There are no expenses except for blanks and postage, 
and these have thus far been defrayed by the Union, so 
that all the money contributed is now on hand, ready to 
be applied to the first case which may arise. The Actu- 
ary receives no compensation for his services and asks 
none. No charge has ever been made for the standing 
advertisement in The Telegrapher. In fact, a -more 
inexpensive system of insurance, or one better calculated 
to accomplish the desired end, it is impossible to devise. 

"We hope that every Telegrapher who may read these 
lines, who has not already availed himself or herself of 
this arrangement, will do so at once, and will also bring 
the matter to the attention of every Telegraph employe of 
his acquaintance. Let us show to the world that the 
Telegraphers are not the careless, thoughtless and im- 
provident class that they are generally considered. It is 
impossible to give this matter too prompt attention. 

"We appeal to District Directors especially to bring this 
subject prominently before the members of their respec- 
tive districts. They can do much good in this way, and 
greatly advance the interests of those who look to them 
for guidance and direction. 

Under the revised Constitution and plan of operations 
inaugurated at Albany, we look for a general and speedy 
renewal of interest in the Union among Telegraphers, 
and hope to find a large majority of them soon enrolled 
as active and earnest supporters of the Union, the Insu- 
rance Bureau and The Telegrapher. 

Satisfactory and Encouraging. 

It is evident that the Telegraph employes are deter- 
mined to sustain their organ, The Telegrapher, so long 
as it shall boldly and determinedly maintain their rights 
and advocate their interests. The recent numerous ad- 
ditions to its subscription list are highly satisfactory and 
encouraging. It is evident that the Telegraphers feel 
more interest than ever before in its success, and are be- 
ginning to realize the importance of maintaining it as an 
independent and outspoken sheet. Highly gratifying as 
are the evidences of this spirit and determination already 
received, we call upon the great Telegraphic brother- 
hood and sisterhood to redouble their exertions to extend 
the circulation and increase the influence of their organ. 
The larger the circulation the greater the influence of the 
paper — and its circulation, which is now much larger than 
ever before since it was established, should at least be 
doubled during the present year. 

* The Franco-American Cable. 

As will be seen by the information published under 
our "Telegraph" head, the Franco- American Cable is in 
process of manufacture, and the Great Eastern steam- 
ship has been chartered to lay it during the next season. 
There is little doubt but that, once successfully laid and 
at work, this line, like the one already in operation, will 
prove a pecuniary success. "With an improved system of 
transmission, the working capacity of the cable lines may 
be greatly increased, and thus, although the tariff of 
charges by the new Cable is limited to one dollar per 
word, the business may be found remunerative. Every 
reduction of charges in the English Atlantic Cable has 
resulted in an increase of the daily totals returned on 
account of business transmitted, and the use of the Cable 
is daily and steadily increasing. 

It is perhaps but natural that the old company should 
look with disfavor upon any attempt at competition in 
the field which they have opened at so large an expense, 
but such competition is inevitable, and its managers 



may as well make up their minds to acquiesce quietly and 
pleasantly in the new order of things. 

This Cable Telegraph business is but just fully inau- 
gurated, and as the charges become more moderate, and 
the business men and people generally accustomed to 
use this means of communication, we expect to see not 
merely two or three, but a dozen or twenty Telegraph 
Cables constantly and profitably employed between this 
country and Europe. 



To District Secretaries. 

"We would particularly request Secretaries of Districts, 
the names of whose officers elect for the present year 
have not yet been published in The Telegrapher, to for- 
ward them to us, as we desire to publish a complete list 
of District Directors, to be kept standing in the paper for 
general information. 

> «•> < 

* The New York District. 

The meeting of the New York District, N. T. U., 
which was called for last "Wednesday evening, was held 
at the Western Hotel. After brief discussion it was de- 
cided to further adjourn it until next Wednesday, Octo- 
ber 7tb, at the same time and place, when every member 
who can possibly do so should be present, as at that time 
matters of vital importance will be considered and de- 
cided. 

A New Department. 

Upon the suggestion of several friends we have de- 
cided to establish a Department of this paper, in which 
we will insert the names of Telegraphers who desire to 
obtain situations, and will be pleased to insert, also, noti- 
fications of Telegraph Superintendants, Managers and 
others, who desire to obtain employes. In this manner 
employers, and those desiring employment, can become 
aware of each other's necessities, and we believe the 
arrangement will prov.e mutually advantageous. 

To subscribers to The Telegrapher this column will 
be free ; to non-subscribers a charge of fifty cents for 
each insertion will be made. 



Removal. 
It will be seen, by reference to our advertising 
columns, that Messrs. Chester. Partrick & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, have been compelled, by the great increase in 
their business, to remove their establishment to more 
commodious quarters, at No. 38 South Fourth Street. 
We are glad to chronicle this evidence of the increasing 
prosperity of this young and enterprising firm. 



Phenomena of Electrical Induction. 

M. Rondel has examined a phenomenon which has 
been noticed more than once by workers in induction 
coils. If, while the current of a pile passes through the 
primary wire of a coil, one of the extremities of the se- 
condary wire is brought near one of the extremities of 
the iron core, sparks can be drawn of remarkable inten- 
sity and brilliancy ; if, at the same time, the other end 
of the secondary wire is put in communication with one 
of the poles of the pile, a great increase takes place in 
the brilliancy of the sparks ; then, on touching with the 
hand the iron core, and placing the free end of the core 
in contact with the skin, a redness takes place, and a 
smart stinging sensation is felt. This last experiment 
was made upon a coil, the core of which, completely iso- 
lated in a tube of varnished glass, was eight millimetres 
in diameter. M. Rondel made the same experiment 
with another bobbin, the soft iron of which was twelve 
centimetres long, five centimetres wide, and eight milli- 
metres thick. The sparks were produced with detona- 
tions. 

A single Bunsen's element of small size was sufficient 
to produce these phenomena. 



October 3, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



49 



FOREICN NOTES. 

Ozoke is now manufactured in France by the aid of 
electricity. 

An Englishman proposes to slaughter cattle by means 
of electricity. 

The French are ahead of the English in the power and 
cheapness of their electric lights. 

M. BouRGOrx, of the French Academy of Sciences, 
after a series of experiments, concludes that water is not 
an eloetrolyte. 

An electric pyrometer has been invented by 31. Bec- 
quevel for measu^ig temperature at very high alti- 
tudes. 

The French papers deno'unced Brequet's Dial Tele- 
graph as a nuisance, and recommended the substitution 
of the Morse instrument. 

Professor Matteuci, the learned Italian Physicist, and 
author of several valuable works upon electricity, is 
dead. 

. Professor Pepper, of London, is reproducing in public 
the so-called spiritual manifestations, by means of curious 
mechanism, actuated by electricity. 

M. Le Roux, of the French Academy, says that a 
cylinder of magnesia, about eight millimetres in diameter, 
placed a little distance from the carbon point, so the arc 
may just touch it, will acquire a degree of incandescence 
comparable to that part in the bordering carbon crater — 
at the same time the light acquires a remarkable degree 
of constancy. 

The following are the members of the Committee on 
Electrical Standards, in the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, for 1868: Professor William- 
son, Professor Wheatstone, Professor Sir "William 
Thompson, Professor W. A. Miller, Dr. A. Matthies- 
sen, Mr. Fleming Jexkix, Sir Charles Bright, Profes- 
sor Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Balfocr Stew- 
art, Dr. Socle, Mr. C. F. Varley, Mr. G. G. Foster 
and Mr. C. Hockin. Mr. Fleming Jenkik is the Secre- 
tary of the Committee. 



Electrical Novelties. 
An electrical piano is the last new thing. The inven- 
tion is ingenious but not commendable, because its ob- 
ject is to drag the piano-forte down to the level of a 
musical box or automaton organ. The hammers of the 
action are supplied with electro-magnets, whicli impel 
the former whenever a galvanic current enters them. The 
succession and combination of these currents necessary 
for the performance of a piece of music are provided for 
upon a principle similar to that of the Jacquard loom, and 
here lies the ingenuity, only the idea is not quite original. 
The notes of the composition are punched out of a roll of 
stiff paper on thin card, each hole representing one key 
of the instrument. The card is passed over a pair of 
rollers, and, as it traverses these, certain pins which drag 
over it fall through the holes as they are encountered, 
and so meet other pins below. Electrical communica- 
tions are set up by this meeting, currents pass to the 
proper hammers, and the wires are struck as in hand 
playing. To complete the mechanical character of the 
instrumentation clock-work is provided to turn the rollers 
and pay out the perforated sheet. All have heard of the 
electrical organ ; that is a good thing, and is making 
way. In it electricity is used merely to supplant the 
complicated rods and levers hitherto used for communi- 
cating motion from the player's fingers to the valves of 
the organ pipes. • This is legitimate and admirable, but 
the electrical piano is a triumph of means over ends. — 
Once a Week. 

A New Word. — The paragraphists are restless upon 
iV ie subject of coining new words for the use of the news- 
paper press. "We wonder none of them has yet hit upon 
the shortest that could be used to designate a message 
by the Cable, and distinguish it from a communication 
over land wires, viz., " Seagram." "We have not pa- 
tented this ; it is at anybody's service. — Exchange. 



DIED. 
Curtis. — At Camp Points, Illinois, on the 18th Sept., of heart 
disease, Mr. W. C. Cubtis, operator and ticket agent of the 
Toledo, Peoria and Warsaw Railway Co., at Keokuk, Iowa. He 
leaves a widow to mourn his loss. 

NOTICE. 
An adjourned meeting of the New York District of 
the National Telegraphic Union will be held on "Wed- 
nesday evening, Oct. 7th, at 8 o'clock, at the "Western 
Hotel, in Cortlandt Street. The report of the delega- 
tion to the Annual Convention will be made, and other 
business of great importance, arising out of the changes 
made in the Constitution of the Union by the Conven- 
tion, will come before this meeting. Per order. 

H. "W. Pope, Sec'y. 

OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE! 

Parties having OLD TELEGRAPH WIRE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 

L. G-. TILLOTSON & Co., 
Box 1714. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

THE TELEGRAPHIC MANUAL, 

BY 

W. 0. LEWIS, 

PRACTICAL ELECTRICIAN AND TELEGRAPH 
SUPERINTENDENT. 

A few copies of this Elementary Treatise on the Art of Tele- 
graphy may be obtained, if immediate application is made. It 
should be in the hands of every person who is engaged in learn- 
ing Practical Telegraphy, and will be found very useful, even to 
those more advanced. 

Price — Single Copy 25 cents. 

Five Copies to one address, $1.00. 

Orders must be addressed to Box 2692, P. 0., New York; and, 
to receive attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 

EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians, 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BOTLDIXGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER] ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Gauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EYEEY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVEB THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Regulators, &c, &c. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

'The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices ; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other* 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all malters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

J8S* Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts.. 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

t&~ Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

&g- No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

4S=-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegraph ee : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P., and If. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, W. TJ. Telg. Office. Chicago. 
W. H. Young, B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 
A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S . C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, 
R. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 
B Frank Ashley. Standard Office. Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. TJ. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 
Jas. M. Warner, " *' Aurora, N. Y. 

K.McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. Torrence, " " " " 

C. P. Hoag, " " San Francisco, Cal. 

M. Raphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher ,nmst be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



50 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 3, 18 68. 



CHARLES T. & J..N. CHESTER, 



1 04 Centre Street, N. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVERT DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



■m- 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR, 

FOR 

BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Boot Jot ani Commercial Proton 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eof a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 



Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER" that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 



Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds k Williams,; 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 
Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

^- I IrR. LINE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



TZEaZIE 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



6UBMARINE CABLES, 

Office "Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AMD OTHER 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B We are prepared to lay down and warrant Submarine 

Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 118 LIBERTY STREBT, 

New Yore. 



October 3, 



1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



51 



REMOVAL OIP 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Cetegraplj Instruments aifo Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 

Connection. 
Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. F. Varley's Patent Parafflne Insulator. 
" Gotta-Percha covered Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

"Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

126 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Celegrapjj Patjjkrg aub Supplies* 

■» 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. TtLLOTsoN <fc Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rales and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, iu good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which snail be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who wUl receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct ? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIEES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

ZEleo-tricaJ. Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, "WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 
SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 
Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 
29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 

MAIN-LINE 
TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We we working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

" The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

BAMTJEL F. DAT. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

TJTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL EINDS OP 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

flS-Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 1 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, JV. J"., 

. Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE 1YIETAL, 

which is much richer and finer than brass, he now presen te 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-150th to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(veryfine) 19 60 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Kelay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 
He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tale- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 

BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, Etc. 

FRANCIS & _ LOUTREL, 

45 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

Account Books, Writing Papers, Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
every kind for Business, Professional, or Private use, in quanti- 
ties to suit. 
Manifolds for Telegraphers and Reporters, Diakiks and 

Daily Journals. 
Photographic Albums, Gold Pens, Chessmen, Pocket Cutleryi 
Drawing Materials and Paper, Mourning Paper and Envelopes, 
Portfolios, Cards, Writing Desks, Expenscfiooks, Time*Books, 
Inks and Fluids, Ink Trays, etc., etc. 

Copy your Letters. 

USE FRANCIS* IMPROVED MANIFOLD 

LETTER-WRITER, 

by which Letters and Copies are written at the same time. Copy 
ing andSeal Presses; Please call or send all your orders to 

FRANCIS & LOUTREL, 
Stationers, Printers and Book-Binders, 

15 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 



52 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 3, 1868. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 Socth Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AXD DEALER IN* ALL KIXDS OP 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, -. 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects : f 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" " Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every reaped to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY.' 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 
OF NEW TORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
■poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire' pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. * 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
hate also a few sets of Volume IL, which We will bind to ordei , 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, No*. 16 
and 18 Now Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN* 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 
AND SUPPLIES. 

REPAIRING DONE PROMPTLY. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

w i . .. 

BLASTING BY ELECTRICITY. 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

GUTTA PERCHA CAPS; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 



FOR 



EXPLODING NITROGLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties cf.Insulators 
si manufactured at these Works 
1 are warranted to excel the 
1 usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, tiothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK k CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

No. 38 South Fourth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SrPPLT OF 
BATTERIES, WIRE, A^D OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on hand. 
tS~ Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 1868. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, " Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
" Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal value. 

For twelve subscribers, "Shaffher's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or "Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. ■ 

W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 
• For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Rive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is |36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, a>d they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, NEW TORK. 

*«* 

SHAFFNER, T. P. -Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 625 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentucky. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY, R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., Illustrated. London, 1867 5 25 

SABIN, ROBT.— The Electric Telegraph.- 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the U. S. and Europe. 1 voL, 8vo. LUustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. London, 1867 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, by Dr. 

LARDSER. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. R. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Blus- 
trations. London, 1867 ? 2 50 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged %y the Professors of ■' Morse's Telegraph 
Djstitute." lvoi. 12mo 125 

TURNBULL, L.— The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 60 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. Snow.) A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NO AD, H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol. , 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

OE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 50 

NO AD H. M .— Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol., 12mo. 400 niustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M .—Electricity. 1 voh, 12mo.... 1 75 

BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

DU MONCEL.- (Lee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

HICHTON E .—History of Electric Telegraph. 100 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12mo 2 50 

S&- A Netc and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Work* 
ready October 1, tent Free on Application. 

New York, Sept, 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 7. 



New York, Saturday, October 10, 1868. 



Whole No. 117. 



[From Engineering.] 
CONSTANT CALVANIC BATTERIES. 

THE NEW PEROXIDE OF MANGANESE ELEMENT OF MONS. G. 
LECLANCHE. 

Whilst Telegraphy has arrived, step by step, at the 
possession of methods and apparatus by which the in- 
sulation of lines has become perfect, and the transmission 
and reception of messages speedy, even beyond the re- 
quirements of ordinary work, one great desideratum is 
still left, viz., a constant galvanic battery. "We cannot 
wish for insulation better than that of the Atlantic cables, 
and of the compound india rubber cores. Brooks, of 
Philadelphia, has solved the difficulty of line support 
by his paraffined cups. Wheatstoxe and Hughes have 
supplied instruments by which messages can be trans- 
mitted as fast almost as they can be dictated. Siemens 
has pointed out how to " spot" a fault with almost in- 
credible exactness. But nobody has, as yet, been happy 
enough to hit upon a galvanic combination which is able 
to remove the reproach that " there is nothing more in- 
constant that a constant element.'''' Daxiell, who pro- 
posed the use of the sulphate of copper solution, only half 
solved ^the difficulty ; and all the modifications of it 
in form which a whole host of inventors have endowed 
with their own patronymics, have helped to fill the text 
books with illustrations and the store rooms with lumber, 
without advancing the art of Telegraphy one iota towards 
the reality of a " constant battery." Marie" Davy, by 
the employment of sulphate of mercury and a carbon 
pole, instead of sulphate of copper and a copper pole, 
saved the waste of material occasioned by the reduction 
of metal by the zinc ; because, in taking amalgamated 
zinc, its mercurial surfaces could not, of course, reduce 
anything out of the small quantity of sulphate which is 
soluble. Therefore, one point was gained, and that was 
that this element gave conscientiously as much current as 
it decomposed salt and dissolved zinc ; but the same cause 
of polarization, as pointed out by Sabine— the impoverish- 
ment of the solution in the neighborhood by the positive 
pole — is still present in all its original importance, and a 
few minutes on closed circuits sufficed to reduce the 
tension of this element, even with greater rapidity than 
that of a Daxiell's, under the same circumstances. 

For our part, we do not see any possibility of construct- 
ing an element with liquids which can, by any means, be 
kept entirely free from polarization. We look for the 
solution of the difficulty in the discovery of some suitable 
" dry element," and put our trust in the aid which we 
feel sure that thermo-electricity will yet lend to the 
practice of the electric telegraph, 

A new element with a single fluid, and in which the 
polarization has, by an ingenious combination, been re- 
duced as low as it perhaps can be in any galvanic combi- 
nation, has lately been invented in France by a M. 
Leclanche. As the construction of this element is 
based upon really sound principles, we consider that a 
description of it is entitled to a permanent place in our 
columns. The principal chemical action in every gal- 



vanic element, of whatsoever construction it may be, is 
the dissolution of one of the metals composing it. This 
dissolution may be regarded as a species of combustion, 
resulting in an undulating motion of molecules, which 
makes itself obvious in certain particular ways, and 
which we call electricity ; and this combustion is in 
proportion to the intensity of the current set up. In a 
galvanic element, with a zinc pole, we consume zinc in 
proportion to the work which we give the element to do ; 
and whatever exterior work we put it to is paid for to 
the full by the amount of zinc expended or transformed 
in the interior. In some galvanic elements, unfortunately, 
by reason of their imperfect construction, we expend 
more zinc than the equivalent of the effect obtained, just 
as in a badly constructed steam engine the coals cost 
more than the work done is worth ; but a good element, 
like a good steam engine, will not allow any unnecessary 
waste of fuel. The conditions alone under which a 
galvanic element might be successful, are : 

1. The negative pole destined to be dissolved must be 
a good conductor of electricity, have a great affinity for 
oxygen, and be immersed in a liquid which easily dis- 
solves its oxide, so as to leave its surface always fresh. 

2. The positive pole, on the contrary, must be as diffi- 
cultly oxidizable as possible, and must be equally a good 
conductor. It should have, if possible, as great an 
affinity for hydrogen as the negative pole has for oxygen, 
and must be immersed in a liquid which exerts no 
chemical action whatever upon it. Could these con- 
ditions be attained, the problem of a constant element 
would be an easy one, because, if every atom of hydro- 
gene which wandered from the negative to the positive 
pole were here combined with the pole itself, no deposit 
of gas upon the latter could take place, and therefore no 
polarization would be possible. 

The first condition is fulfilled by the employment of 
zinc, the second has been attempted by Daxiell, Marie 
Davy, and others, by immersing the positive pole in some 
liquid, which, in its decomposition and recomposition, 
was able to take up an atom of hydrogen for every atom 
of oxygen combined on the other side ; but the contact 
between the pole aud the liquid was not a perfect one, 
and therefore the liquid could not be regarded as forming 
part of the pole ; the liquid was not perfectly mobile, and 
hence, as we said before, it became impoverished in a 
thin stratum around the pole, and acted like a water 
element. M. Leclanche has made a bold venture in 
casting away the second liquid of these compound ele- 
ments, and sought for a substance which in some measure 
would fulfil our second condition itself, and this substance 
he found in peroxide of manganese, which has a much 
higher conducting power than the generality of oxides, 
and approaches, indeed, to that possessed by the metals. 
It is not oxidizable nor soluble in water, and has a great 
affinity for combustibles. Hence, this substance seemed 
to recommend itself for employment as a positive pole. It 
was not possible, however, to immerse it in acid, because 
the acid would have combined chemically with it, and 
this would have been contrary to one of the conditions of 
a good element, and so a solution of an alkaline salt was 



adopted, into which this and the zinc pole were both 
immersed. 

The way in which M. Leclanche" makes up this 
element is as follows : In the interior of a cylindrical 
porous pot is placed a prism of good conducting graphite 
or carbon, which is well rammed in with a mixture of 
roughly powdered peroxide of manganese and carbom 
such as is used for the prism. This porous pot is then 
placed in a suitable square glass jar, which is supplied 
with a circular neck to fit it, and contains, at one corner, 
a rod of zinc, which serves as the negative pole. This 
form is in some respects convenient, although it displays, 
we think, a want of practical electrical knowledge on the 
part of the constructor, particularly in the relative di- 
mensions of the two poles. The only liquid used in this 
element is water, in which are a few crystals of sal-am- 
moniac (NH 4 C1). When at work, the sal-ammoniac be- 
comes decomposed ; the chlorine atom combines with the 
zinc pole, forming chloride of zinc, which is immediately 
dissolved in the water, and the equivalent ammonicum 
(NH 4 ), which plays the part of the hydrogen in a water 
element, or of the reduced metal in a Daxiell's or Marie 
Davy's, is carried to the positive pole, and there com- 
bines with the peroxide of manganese, for which it has 
a great affinity. This combination of the base of the de- 
composed salt constitutes the great difference between this 
and the elements which have hitherto been used. The in- 
ventor, who has made an extensive series of experiments 
with this element, recommends the employment of a 
mixture of very coarse grains of the peroxide of man- 
ganese and carbon for the positive pole, as it gives, when 
at work, considerably less polarization than when the 
same constituents are used in the form of a fine powder. 
The marked difference which has been found in one 
series of comparisons with the same element, but with 
different degrees of coarsness in the mixture, is shown by 
the following figures: 

FINE POWDER. COARSE POWDER. 

Circuit closed 

15 minutes, polarization=0.300 polarization=0.082 

30 " " 0.450 " 0.090 

45 •* " 0.500 " 0.110 

60 •• " 0.510 " 1.118 

This difference may, perhaps, be explained by the 
considerable greater resistance of the fine than the coarse 
powder. This would occasion the hydrogen liberated by 
the decomposition of the water — for there is always water 
decomposed and hydrogen liberated — to collect upon the 
surface of the positive pole, instead of distributing itself 
uniformly through the mass of the powder. 

The constants of this element show favorably for ita 
applicability to the purposes of Telegraphy. Its electro- 
motive force is equal to 1.382 times that of a Daxiell s 
element, in which the ziuc is in dilute sulphuric acid of 
the strength of 1.4. The resistances of the elements 
which we have measured were unnecessarily great, on 
account of the zinc pole being unnecessarily small; a 
construction the inventor, for some unaccountable reason, 
has preferred to the usual forms. The larger size, with a 
carbon pole six inches high, had 4.5 B.A. units; the 
smaller size, with a carbon pole about four inches high, 
had between 9 and 10 of the same units. 



54 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 10, 1868. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinctum of person or opinion. v 

Xo notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



How The Telegrapher is Received.— Partial Conces- 
sions.— Operators Still Over-worked. 

Chicago, October 5. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

It would have pleased jou could you have been pres- 
ent in this office of the Western Union Company, upon 
the receipt of a recent number of The Telegrapher. 
which contained one of this series of letters. Mr. Wilson*, 
the District Superintendent, Mayn'ard, night manager, 
etc., were intently poring over the paper, and apparently 
the truth contained therein didn't affect ihern very pleas- 
antly. 

Says Mr. Wilson* : " They first go for me and then for 
you, Matn*ard." 

Says Maynard — who can't conceive it possible that 
anybody has a soul above buttons, his comprehension in 
that way being limited by his own mental peculiarities — 
" I know why they are down on me. It's because I 
didn't renew my subscription to The Telegrapher." 

I notice that, however saving they may be in the mat- 
ter of subscriptions, all these petty officials are most 
eager to read the paper, and those who do subscribe and 
pay for it are obliged to wait for their chance until the 
curiosity of these Dead Heads is satisfied. 

There has been some talk, among the Western Union 
small fry here, of prohibiting the distribution of The Tel- 
egrapher in the office, but there is little danger of this 
befng done so long as the officials are so eager to get a 
free perusal of it. At any rate they won't frighten any- 
body here by their threats. The paper is eagerly looked 
for by all hands, the aforesaid officials included, and read 
with interest by all, and on the part of the operators, 
with pleasure. 

Since The Telegrapher has advocated our cause, and 
exposed the excessive labor required from us, two more 
operators have been added to the night force, and two or 
three others who choose to do so, are allowed to work 
extra hours, for which they are paid fifty cents per hour. 
This will probably prevent the day men from being stuck 
after nine p. m., as they constantly were before. For this 
much we have to thank The Telegrapher. 

The day operators are still required to remain on duty 
from 8 o'clock, a. m., to 9 p. M. every other day, thirteen 
hours, which is too much to require of men employed at 
such exacting and exhausting business as Telegraphing. 
We ask nothing more than justice and humanity. Such 
hours of labor, especially in view of the small compensa- 
tion received, are intolerable ; and hence we complain, 
through the columns of our organ, which has been estab- 
lished aDd is maintained by the practical Telegraphers of 
the country, in order that they may have an effective 
means of making known their wrongs and securing re- 
dress. 

The officers of the Company say to us: "This is no 
way to proceed to redress your wrongs ; that they are 
willing to listen to our complaints.'' Well, this is all very 
well after the matter has been made public, but it is ab- 
surd for them to pretend that any attention would have 
been paid to an ordinary application for redress of griev- 
ances. That has been too often tried, and with too little 
effect. It is not probable that these matters would have 
been ventilated to such an extent if it had not been for 
the dictatorial and offensive manner in which Superin- 
tendent Wilson*, upon the publication of the first of these 
communications, expressed himself to the operators here, 
"that if there were any persons in the office dissatisfied, 
their services could be dispensed with." 

We desire to state, in this connection, that in any of 
the strictures or complaints of injustice or ungentlemanly 
treatment contained in this correspondence, we do not 



desire to cast any blame or reproach on Mr. R. C. 
Raskin*, our popular and worthy manager. In all our 
intercourse with him we are treated in the most kind, 
polite and gentlemanly manner, and he has always shown 
himself accommodating and considerate to all in the 
office. The operators in this office are under obligations 
to him for many favors, which they are happy to have an 
opportunity to acknowledge. 

There are many other matters which we desire to 
ventilate, but fear that this communication is already of 
too great length for your columns, and will postpone them 
until next week. Tou may rest assured that The Tele- 
grapher is fully appreciated here, and that for the space 
afforded us in its columns you have the sincere thanks of 
the Chicago Operators. 

The I. 0. Telegraph.— An Attached Young Man. 

Jacksonville, Sept. 22. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

. It may be thought by some of the readers of The 
Telegrapher that the International Ocean Telegraph 
Company's line is a one horse concern, and perhaps others 
may not know that there is such a line, but if they could 
only hear it talk Spanish for one day they would begin to 
open their eyes. It was asserted, by one of the "know- 
ing ones," that if the line was managed by the builders 
it would never succeed, but it still lives and flourishes, 
like everything else in the " Sunny South." 

It is true that, as on all other lines, there are some 
" plugs " on it, but only in places where none but natives 
of Florida can live. 

On visiting the ancient city of St Augustine, a few 
days since, I heard it whispered about that a certain 
young lady was desirous to learn the whereabouts of one 
W. E. B., a young man who came from the north to take 
charge of the Telegraph office at that place. Falling in 
love with the aforesaid young lady interfered so much 
with his office duties that he was obliged to give up the 
situatiou, and subsequently, after pledging his heart and 
hand to the lady, loses another situation from overstaying 
a furlough given him to visit his lady love in. He was 
unwilling to remain in this section of the country after 
this, and left for the north and a cooler and more con- 
genial clime. 

Will is a fine young man, but like others before him, 
love got the better of his discretion, and the result is held 
up as a warning to other northerners who may have oc- 
casion to seek a residence under the ardent influences of 
a southern sky. Com. 

Discouraged and Demoralized. 

Bellie Hollow, Ga., Sept. 10. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

As you and the fraternity may be entirely oblivious to 
the attractions of this place, I present, gratuitously, a 
brief summary of the many advantages I enjoy, and with 
that pure unselfishness of my nature, I will cheerfully 
share them with my fellow craftsmen. After a volumi- 
nous correspondence with the Executive Committee. I 
consented to represent their interest at this point for the 
highly remunerative compensation of thirty-five dollars 
per month, and board myself. On my arrival I was 
greeted by a well disorganized band, led by B. Frogs 
and S. P. Arrowhawks, to say nothing of the spectators, 
among whom were numbered B. Laxnakes, R. Attle- 
snaix, and other agreeable representatives. The nearest 
house is fourteen miles and a half, and is inhabited by- 
three crazy well armed negroes, which contributes in no 
slight degree to my happiness. I have now been here 
four weeks, and board myself very reasonably — not cost- 
ing me over five dollars a month, and that I pay to a fel- 
low who comes once in a while with a skiff full of dry 
hides, which, when well saturated in warm water, fur- 
nish a sufficiency to gnaw on for the most gluttonous. 
My predecessor would soon have been a rich man in the 
stock line. He had alreadv secured six head, but. with 



his confounded absence of mind, he forgot to ask the 
owners for them, and his bright dream of golden bliss 
was dissipated by being requested to " depart in peace," 
or with a piece of rope. With remarkable sagacity he 
choose the former. If you are fond of hunting, there is 
no place equal to this. I have frequently rolled up my 
pants and dived into the surrounding woods, enjoying a 
prolonged hunt — after something to eat — and returned 
feeling very much lightened. Society delightful. I have 
met but one man, except the skiff marine, and with be- 
coming enthusiasm greeted him, " How do you do, sir?" 
His answer was uttered in the dulcet tones of a lame 
bear, and was a bill of lading consigning me to au un- 
healthy warm locality. I would not advise operators to 
come here; but there is no doubt but one who can come 
well recommended could secure a permanent place. I 
propose resigning, as I have just heard of a vacancy as 
night watchman in the poor-house. As soon as I am 
ensconsed therein you will hear from me, and I will en- 
deavor to find room for any operator who may want 
some place, commensurate with his means, to spend a 
furlough. A Little Biggar. 
•♦• 

Telegraphic Competition. 

Chicago, Oct. 3. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

The Mississippi Valley National Telegraph Company 
has completed its lines to this city and opened its office 
for business. By this fine Chicago is placed in communi- 
cation with St. Paul, Minnesota, and Davenport, Iowa. 

The Great Western Telegraph Company have com- 
menced stringing their wires, and expect to be in work- 
ing order to Milwaukee in a short time. 

The completion of the Atlantic and Pacific line to this 
city will give us a connection East, and Telegraphic compe- 
tition will be fairly inaugurated, and will probably become 
quite lively and interesting. Not the least interested in 
the establishment of competing lines, and the termination 
of the Western Union monopoly, are the operators in the 
office of that company, who have been so long obliged to 
submit to any treatment that they might receive. 

De Bross. 

Unrequited Labor. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

How is it that the operators who were on duty during 
the session of the National Democratic Convention in this 
city, in July last, have never received that " extra com- 
pensation" which, they were given to understand, would 
be forthcoming after their labor had been performed ? 

How is it with the Bankers and Brokers' Telegraph 
Company, one of whose operators, getting a small, dis- 
gracefully small salary, was obliged to pay, out of his 
own pocket, fourteen dollars for his meals during the 
sittings of the Convention, because his residence was too 
far away from Tammany Hall to allow of his going there ? 

Who is responsible for this gross injustice ? Is it the 
fault of the manager of the New York office? or of the 
Superintendent, or of whom ? 

What other class of men would submit to such treat- 
ment ? None, assuredly none ! Then why should Tele- 
graphers ? What could be done by companies to coerce 
them into making fools of themselves if they should unani- 
mously refuse to work night after night, and even Sunday, 
without extra pay ? Why. nothing could be done, and 
the companies would be the only sufferers. 

Telegraphers, be men, and insist upon a recognition of 
your most undoubted rights. 

How is it with the National Telegraphic Union ? Will 
not some good, energetic, live man initiate some decided 
step towards making our association more protective to 
its members? Cannot we have a society which will 
inspire respect, and, in view of oppression, fear, on the 
part of the now terms-dictating managers and directors 
of the various corporations 1 

I think so. Lot us try. Yo. 



October 10, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



55 



More Intelligence in High Places. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

There can be no truth in the statement that "there is 
nothing new under the sun." Something new turns up 
almost every day. The latest new idea is that put forth by 
the individual who "owns the wires " in "Western New 
York, and is decidedly a good one. During the late 
stormy weather, when there was a great deal of escape 
on the wires, an office having a repeater in was directed 
to " screw down the sounder as much as possible, so as 
to overcome the escape." 

This is regarded as quite a novel idea, and should be 

looked into by Telegraphic philosophers. Skeesicks. 
< ■* » » 

A Correction. 

Indianapolis, Sept. 30. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

That article relatiug to my short stay on the Union 
Pacific R. R., in The Telegrapher of August 15th, 
1868, is incorrect. No such remarks were ever made by 
me, and the statement was entirely uncalled for. 

Jno. P. Lennert. 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. Eugene L. Castner, -who left the Bankers and 
Brokers' Telegraph Company in August last, to engage 
in other business, has since accepted a position with the 
W. U. Co. in this city. 

Mr. J. H. Presley has resigned his position as man- 
ager of the Atlantic, Ga., office. 

Mr. Beardsley, of Mobile, Ala., succeeds Mr. Presley 
at Atlanta. 

Mr. Presley takes charge of the Rome, Ga., office, 
again relieving Mr. Thel. Philips, who takes charge of 
the Greenville, Ala., office. 

Mr. J. H. Cade, present manager at Greenville, Ala., re- 
turns to his old office at Taladega, Ala. 

Mr. W. B. French is subbing for T. H. Fonda, at 
Fonda, N. T. 

Mr. Fred. Evans, who has been working as substitute 
in the W. U. Co.'s Albany office, for several weeks past, 
has accepted a permauent situation in the same office. 

Mr. W. L\ Phillips has been transferred from the 
Albany depot office to the Syracuse freight office. 

Mr. D. W. Daley, of Huntington, Mass., fills the place 
vacated by Mr. Phillips at Albany. 

Mr. H. A. Brasee, of Sherburne, N. T., is at present 
working in the W. TJ. Co.'s Schenectady office, in place 
of Charley Kelly, who has gone to his home at Adams, 
X. Y., sick with small pox. 

The Lake Mahopac and Mountain House offices have 
been closed for the season, and Thomas Stewart, Jr., of 
the former office, is temporarily employed in the Pitts- 
burgh, N. Y, office, and Fred. Balden, of the latter, is 
spending a short time visiting. 

The Congress Hall and Union Hotel, Saratoga, offices 
have been closed, and the operators, J. B. Antes and H. 
L. Martin, have gone to New York. 

Charlie Montanye, formerly operator on the Union 
Pacific Railroad, and recently from Sweet Water Mines, 
was last seen between Green River and Salt Lake City, 
on a mule bound west, destination unknown. 

Mr. R. A. Gager, formerly of the Depot office at Al- 
bany, is rusticating at Ithaca with his paternal ancestor. 

Mr. W. T. Altemeyer has returned to the Chicago 
office. He was unable to discern the beauties of Galena. 

Mr. Richard Valentine, of the Janesville, "Wis., office. 
has been transferred to the Milwaukie office of the North- 
western and Western Union Companies. 

Eugene S. Gove has been appointed Division Opera- 
tor, Phila. Div. Penna. R. R„ in place of J. W. Crouse, 
resigned. HeaHqunrters in Superintendent's office, West 
Philadelphia, 



No other appointment could have given more general 
satisfaction, as 'Gene is in every way fully qualified for 
the position, while his courteous manner and gentlemanly 
bearing cannot fail but make him universally liked and 
respected. 

«-4->-« 

THE TELEGRAPH. 

(By Atlantic Cable.) 
A New Submarine Cable Laid. 

London, Oct 5. 

The new Deep Sea Submarine Telegraph Cable, direct 
from Malta to Alexandria, Egypt, was successfully com- 
pleted on Saturday afternoon. 
« ■» »> 

Western Union Telegraph Receipts. 

The following is the official statement of receipts and 
expenditures of the Western Union Telegraph Company 
for the month of 

August, 1868. 

Gross receipts $602,304 73 

Current expenses 376,452 03 

Net profit $225,852 70 

This exhibit shows an increase of $31,627 88 over the 
receipts of August, 1867, while the expenses have only 
increased $481 86. 

A New General Office. 

The Western Union Company have decided to make 
their office at No. 21 Wall street a general office, auxil- 
iary to that at No. 145 Broadway. Nineteen wires have 
been run into the office, and properly connected, under 
the able supervision of Mr. D. F. Marks, who is great on 
connections and running wires. These wires give direct 
commnnication with Chicago, Buffalo, Detroit, Pittsburg, 
Cincinnati, Boston, Providence, Hartford, and to Phila- 
delphia, Richmond, Mobile, New Orleans, etc., South. A 
sufficient corps of operators has been provided, and no 
doubt, under the management of Mr. W. K. Dewitt, 
the office will prove a valuable and effective addition to 
the Telegraph facilities of the business portion of the city. 
It will relieve the main office at No. 145 Broadway of 
much of the pressure of business which has overtaxed 
the resources of even that mammoth Telegraphic estab- 
lishment, and greatly facilitate the prompt delivery of 
communications. 

Telegraph Extension in Texas. 
One of the new structures erecting this season by the 
Western Union Telegraph Company is a line from Colum- 
bus, Texas, to Indianola, on the Gulf of Mexico, about 
one hundred miles in length. From Indianola it proceeds 
along the Lavaca bay to Lavaca, and thence twenty-five 
miles by railroad to Victoria, and theuce to Columbus, 
connecting with the existing lines to San Antonio and 
New Orleans. 

Not a New Idea. 

We learn that, encouraged by the success of the Franco- 
American Cable Co., parties in Berlin are trying to 
organize a company to lay still another Atlantic Cable to 
the United States. It is proposed to give subscribers to 
ts capital stock credit for their subscriptions on the 
books of the company, and allow them to receive the 
amount in Telegraphic service by the cable. This is by 
no means a now idea, and will, we think, be found to be 
impracticable. 



Telegraph Extension in California. 
A private letter, recently received from San Jose, 
California, states that the Atlantic and Pacific States 
Telegraph Company's lines had been built to that place, 
and that the Company was extending its lines Eastward, 
to connect with a new line from this aide of the Rocky 
Mountains. 



The Floating Pen Litigation.— Injunction Dissolved. 

Hidden vs. Little. — Judge Barrett rendered the 
following opinion in this warmly contested litigation, the 
particulars of which have already appeared in The Tele- 
grapher. 

opinion. 

There is no foundation for the construction placed by 
the plaintiff' upon the contract in question. The agree- 
ment to share any improvements made by either party 
on the said inventions has clearly reference to the im- 
provements upon the particular inventions covered by 
the letters patent referred to in the instrument. In other 
words, the parties agreed to share all the subsequent im- 
provements in " Telegraphic Recording Instruments" 
which the defendant had then invented, and the purchase 
of one half interest in which was recited to be the plain- 
tiff's object in entering into the contract. There is no 
reference to aDy subsequent iuvention of improvements 
in Telegraphic Recording Instruments, of a character dif- 
ferent and distinct from that then in existence, and 
which formed the subject of the contract ; and, indeed, 
it would require very clear language to warrant the as- 
sumption that the defeudant intended to convey one half 
of every such future invention as might come from his 
brain. It is established without denial from the plaintiff 
that the " Floating Pen " is not an improvement upon 
the " Relay," as the original invention was styled, but an 
improvement in Telegraphic wording instruments, ofadis- 
tinct and even opposite character. To this the plaintiff 
clearly has no claim, and the fact that the defendant has 
at times addressed him in terms indicating a recognition 
of his joint interest, merely shows that the defendant mis- 
construed the agreement and misconceived his own 
rights. There is nothing in the point that the injunction 
should be retained until the trial. The plaintiff is bound 
to make out a clear title — one at all events without a 
reasonable doubt to warrant this extraordinary remedy. 
Here every equity of the bill is denied, and the title is 
not only doubtful, but, to my mind, clearly the other 
way. An injunction should not be retained where, upon 
the complaint, answers, and affidavits presented, success 
upon the trial seems improbable. The motion to dissolve, 
as to the Floating Pen, must be granted. Edwin James 
for the motion; Messrs. Clarence Seward and H. R. 
Cummings in opposition. 

The affidavit of Gen. Marshall Lefferts, Engiueer- 
in-Chief of the Western Uniou Company, Engineer Atlan- 
tic Telegraph Company, etc., in the above case sets 
forth— 

That he has had considerable experience with all kinds of 
Electric Telegraph Apparatus, and the mode of regulating and 
transmitting electric currents, and the general adaptation of ail 
recent scientific inventions for insuring the correct operation of 
Teleg aphic Recording Instruments. 

That he has rend the agreement, dated the 2d day of April, 186T, 
fully s< t forth in the complaint in this action. 

That he is also well acquainted with and knows the practical 
operation of an invention by the defendant, duly patented in 
Great Britain, on the 8tu day of April. 1867, and has read the pro- 
visional specification declaring the nature of the said invention, 
being for improvements in transmitting electric currents, and 
especially designed for use in connection with submarine hues 
for Telegraph, which specification is marked •• A," and is briefly 
described and known by the term of " Belays." 

That he has also read and is well acquainted with another in- 
vention of the defendant, pateited in Great Britain on the 21st 
day of October, 1867, and also since patented by the defendant 
in the United states, which invention consist of improvements 
in Electric Telegraph Apparatus, and relates chiefly to the con- 
struction of Recording or Writing Insiruments in collection 
with such Telegraphic Apparatus, and is briefly described and 
known as the "Floating Pen.'' That the last named invention 
of the " Floating Pen" or direct recorder cannot be scientifically 
considered, and is not, in fact, any improvement upon the first 
named invention, calted " Belays," but is a totally distinct and 
separate inveution, and has reference to a totally different appa- 
ntus, and is not used in any way, or has any connection with 
the practical operation of the invention known as " Belays," but 
is of itself a direct writer. 

That the " Floating Pen" is not, and cannot be used as. nor 
termed as an iniprov. ineut upon the •• Relay," but. whtn put 
into practical operation, i he invention of the "Belay" would 
probably be an impediment to the practical working of tho 
" Floating Pen." 

That the " Floating Pen " has been tested by this deponent 
practically, and is an invention of great value, as thi6 deponent 
believes, and its use is to make ink marks upon paper, by its own 
direct action. 

That in the judgment of this deponent, as a man of science 
and much experience in all Telegraphic operations, the invention 
of the " Floating Pen," by the defendant, is an entirely distinct 
a id separate invention from that of the " Belay," and cannot 
bs considered scientifically or practically as any improvement 
or addition to such lastuamnd invention, and that the agreement 
before referred t<> cannot be considered as applicable in any way 
to the in ven i ion of the 'Floating Pen," which, this deponent 
is informed and believes, was not invented by the defendant 
until some montbi subsequently to the. date ef the said agree- 
ment. 



56 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 10, 1868. 




OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. H. Young. ..Box 248 P. O., Washington, D. 

Vice-President, W. P. Merrill.. TV. U. Tel. O., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple. .Box 39 P. 0., Albany, >'. Y. 

Recording Sec. .J. W. Duxbury. .W. U. Tel. O., Boston, Mass. 
Corret. Sec ... .F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. O., New York. 



THE LABOR QUESTION ACAIN. 

Our official contemporary has been compelled to re- 
spond to recent articles on the labor question in 
The Telegrapher. The role of dignified reticence, 
although frequently convenient when it is desirable to ig- 
nore troublesome subjects, is not always practicable. 
For this reason, after an interval of more than a month, 
the pressure has been found so great, and the impression 
produced so damaging, that a reply must be attempted on 
behalf of the company. We are of the opinion that 
the managers of the "Western Union Company find it 
somewhat embarrassing and inconvenient, at times, to 
own an official organ, as it entails upon them the neces- 
sity of explaining and defending their action and that of 
their subordinates, when, in point of fact, it would be 
much pleasanter and more satisfactory to suffer in si- 
lence tho statements and inferences which ungrateful 
employes and troublesome editors may make. 

The extract from the official letter of the Presidents 
of the three (now) consolidated companies to the Post- 
master General, in 1866, in regard to the amount of Tel- 
egraphic labor which an operator could undergo and 
maintain health, has proved seriously embarrassing, in 
view of the fact that Mr. Ortox, the President of the 
consolidated company, was one of the signers, and that it 
was prepared by the editor of the official organ. It was 
found that some kind of an answer must be made, or 
there was danger of serious demoralization among the 
"Western Union forces. 

The result of the combined deliberations appears in the 
official organ for the first instant. It is written in the 
editor's customary flowing style of composition, and 
what it lacks in force and vigor, it must be confessed, is 
more than compensated for by its ornate and genial char- 
acter. As an argument, however, it is rather a failure, 
and as a vindication of the managers of the company 
against the charges of inconsistency and inhumanity, it 
does not amount to much. 

The editor of the official organ was for many years an 
able and efficient Telegraph Superintendent. Naturally 
of an amiable and kindly disposition, he so administered 
his lines as to render him deservedly popular with his 
employes. As far as was in his power he dealt justly 
with them, and exacted from them less service, propor- 
tionately, than he personally rendered. Of these facts 
we are aware, and freely concede all he claims in this 
connection. In fact, his management was too just and 
equitable to satisfy the Western Union Company, and 
one day, his situation having been made exceedingly un- 
comfortable by the higher officials of that company, he 
resigned, and entered the service of an opposition com- 
pany, which dealt more kindly and justly with its em- 
ployes. This much of the editor, personally. His na- 
tural impulses are kindly and humane, and his disposition 
ia to do justice as far as in his power. How distastful, 
then, must be to him the task of defending wrongs and 



outrages which are as patent to him as to others. It is, 
however, a part of his duty, as editor of the official organ 
of the Western Union Company, to defend that company 
and its managers, right or wrong. He no doubt makes 
the best of a bad cause, and his failure in the task should, 
perhaps, be attributed to the fact that he has no heart for 
the work. 

The statement quoted by us from the official letter re- 
ferred to, that six hours' continuous service per day is 
as much as young operators could undergo and maintain 
health, placed the managers of the Western Union Com- 
pany in an exceedingly unpleasant position. They must 
either tacitly acknowledge that they made statements of 
facts to influence official action, which did not govern 
them in the administration of their own lines, or find 
some method of explaining it away. 

It was a difficult matter, and required the united intel- 
lect of not only the editor and the President, but of such 
additional high officials as could readily be bronght to 
concentrate their talents on the subject. The difficulty 
must be overcome — but how? At length the problem 
was solved, the literary machinery set to work, and, 
after due consideration and revision, the result given to 
the Telegraphic world. "It is true," says the editor, " I 
stated, and the then Presidents officially endorsed the 
statement, that six hours' continuous service per day is all 
that a young operator can undergo and maintain health. 
The object of the statement was not to benefit operators, 
but to prove to the government that running Telegraph 
lines at reduced rates would not pay. We never sup- 
posed that our operators would use this argument against 
us. Our statement was based upon the transmission 
of two thousand words per hour. If only sixteen or 
eighteen hundred words per hour be transmitted, then the 
operator is all right, and should not grumble at being re- 
quired to work twelve or sixteen hours per day, as they 
are in the Chicago, and some other offices of the com- 
pany." 



Having made this discovery of a way out of the dilem- 
ma, the editor, and we presume the managers, feel better, 
and the former exultingly exclaims: " Now then, we 
are understood. We repeat, with all the emphasis we 
then felt, these statements." 

We wish it to be distinctly understood that the six 
horn theory is not ours, nor, as far as we know, that of 
our correspondents. Neither we nor they ask for a re- 
duction of the hours of labor to six per day. We have 
no doubt but that operators can stand a good deal more 
than six hours' work per day, even at the highest speed 
at which it is practicable to work the wires. We merely 
quoted the statement to show what Mr. Ortox's opinion 
was in 1866, in reference to the ability of operators, in 
contradistinction to the actual practice of the company of 
which he is the chief executive officer in 1868. 

We protest, in the name of overtasked operators, not 
against a reasonable amount of labor, although that be 
largely in excess of six hours per day. Nine or ten 
hours' service all Telegraphers that we know anything of 
are willing to render to their employers. More than this 
is excessive, and if the necessities of Telegraph Com- 
panies compel them to exact more, they should be wil- 
ling to compensate their employe's for it. In the case 
which has given rise to this discussion, that of the ope- 
rators in the Chicago office, it was stated that from twelve 
to sixteen hours' work per day was frequently and sys- 
tematically exacted, and that for this extra serviee no 
extra compensation was allowed. These statements have 
not been denied, and cannot truthfully be denied, even by 
our official contemporary. Since this matter was brought 
to public notice in the columns of The Telegrapher 
the force in the Chicago office has been increased, and in 
certain cases extra compensation allowed to operators, 
who do both day and night service to a late hour. The 
operators there, however, are still required to remain on 
duty every other day from 8 o'clock a. it. to 9 P. M., with 
brief intervals for dinner and tea, and, this we contend, is 
excessive and unjust. 



As their local managers and superintendents are evi- 
dently indisposed to do them justice, except as it shall be 
forced from them, we commend their case to the consider- 
ation of the higher executive officers of the company. 
And not only in this office is injustice committed but in 
many other offices of the Western Union Company, par- 
ticularly at the West. While the monthly statements of 
the company show constantly increasing prosperity, not- 
withstanding the partial competition encountered, there 
can be no valid excuse for under-paving or overworking 
operators. 

The editor's cheerful and exhilarating description of 
what he likes to see done in times of emergency by 
Superintendents, is highly pleasing, but how long does he 
suppose a Superintendent, who should send for the 
'• wholesome refreshments " at the expense of the com- 
pany, would retain his situation? 

We agree with the Journal that prolonged extra ser- 
vice deserves remuneration, but we differ with him as to 
always getting it. We know that in New York and cer- 
tain other offices extra services are paid for, but, as a 
general rule, on the Western Union lines they are not. 
His citation of the labor in the New York office is not at 
all to the point. We have from the first excluded the New 
York office in considering this matter. We freely con- 
cede that here operators, except in cases of emergency, 
are not required to render excessive labor, and that they 
are paid for extra labor. This fact only renders the in- 
justice against which we protest in other offices the more 
flagrant and inexcusable. 

We opine the trouble lies just here. The supenintend- 
ents of distant districts, and managers of offices, are aware 
that the one who can run his district or office at the least 
expense, stands highest at headquarters. Every effort is 
therefore made to reduce working expenses to the lowest 
possible point, and if in the process it becomes necessary 
to force employes to render two dollars' worth of service 
for one dollar, so much the more to the credit of the 
manager or superintendent immediately responsible. 
Were it not that the operators have an organ through 
which they can make known their wrongs, there would 
be for them no chance of redress. 

Of course, the higher executive officers can only be 
held indirectly responsible for this state of things so long 
as the outrages remain concealed, but now that they 
have been brought to light, unless a more liberal general 
policy is adopted, they must be regarded as directly and 
personally responsible for their continuance. 

The fling, in the attempted reply of the official organ, at 
the men who refuse to submit uncomplainingly to these 
exactions on the part of underlings of the company, 
dressed in a little brief authority, is contemptible. The 
genMemen who, through the columns of The Telegrapher, 
have ventilated these wrongs, are the peers of the editor 
of that delectable sheet, and wear as clean shirts. It is 
true their faces may not be as cheerful for they are not 
in the executive office, and excessive unremunerated 
labor is not promotive of cheerfulness or contentment. 
Were it not for exposing them to the petty persecution 
of heartless officials, we could easily convince the editor 
of the official of their respectability, aud that the loss of 
their services would hardly be compensated for by send- 
ing them to sea — which, we presume, in the editor's 
vocabulary, is the equivalent for their discharge. 



Editorial Abuse. 
Oer friend, who edits the Western Union official or- 
gan, doubtless to his own satisfaction, acknowledges, in 
his last issue of that valuable semi-monthly, the receipt 
of several communications, which, however, he declines 
to print. One of these, he says, is in his defence, and as 
he speaks of the "fair writer," we presume it must have 
been from one of his circle of lady admirers. He de- 
clines to print this communication, as its publication 
could only provoke a continuance of the abuse (it) is de- 
signed to excuse. 



October 10, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



.57 



We regret that this communication should fail to see 
the light, and, as the editor of the official organ is too mod- 
est to print hie own defence, we would sincerely and re- 
spectfully tender the use of the columns of The Tele- 
grapher to any of either sex who may have anything to 
say in reply to our comments and strictures. 

"We cannot understand how our reference to our con- 
temporary's "piety" can be construed into abuse. It 
certainly was not so intended. "We are not disposed to 
make light of his " piety," the sincerity of which we 
have no reason or disposition to question, however we 
may regard his poetical or literary acquirements. On the 
contrary, we alluded to it to give force to the statement 
from his pen relative to the amount of labor which 
operators should properly be called upon to perform. 

And once for all, we desire to dispose of this attempt 
to convey the impression that this paper is used to 
" abuse " our contemporary or any body else. A book or 
paper which asks for patronage is open to criticism. If a 
paper, although an official organ, is weak, trifling, or fails 
to reach the standard which it should do, it is not abuse 
so to state. We have already stated that our remarks 
were not intended to apply to Mr. Reid, personally, whom, 
as a private gentleman, we esteem and respect. As an 
editor, we claim and shall exercise our privilege to com- 
ment upon and criticise his efforts. If this be abv^e, we 
fear that he must still be subjected to it. 

We congratulate the Western Union Company, the ed- 
itor, and patrons of the official organ, upon the visible im- 
provement in the character of the paper which previous 
criticisms have effected, and shall in all kindness labor to 
effect still further improvement therein. 



« « » » 



Still Prospering. 

Our friend Tillotsox has been west. We heard of 
him in Chicago, but knowing his innate modesty we did 
not chronicle the fact. He returns in excellent health and 
spirits, and reports the firm of Bliss, Tillotsox & Co., 
in Chicago, as flourishing. In fact, any concern in which 
Bliss and Tillotson are united must flourish. The busi- 
ness of the the New York house of L. G. Tillotson & 
Co. is also flourishing, and we are pleased to learn that 
of late it has been even better than heretofore. They 
understand the way to do it, i. e., manufacture first class 
articles and advertise them in The Telegrapher. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 
Prof. Leuger, of Prague, is exhibiting to the British 
Association an automatic Telegraph apparatus, by which 
he proposes to secure correctness in the Telegraphic signs 
by mechanical means, independently of the hand of the 
operator. 

No details of this machine have been given from which 
we can get an idea of it. It is simply announced that no 
change in the arrangement of the Morse apparatus is re- 
quired, beyond the removal of the key and the substitu- 
tion of the automatic apparatus. 



Cable versus Steamer. 



The contrast between the comments of the foreign 
press upon Spanish affairs, as presented by the mails of 
the last European steamer, and the actual condition of 
affairs in that country, as described in cable despatches, 
illustrates once more the superiority and value of the 
Ocean Telegraph in the transmission of news. When the 
Cuba, one of the fastest steamers in the Cunard line, 
left Europe, the chief topic of interest in relation to Spain 
was the efforts of Queen Isabella to obtain an interview 
with the French Emperor, ostensibly to gain permission to 
send a Spanish garrison to Rome, and the probable result 
of the consultation; but before the Cuba reached New 
York the whole American people were acquainted with 
the fact that the throne and dynasty of Queen Isabella 
were toppling to their fall. — N. Y. Commercial Advertiser. 



New Offices Opened. 
The Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company have 
just opened offices at Titusville, Pleasantville and Ham- 
burg, in the Oil region of Pennsylvania. This Company 
seems to be very energetic and enterprising in extending 
its lines and increasing its facilities for doing business, 
and we understand are making preparations to ensure 
to the enterprise speedy metropolitan recognition. 



New Patents. 

82,502. — Electro-Magnetic Printing Telegraph. — Pierre An- 
toine Joseph Dujardin, Lille, France, Sept. 29, 1868. 
I claim, 1st. In a printing telegraph, the construction and ap- 
plication of cross type-wheels, oscillating on their common axis, 
and the mechanical means described, or other equivalents to 
produce their oscillating motions. 

2d. The construction and application of the adjustable inking- 
plug, in combination with the double printing-wheels, substan- 
tially as described. 

82,639. — Self- adjusting Telegraphic Relay. — Lewis H. Rey- 
nolds, Goshen, >'. Y., Sept. 29, 1868. 

I claim the doable electro-magnet, or two electro-magnets, 
placed in a helix or helices with their like poles near each other, 
and attachment to armature or armature-bar of common relay. 
so that their repulsion will counteract or nearly counteract the 
attraction of armature of common relay to its own magnet. 



BORN. 

Sept. 27th, to Norman H. Bugg, manager of the W. U. Saratoga 
office, a son. 



MARRIED. 

Bascon— Tyson.— In New York, on the 16th ult., by Rev. Dr. 
Foster, Mr. Geo. J. Bascom to Miss Sarah V. Ttrsox, both of 
New York. 

Burhans — Reilay. — At the residence of the bride's parents, on 
Wednesday evening, Sept. 30, by the Rev. John E. Cookman, 
W. w. bcrhans to Ellie A., only daughter of G. V. Reilay, all 
of New York City. 



DIED. 

Gay.— In Albany, Sept. 29th, of quick consumption, Richard 
Gay, Jr., for several years in the employ of the American and W. 
U. Companies. Aged 27 years. 

White. — At Durnville, Canada, on 24th inst., of consumption, 
William White, aged 22 years, late of the Western Union office, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Kind hearted and generous to a fault, an efficient operator, 
and beloved by aU, his loss will be severely felt by his many 
friends, both in the United States and Canada. 



ELECTRO SPECIFIC GRAVITY 
" FLOATING PEN." 



I hereby inform all interested in Telegraphic matters that the 

Injunction in the case of Hidden vs. Little has been dissolved, 

and that an Injunction in the case of Little vs. Hidden has been 

granted. 

GEORGE LITTLE, 

33 Bergen Avenue, 

Hudson City, New Jersey, 

United States. 
October 5th, 1868. 



OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE! 

Parties having OLD TELEGRAPH WIRE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 



Box 1714. 



L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., 

11 Dey Street, New York. 



THE TELEGRAPHIC MANUAL, 



W. 0. LEWIS, 



PRACTICAL ELECTRICIAN AND TELEGRAPH 
SUPERINTENDENT. 

A few copies of this Elementary Treatise on the Art of Tele- 
graphy may be obtained, if immediate application is made. It 
should be in the hands of every person who is engaged in learn- 
ing Practical Telegraphy, and will be found very useful, even to 
those more advanced. 

Price — Single Copy 25 cents. 

Five Copies to one address, $1.00. 

Orders must be addressed to Box 2692, P. O., New York; and. 
to receive attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 



Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK 

[OVER THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volcme of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices ; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

terms of subscription: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

jg®" Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts.. 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

J^~ Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our ri6k — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 •' 

&g=- No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

fl^-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. k P., and Iff. V. N. Telg. Co., Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, W. U. Telg. Office. Chicago. 
W. H. Young, B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 
A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, 
R. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 
B Frank Ashley, Statidard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N.»Y. 
Jas. M. Warner, " " Aurora. N. Y. 

K.McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. TORRENCE, " " " 

C. P. Hoag, •■ " San Francisco, Cal. 

M. Raphael, '* " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



58 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 10, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, 2f. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AXD EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH ^SUPPLIES. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Boot Job and Ccmmercial' Printim bishop gutta-percha co, 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PAHAFFLXE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

L. C. SPRINGER, 

MAN'ITFACTCRER OF AXD DEALER IX 

TSLEaRAFBIINSTRUMENTS 

AXD SUPPLIES. 

BEPAIRING- DONE PKOMPTLY. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

CHARLES "WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hixds & William s ,) 

109 COURT STREET (MIXOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Calvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 



JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AXD MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AXD MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



The most compact and reliable method of Snitch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in . 
the spac eo; a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection de-ired in any office for changes 
and test 

Also, Agents for 

PRESCOTT'S HISTORY, THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPH, 

A>"D 

WOOD'S PLAN OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUCTION. 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER" that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STBEET. 

SAM L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

iNSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

_A_ I IE=l TjIKTE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 

our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

A>*D OTHER 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as a,ny foreign manufacturers. 

N. B We are prepared to lay dowx and warrant Submarine 

Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 



Offi.??. 3fi H383S? 6TREET, 



New Yo*k 



October 10, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



59 



REMOVAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegraplj Instruments anb Supplies 



OP EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 

Material. 
Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 
Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 

Connection. 
Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. P. Varley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

126 South Clark St,, 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Celejrap| Patjmterg anir Supplies* 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, iu good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, qf good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance wiU be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct ? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIEES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 
SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 

29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 
MAIN -LINE 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

" The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAT. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BOTLDINGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HANOI EB ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Cauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THET SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
^Regulators, &c, &c. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 7 Exchange Place, 
Jersey City, JBT. iT., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

ORBIDE XaSTAX., 

which is much kicheb and ftseb than brass, he now presen ts 
his work in a style aud of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15Uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 60 

Small Box Kelays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the . 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 60 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case ho will make no charge for package. 

He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tele* 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 



60 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 10, 1868. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street. Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AXD DEALER IN" ALL KINDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register >'o. 1. of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

>"o. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils... 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

•« Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch <-cojnplete>. r 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

■warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight nf Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and Buch Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume m. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Not. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

LTTICA, N. T., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

>8ST*Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

BLASTING BY ELECTRICITY. 



BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 



WITH 



G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS; 



ALSO, 




All varieties cf Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in -transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

No. 38 South Fourth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY OP 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AXD OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on hand. 
tS~ Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



ELECTRIC MACHINES. 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 

FOR 

EXPLODINa NITRO GLYCERINE 

■WITH 

MATCH FUSE. 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Peroha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFFIXE INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No, 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol> 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 1868. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription Ust. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
casts, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
"Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, " Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
"Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal value. 

For twelve subscribers, "Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphv," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or "Xoad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. ■ 

W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapheb, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " >"oad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of '" A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Kive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOB SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, SETT YORK. 

— m>& — 

SHAFFNER, T. P. Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 635 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentuckv. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY, R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., Illustrated. London, 1867 5 25 

SABIN, ROBT.-The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the C. S. and Europe. 1 vol., 8vo. Illustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. London, 1867 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELECRAPH, by Dr. 

LAKDXER. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. B. A. S. 1 voL 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Illus- 
trations. London, 1867 2 60 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged by the Professors of " Morse's Telegraph 
Institute." 1vol. 12mo 1 25 

TURNBULL, L .—The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol., Bro 2 50 

HARRIS Sir Wm. SnOWJ A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NO AD, H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism. Magnetism, Dia- Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol., 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

DE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 86 50 

NO AD, H. M.— Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol.. 12mo. 400 Hlustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M .-Electricity. 1vol., 12mo.... 1 75 

BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 60 

DU MONCEL.— <I- ee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

HICHTON E .—History of Electric Telegraph. 100 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12mo 2 50 

g&- A New and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Works 
ready October 1, sent Free on Application, 

New York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 8. 



New York, Saturday, October 17, 1868. 



Whole No. 118. 



AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

Probably no more important and valuable improve- 
ment in the science of Telegraphy has been made for a 
number of years, and certainly none that will effect a 
greater stride towards perfection in this science, than the 
wire manufactured by the American Compound Tele- 
graph "Wire Company. 

The employment of a steel core with a copper covering 
was a happy thought on the part of its inventors, Messrs. 
Farmer and Milliken*, of Boston. 

The superiority of copper as a conductor, and the great 
strength of steel, produce, when combined together, as 
perfect a line wire as could be desired. 

The many advantages which will accrue by the adop- 
tion of this wire by our Telegraph companies, and the 
merits which- it undoubtedly possesses, deserves the at- 
tention of all interested in the progress of the Telegraph. 

In this wire the composite parts are steel and 
copper, the steel forming the core, and serving mainly 
for strength, while copper is used more especially for 
its superior conductivity. 

The method of manufacture is quite simple — the 
steel wire, which is first tinned, is covered by being 
drawn through the plate together with a long thin 
strip of -sheet copper, which in its turn is tinned. 
The second coating of tin is used for the purpose of 
preventing moisture from contact with the steel. 

The following tables, prepared by Mr. Farmer, 
from the results of a large number of experiments 
made during a space of five years, may be relied 
upon as acurato in every respect : 

Table No. 1 contains the elements for the average 
of No. 8 galvanized iron wire. 

Table No. 2 is the ordinary equivalent of the com- 
pound wire to No. 8 galvanized iron wire. The de- 
crease in the tensile strength of the compound wire, 
when compared with the iron wire, is regained, 
owing to its lightness, both having the same " relative 
strength."* Also, a small increase in conductivity. 
Table No. 3 is the compound wire, having the same 
weight per mile as the irom wire. In this form it will be 
noticed that the tensile strength of the wire has increased 
nearly double, and an increased conducting capacity three 
times greater than that of the iron wire. 

Table No 4 is the compound wire, with the same 
strength as the iron wire, but considerably lighter, and 
with more than double the conducting capacity. 

Table No. 5 shows a compound wire of equal conduc- 
tivity, weighing three times less, and possessing the same 
relative strength. 

Table No. 6 shows a compound wire having the same 
weight and tensile strength, but with a conductivity 
five times greater than that of the iron wire. 

Table No. 7 shows a compound wh-5 having the same 
weight and conductivity, but with nearly three times the 
tensile strength. 

Table No. 8 shows a compound wire of the same 



tensile strength and conductivity, and weighing but 179 
pounds to the mile. 

It will be seen, by referring to these tables, that the 
compound wire need have only about one third the 
weight of the galvanized iron wire, to be relatively 
stronger, and at the same time possess an equal or 
greater conducting capacity. It is evident why this 
should be so, since the best commercial copper possesses 
more than six times the average conductivity of galvan- 
ized iron wire, and the steel wire has nearly three times 
the tensile strength of galvanized iron wire of the same 
size. 

The relative strength of the best steel wire averages 
7.47, that of copper 1.72, while the average strength of 
galvanized iron wire, as found by testing various samples, 
is only 2.9. 

It is evident that, by varying the proportions of steel 



TABLES. 




Weight 
per Mile. 


Tensile 
Strength. 


Conductivity. 


Conductivity 
compared with. 


Table No. 1 J 


375 


1,091 


1,331 


1 


{ Steel, 
Table No. 2 J Copper, 

( Compound, 


56 

56 

112 


418 

96 

514 


147 
1,288 
1,435 


1 
.... 

i!o7 


( Steel, 
Table No. 3 I Copper, 

( Compound, 


187 
188 
375 


1,397 

325 

1,722 


490 
4,324 
4,814 


3!61 


( Steel, 
Table No. 4 I Copper, 
( Compound, 


119 
119 
238 


889 

205 

1,094 


311 
2,737 
3,048 


2. 29 


( Steel, 
Table No. 5 j Copper, 
( Compound, 


52 

52 

104 


388 

89 

477 


136 
1,196 
1,196 


"i 


( Steel, 
Table No. 6 j Copper, 
( Compound, 


78 
297 
375 


583 

511 

1,094 


204 
6,831 
7,035 


5.28 


( Steel, 
Table No. 7 J Copper, 

( Compound, 


357 
18 

375 


2,768 
31 

2,799 


935 

414 

1,349 




( Steel, 
Table No. 8 I Copper, 
( Compound, 


136 

13 

179 


1,016 

74 

1,090 


356 

989 

1,345 


• • > > 

... 



»-!, ^ 6 K° te ? S e 1» oti « nt .obtained by dividing the strain which 
would break the wire by its own weight per mile. 



and copper in the combination, any desired relative 
strength can be given between the limits of 1.72 and 
7.47, and at the same time, any desired conductivity can 
be had along with it. 

The impossibility of drawing steel into wire contain- 
ing flaws, which is not the case with iron, prevents the 
breakages which occur so frequently when iron is used. 

The great advantage which this wire has over iron 
wire is, that its lightness will admit of an average of ten 
poles to the mile less than would otherwise be necessary ; 
which, according to Mr. Farmer, will effect a decrease of 
twenty-five per cent, or more in the escape of the 
current — besides, a reduction in the number of poles will 
conduce to economy in construction. 

Another point in favor of this wire, and there seems to 
be many, is the imperishable nature of copper, which is 
the exposed metal, zinc coating of the galvanized iron 
wire being deteriorated near the sea, from the effects of 
gases, &c, while copper, under the same condition, is 



unimpaired. 



E. 



Interesting Foreign Telegraph Intelligence. 
(From the London Times, Sept. 29.) 
The line of Telegraphs between Denmark and Russia, 
to the proposed establishment of which we alluded some 
days ago, will extend, as at present contemplated, from 
Zeeland, at a point not far from Copenhagan, to the 
island of Bornholm, and from that to Libau, in Russia, a 
distance altogether of 400 miles. The construction of 
this extension, which will be auxiliary to the Anglo- 
Danish line recently laid between Rinkjobin and New- 
biggin, will almost comp lete the communication between 
England and Russia. The manufacture of the cable 
which is intended to be laid between Peterhead and Nor- 
way is, we understand, satisfactorily progressing. A 
portion of the cores for the new length of the Persian 
Gulf line has been manufactured, and the serving and 
sheathing of it has been commenced. It is announced 
that a Telegraph has been completed between 
Suakin, in the Red Sea, and Cassaba, in Egypt, but 
that communication is not yet practicable, owing to 
the damage done to the wood-work by the ants. It 
is intended to substitute metal posts, in order to 
prevent the recurrence of the inconvenience. The 
Russian screw corvette, Lion, which was engaged 
some time ago in making soundings, with a view 
to find a proper route for a submarine cable forming 
a portion of the Indo-European Telegraph scheme, 
has completed her survey. In the north-eastern 
part of the sea an apparently safe and practicable 
route has been surveyed. The possibility of sub- 
merging a cable near the coast has, we believe, 
been demonstrated. 

The telegraphic communication with India, via 
the Persian Gulf and Turkish lines, has been lately 
maintained with considerable regularity, the aver- 
age time occupied in the transmission of a message 
being about a day and a half. This efficient con- 
dition of the lines will doubtless be rendered still 
more satisfactory by the duplication of the sections 
of the submarine system through the Persian Gulf. 
A branch of military telegraphy has been organized 
in the American service, at their military school at "West 
Point. Some legal difficulties in the way of removing 
the Great Eastern have been obviated, and it is ex- 
pected that the " big ship" will shortly appear at her 
old moorings in the Medway. A telegram, dated Sep- 
tember 24, from Valetta, states that the Chiltern has 

transferred the ends of the Malta and Alexandria cable 
to the Scanderia, which was to leave on Saturday, ac- 
companied by the Endymion and Newport. 
..«..- 

Fish vs. Fishooper. — Some time since an operator in 
the St. Louis office received a message, addressed " W. H. 
Fish, operator, Nashville." The operator receiving got 
it " W. H. Fishooper, Nashville,'' but it was corrected by 
another operator before repeating it. 

A Conundrum. — A railroad Telegrapher sends us the 
following, which we think is not bad. 

Why is the crown sheet in a locomotive like a majority 
of railway Telegraph offices ? 

Answer. — Because, with few exceptions, they have 
soft plugs in them, 



62 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[October 17, 1868. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

A r o notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Telegraphic Experiences on the Union Pacific Road. 
"Wyoming Territory, Sept. 21th. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE TeLEGBAPHEB. 

Following illustrious examples. I am going to write 
" A trip across the continent." 

Arriving in Omaha, the " young Chicago" in swaddling 
clothes, I immediately proceeded to a shaky-looking 
building, which I was informed was the headquarters 
of the Union Pacific Telegraph. Here I found Mr. Cook, 
the Telegraph Superintendent, and introduced myself as 
an " artist" in want of a " posish," and after a few ques- 
tions found myself a member of the U. P. Telegraphic 
corps. 

I was impatient to reach my new field of labor, pic- 
turing to myself a little village nestling under the 
shadow of some giant mountain, the wild chase after the 
huge buffalo, the bounding antelope and elk, and the 
remembrance of all the ten cent novels I ever read 
rushed through my brain. I was in a state of feverish 
excitement to embrace the first romantic, dear savage 
I should meet, when Mr. Cook put an end to my picture 
by telling me that my chances of seeing buffalo, abori- 
gines, 4c, were rather slim. 

Mr. Cook is a quiet, good-natured kind of young gen- 
tleman. I left him with a sort of confused idea that I 
was to receive one hundred and twenty dollara s month — 
that I might get seventy-five — but from the way in 
which he talked I came to the conclusion that the Com- 
pany would not pay less than one hundred, and probably 
make me a Superintendent before a week. The nestling 
village, with myself as agent, postmaster, express agent 
and justice of the peace, was before my eyes, and I 
swallowed Mr. Cook's bait with avidity. " Alas ! poor 
Yorick!" 

Leaving Omaha at 4.20 P. M., the first station we 
struck was Papilion ; the brakesman called it Pappylone. 
I looked out of the window to see the first nestling vil- 
lage, 4c, and what was my astonishment — I might say 
consternation — to find out that the place was composed 
of a sentry-box, yclept station house, section house and 
tank. If such is a station twelve miles from Omaha, in 
heaven's name what is a station 600 miles from the 
" Young Chicago !" I tried to work the problem out by 
algebra, the " double rule of three," compound concen- 
tration, 4c, but gave up the attempt as a failure and 
went to sleep on it. "Waking up at Xorth Platte, I 
found myself in the arms of Jack Morrison and Frank 
Conner. They embraced me alternately, and, with tears 
in their eyes, asked me an hundred questions a minute, 
about the boys, and matters in the States, 4c. When I 
told them where I was going their tears ran in perfect 
streams. I asked them why they wept. Frank replied, 
""We weep for thee." I "axed" him why? He said, 
"anan." I " dropped" the subject and went in for some 
breakfast, at Frank's expense. After consoling my inner 
man I felt somewhat better able to face the unknown 
danger, and bidding an affectionate adieu to Jack and 
Frank I started once more "Westward, ho ! passing a 
great many stations like " Pappylone," only the station 
houses were somewhat larger. Arriving at Cheyenne 
I recognized the indomitable Jiinnr Clute on the plat- 
form, looking as much at home as if he was standing on 
the steps of the " Queen's," Toronto. I just had time to 
hear Jru say something about "an exile from home, 
splendor dazzles in vain," when we were off again, and 
about six o'clock we began entering the mountains. Up, 
up, up we go, and about seven P. M. we have reached 
the "summit." Looking back, down, down below, "the 
valley lay smiling before us;" on every side huge rocks, 
piled up in the most fantastic forms, resembling castles, 



ruined churches, grotesque monuments, walls composed 
of huge boulders, seemingly the work of that fabled 
race, the Titans ; on every side black, yawning chasms 
and overhanging rocks, here a small valley, green with 
verdure, a herd of antelope browsing peacefully in its 
centre ; in another little valley a small lake, glistening 
and glimmering like a huge mirror set in green, whilst 
the wild fowl that dot its surface look like flies on the 
same mirror. Overtopping and overlooking all the huge 
mountains raise their grey old heads, white with the 
snows of centuries. But the train is still moving on, 
and we lose sight of the magnificent view from " the 
summit," and about 8.30 P. M. we arrive at Laramie, 
where, according to orders, I reported to Mr. J. K. Pain- 
ter, whom I found to be a short, stout little man, with 
one of those faces that seem to defy time, and a way of 
planting himself before you in a position that says, as 
plain as words, "Just move me, will you? Use a lever 
if you wish, only move me if you can." And when J. 
E. P. puts his hands in his pockets, spreads his solid 
little pins, and cocks his head in his own peculiar way, 
the applicant for a raise, if gifted with ordinary clearness 
of vision, reads in J. K. P.'s boots, in the cut of his 
clothes, in the shape of his cap, and the position he 
stands in, " there's no raise in me, Mr. Operator. I have 
you here now, and if you don't like to work for 8" 5 a 
month you may go home, if you can get homey That's 
what I read in J. K. P. before he spoke a word. When 
he does speak he is so kind, so anxious about your health, 
inquires in an affectionate manner after your parents, 
gives you a sort of an indefinite idea that working out 
here is far preferable to working East, although you re- 
ceived a larger salary where civilization holds sway — 
still it's better to work out here, sleep on the ground in 
a tent, accumulate greybacks in your blankets and 
clothes, eat alkali dust in your grub and imagine it salt 
or pepper, just as you choose — pay a dollar a day — the 
cheapest you can get board for. If nobody happens to 
live at the station, the Company kindly furnishes you 
with a sheet-iron stove, two links of pipe, a black kettle, 
made after the shape of the " flesh-pots of Egypt," a 
sheet-iron bread pan, two tin cups, two ditto plates, a 
knife and fork, and, if you have any stamps, you can 
buy provisions to suit yourself; if you are stampless, 
trust to luck that you will shoot an antelope some day, 
and literally live on the fat of the land. Until the an- 
telope comes you can live very nice on sage brush " biled 
down ;" it makes a good vegetable soup, purifies the 
blood, and is a capital antidote against mountain fever. 
Is not that preferable to wasting away your life in the 
"luxurious East?" "Why it's worth trying, just for the 
joke of the thing, you know. Ha ! ha ! funny, aint it ; 
then you save all the money you have left after paying 
a month's board. Oh, its capital ; and such a place for 
forming a character ! "He who steals my purse steals 
trash," but he who steals my good name steals that which 
in this country is not worth a cent. 

The next morning I was equipped for my new home, 
and here are the " hitems," including the stove, 4c, 
already described. 

Two operators, one night, one day; one tent and 
poles ; one mattrass, two feet wide, six long, made nar- 
row, so that the night operator can't get into bed with 
the day man, or vice versa — capital invention that ; six 
U. S. army blankets; two camp stools; two needle 
guns and eighty rounds ammunition, with your baggage, 
if you have any, complete the outfit, as it is called. 

At Laramie I found Billy Foley and Jack McCon- 
nell pounding brass, as if they had made up their minds 
to stay there at it for a century. Its no use my trying 
to get rid of them two "artists," they turn up in every 
direction. Foley, especially, seems to haunt me ; he is 
like a bad copper, I can't get rid of him ; his smiling, 
good-natured little old mug haunts me wherever I go ; 
and I believe, were I to take an office in Alaska or Da- 
homey, I would find Billy either ahead of me or a couple 
of days behind. And what old operator, from Portland 



to San Augustine, don't know Billy Foley ; and who 
that knows him can say anything to his discredit, ex- 
cept that he is a little too good-natured ? Give me your 
hand, Billy, and we will have another shake when we 
arrive a"t home, sweet home. 

Leaving Laramie, with my mate and outfit, the faces 
of Painter, Foley and McConnell, as the train started 
off, seemed spread into three demoniacal grins, whilst 
my imagination tortured the words, " Look out for your 
scalp." "Is your life insured?" " Does your mother 
know you're out ?'' into a kind of a song — W-i-1-1 you 
e-v-e-r go h-o-m-e ? Y-o-u-'l n-e-v-e-r go h-o-m-e. Will 
y-o-u n-e-v-e-r go h-o-m-e ? I will when I have seen the 
elephant. I have seen a little too much of him already, 
and I expect, when I see him all, I will come to 
the conclusion (I might as well say I have come to it 
already) " that there are more things in this world than 
we dream of in our philosophy." Brian Boru. 

Telegraph Monopoly in California.— Progress of the 
A. and P. States Telegraph Company. 

San Francisco, Sept. 29tft. 

TO THE EDITOE OF THE TELEGBAPHEB. 

The Telegrapher is a welcome visitor to us on the 
Pacific Coast, as we are dependent upon it for most of the 
information we get of what is going on Telegraphically 
in the rest of the world. To be sure the Western Union 
Company sends us a supply of its official organ, but the 
information to be derived from that is too limited in 
quantity and diluted in quality to be of much interest to 
go-ahead people, such as populate the Pacific Coast. 
Probably the managers of the "Western Union Company 
understand their business, but it certainly seems to us 
out here that a half sheet monthly circular would answer 
every purpose of the present official organ, and save con- 
siderable expense. 

There are a few items of Telegraphic interest trans- 
piring here, which you might like to communicate to your 
readers. It will be remembered that the Western Union 
Company has claimed a monopoly of the Telegraph busi- 
ness in this State, under a charter granted by the Legis- 
lature to the first Telegraph Company organized here, 
which gave to that company the exclusive right to ope- 
rate Telegraphs in this State for fifty years. In course of 
time this company fell into the mausoleum which has 
entombed so many Telegraph Companies — the Western 
Union — which of course inherited its grants and privi- 
leges. Until recently the monopoly has been maintained, 
but a new company, the Atlantic and Pacific States Tele- 
graph Company, was organized last spring, and com- 
menced building a line to the East. The monopoly ob- 
tained a temporary injunction, and expected to stop the 
progress of the line for good. They have, however, been 
defeated in this suit, and the A. 4 P. States Company are 
at liberty to push forward, which they are doing very 
actively, and expect to be at Salt Lake City by Novem- 
ber. 

The San Jose Railroad Company have ordered the 
Western Union to move their poles so as to place them 
all on one side of the road They have been zigzagging 
them across the track, so as to prevent any use of the 
facilities of the road by the opposition company. 

We hope, in the course of another year, to be relieved 
from the Western Union monopoly, which will gratify 
not only the public but also the Telegraphic employes. 

California. 

Shrewdness of the Monopoly. 

Chicago, October 10. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE TELEGBAPHEB. 

Soon after the consolidation of the three great Tele- 
graph companies of the country into the present Western 
Union organization, the managers of the Consolidated 
Company announced their determination to reduce to the 
lowest practicable point the amount of Dead Head busi- 
ness passing over its wires. Accordingly, very strict 



October 17, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



63 



' orders were issued, and for a time there really was a 
considerable diminution of the Dead Head patronage. 
This did not last long, however, and the wires were soon 
crowded again with free business. Every Representative 
and Senator in Congress, the President of the United 
States, Cabinet officers, Generals of the army, Editors, 
and in fact almost every prominent public man, has a 
Dead Head ticket to do his private and family tele- 
graphing free over the "Western Union lines. 

A little reflection will show, however, that this courtesy 
is not wasted. Every official— every member of Con- 
gress — every editor or correspondent who accepts one of 
these passes, is bound to aid in sustaining the Western 
Union monopoly. It gives that company an influence in 
the White House and at the National Capital that it 
could not otherwise obtain, and at a very cheap rate pays 
for most important services. The influence, private or 
official, of every man who accepts these favors, is bought 
and paid for, aud the transaction is so understood by 
both parties. 

By means of its contracts with the press this company, 
also, to a certain extent, influences the newspapers of the 
country, or at least prevents them from assuming as de- 
cided an attitude in favor of competition in the Telegraph 
business as a proper regard for the greater good of the 
public would otherwise induce them to do. 

All this is very shrewd, and makes the task of destroy- 
ing the monopoly which the Western Union has under- 
taken to establish, more difficult, but it will be done at 
whatever cost. Wide Awake. 
> <♦> < 

Bitter Creek, Oct. 1st. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

I have not seen anything in your enterprising journal 
for some time from this benighted section of the country, 
and propose to occupy a small space with a little narrative, 
which I hope may amuse your readers as it has others. 
About a year and a half ago a full-blooded Kanuck made 
his appearance at Fort Sedgwick. "We will call him Joe, 
for short, though he generally went by the name of the 
" tow-headed Kanuck;" the said Kanuck was fearfully 
green, -and was nearly frightened out of his senses before 
reaching the Port, the boys at Omaha having stuffed him 
with all manner of horrid stories regarding the bloody 
iDj'uns, what they would do with him if he fell into their 
hands, etc. This was also his first trip into Uncle Sam's 
country. 

After the completion of the Union Pacific R. R. to a 
point about four miles opposite Fort Sedgwick, the 
Western Union Telegraph Company determined to run the 
wires over to Julesburg and open an office there, a large 
town having sprung up within a few days. The Kanuck 
was placed in charge of the office. He had seen a very 
neat " cut out" in the U. P. R. R. office, and he very 
much desired one similar to it, and strongly urged Con- 
way, the Assistant Superintendent, to furnish him one. 
Now, the cut out in the U. P. office was one of the sort 
with two prongs or slides, which, by pulling together, cut 
the instrument out, or vice versa, cut the instrument into 
circuit. Joe received his cut out after a great deal of 
bothering — but another difficulty now presented itself. 
Joe's acquirements as a wireist were not strictly first 
class, in short, the requisite talent to put up the said cut 
out he did not possess. So he went down to the depot 
again, and after minutely examining the cut out exclaim- 
ed, " Ha 1 Ha ! Now, by the bloody powers, I have it 1" 
and made a rush for his board shanty. Well, Joe's cut 
out worked all right during the day, but on the first 
evening after 8 p. M. (closing hour) the line was open west. 
This passed without attracting any particular attention, 
such things being common in that country, if there were 
plenty of antelope or friendly Indians about. On the next 
evening and the next the same difficulty occurred again ; 
so Supt. Conway asked Joe ifthere was not some trouble 
in his office or with his cut out. Joe replied, "No, I put 
it up just as the one in the depot is fixed." Van was sent 
over and found the cut out put up just like the one in the 
depot, with the slight difference that it was upside down. 
Joe has not taken much interest in cut outs since then 

D. 



Another View of the Labor Question. 

Lee, Mass, Oct. 10. 
To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

As you were pleased to find room for my former com- 
munication, I send you another, which perhaps may not 
prove unacceptable or entirely without interest. 

There has been of late a decided change for the better 
on the circuit which it is my province to work. Two 
new operators have been employed in the large office on 
the line, who thoroughly understand their business, and 
we are now treated as ladies and gentlemen, if we be- 
have ourselves. 

I desire to say a few words in regard to the labor ques- 
tion, which has of late been so persistently agitated 
through the columns of the Telegraphers' organ. It 
seems to me that there is too much said upon this sub- 
ject. If you engage your labor to a man or a company, 
you must certainly expect to comply with the require- 
ments of your employer. If more is exacted than 
should properly be required, and it is impossible to 
procure a better position, why not hold the one you have, 
and be speechless ? Your correspondent works sixteen 
hours in the day, and for something less than the salary 
of a Division Superintendent ; but, thinking it best to 
endure patiently what cannot be avoided, works on 
quietly. "We all get weary, sometimes, and sick and tired 
of the world, but "trouble is the common lot of man," 
and we must all expect our share. Patient waiting is no 
loss, and if an employe is faithful in the discharge of his 
duty, it will eventually be seen and be duly noted. 
Nothing permanently beneficial was ever gained by un- 
due haste, and even a wrong and injustice may be venti- 
lated in an improper and ill-judged manner. 

More anon. M. A. 

« -4 » > 

Quicker Work. 

New York, October 10. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

I notice, in a recent issue of the official organ, the 
following statement : 

QUICK WORK. 

A gentlemau came in to one of our Western cities one 
day last week and left a message for his friend in New 
York, inquiring the value of a certain stock. It was 
sent to the office at the room of the Gold Board. The 
person addressed happened to be present, and Manager 
Schram, whose eyes are always open, called him. The 
answer was written while the message was being re- 
ceived, and sent at once. An order to purchase was at 
once given, the first sender not having left the office. The 
whole business, the inquiry, the response, the order, 
occupied a minute and a half! Manager Schram thinks 
that good time. So do we. 

This may be a very wonderful performance for the 
Western Union lines, but is of common daily occurrence 
on the wires of the Bankers and Brokers' Company. 

I have no disposition to detract at all from the credit 
due to Manager Schram and the Western Union opera- 
tors for such rapid work, but if he will only just step 
across the room to the B. and B. office I think we can 
easily satisfy him that his time can be reduced one half. 

Operator. 

PERSONAL. 

Prof. A. B. Talcott, of Washington, D. C, late 
Superintendent of the Fire Alarm Telegraph of that 
city, has gone into business as an insurance and real 
estate agent, and is, we understand, doing well. We 
rejoice to hear of his prosperity. 

Mr. J. M. D. Orrell has resigned the position of chief 
operator of Bridger Division, on the Union Pacific R. R., 
and accepted a situation in the Laramie office of that 
road. 

John Haines, operator of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company at Fort Churchill, Nevada, died there on 
the 24th instant, of heart disease. It is believed he has 
a mother and sister living in Philadelphia. 



F. C. Swain, the inde(/a<)igable manager of the ope- 
rating department of the Chicago office, is off on a short 
visit to Dayton, Ohio. 

0. H. Kinnaman, manager of the Keokuk, Iowa, office, 
and assistant superintendent, has resigned, to engage in 
other business. 

Joseph Bowers (not the original Joe) is now operator 
at Clarke Station, Ind. 

Deacon J. H. Stearns, who has been longer in the 
employ of the Western Union Company, at Chicago, than 
anybody else in the office, has gone into the office of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Co. in that city. 

Mr. M. L. "Wood, General Superintendent of the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Telegraph Company, is anxious to hear 
from Dr. L. M. Monroe, now or formerly of New Canaan , 
Conn. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 



The Second Atlantic Cable. 

The Atlantic Cable laid in 1866, which was broken 
for the second time several weeks since, was taken up 
and repaired on Sunday last, and it is now in good work- 
ing order again. No particulars have as yet been re- 
ceived. 

Proposed Telegraph Extension. 
A Concord, N. U, correspondent of the Boston Daily 
Advertiser, states that Col. J. W. Robinson, the enter- 
prising Superintendent of the Northern Telegraph Com- 
pany, proposes soon to erect a Telegraph line from that 
city to Pittsfield. It will branch from Pembrook street 
and run up the Simcook Yalley, and will be a great pub- 
lic convenience. 

M#+H 

The Telegraph in Ceorgia. 
The Telegraph line from Blue Mountain to Rome, 
Georgia, is to be completed this month. The line to Dal- 
ton will then be constructed. 



Cablegram or Calogram. 
A correspondent of the London Daily News criticises 
the proposed new word, " cablegram," as mongrel and 
unsatisfactory. He suggests one that is regularly and 
analogically formed, viz: "Calogram," the first half of 
which is from the Greek word signifying cable. 



Telegraphic Extension West. 

The Wisconsin division of the Great Western Tele- 
graph Company is being pushed on vigorously. On the 
line from Chicago to Milwaukee the wire is being strung, 
and it is expected to be in operation next week. 

The Great Western Company have also commenced 
the construction of a line from Chicago to Davenport, 
Iowa, which is expected to be completed and in opera- 
tion by Christmas next. The same company also com- 
mence setting the poles for a new line from Chicago to 
St. Louis during the present month. 



> <♦> < 



Reduction. 

When the Mississippi Yalley National Telegraph Co. 

opened their office at Chicago, they made the tariff to 

Dubuque, Iowa, seventy-five cents, the Western Union , 

charge previously having been ninety. The W. U. 

saw that, and went thirty-rive better, reducing it to forty. 

The M. V. N. T. Co. will open its office at Keokuk in a 

few days. 

< ■♦ » > 

New Patents. 

82,695. — Telegraphic Instrument. — Samuel F. Day, Balston 

Spa, N. Y., Oct. G, 1868: 

I claim, 1st. The combination of a relay and sounder, and the 
resistance coil, O, or its equivalent, substantially as and to the 
effect hereinbefore set forth. 

2d. The arrangement of parts herein described, or its equiva- 
lent, by which the sounder, while controlled by the relay, is also 
made to work the main line as a repeater, substantially as herein 
set forth. 

3d. The combination of the magnets, D, D, shafts, Q, Q, clamp- 
ing-pieces, S and T, and adjusting-screw, U, or their equivalent, 
substantially as set forth. 



64 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 17, 1868. 




SATURDAY, OCT. 17, 1868. 



OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. H. Young ...Box 248 P. O., 'Washington, D. C. 

Vice-President. W. P. Mekkh.l..W. U. Tel. O., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple.. Box 39 P. O., Albany, N. T. 

Recording Sec. J. W. Duxbuby . . W. XJ. Tel. O., Boston, Mass. 
Corres. Sec F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. O., New York. 



RECIPROCAL OBLIGATIONS. 

The Telegrapher has persistently advocated, with 
such ability as its several conductors have possessed, 
the rights of Telegraph employes. It has heretofore 
defended, and will continue to defend them against any 
attempt of Telegraph Companies to overwork them, or 
force them to accept inadequate compensation for their 
services. Its conductors have ever been actuated by the 
desire to see justice done them, and in so far as the paper 
has the ability to do so, it will secure it for them. "We 
write in the interest of right and justice, and without pre- 
judice towards any Telegraph corporation or employer. 
If sometimes our strictures seem to be harsh or unkind, 
none can regret it more than the editor of this paper. It 
is always more pleasant to commend than to denounce, 
at least to us, and we are always pleased when we can 
find opportunity to commend the management of any 
Telegraph Company, or record acts of kindness towards 
Telegraph employes. Personally we have no feeling of 
ill will or hostility to any existing Telegraph Company- 
"We desire that all may prosper, and would not willingly 
do or say aught that should have a tendency to injure 
either of the organizations engaged in supplying the Tele- 
graphic necessity of the country. 

In this connection we desire to remind Telegraphic 
employes that the duties and obligations of employer 
and employed are reciprocal. Justice and equity are 
never one-sided. 

Equitable compensation, and a proper regard to com- 
fort and convenience in the amount of labor required, 
and in the surroundings, are the right of the employe. 
In return, employers are entitled to a cheerful and willing 
compliance with all proper rules and regulations, and to 
the earnest sympathy and effective discharge of duties on 
the part of the employe. Telegraphers, from the very 
nature of their business, should be intelligent and think- 
ing workers. They should be actuated by higher mo- 
tives and principles than are expected from mere day 
laborers. So long as they contract to render certain ser- 
vice for a certain amount of compensation, they should 
render that service willingly and cheerfully. They 
should be, in no sense, mere time-servers, intent only on 
obtaining the largest possible amount of compensation 
for the smallest possible return of service. They are 
bound to regard, to a certain extent, the interests of 
their employers as their own, and to labor faithfully and 
honestly to advance their interests. 

" "We know that the great body of Telegraphers are ac- 
tuated by these principles and motives. We desire that 
all who can be influenced by us should be so. "We re- 
gard it as of the highest importance to the Telegraphers 
generally, that they should recognize and act upon these 
principles. It will strengthen their demands for justice, 
and secure a respectful consideration to their complaints. 
Vitally important public and private interests are neces- 



sarily and constantly committed to their care. Neglect 
of duty on their part injures, not merely the companies 
whom they serve, but others who are no way responsi- 
ble for any injustice that they may suffer. 

In former years much more personal interest was felt by 
operators in the success of the lines on which they were 
employed than is now displayed. We know that, for the 
change which has taken place in this respect, the illiberal 
management of certain Telegraph Companies is largely 
responsible. We wish to see all this corrected, and cor- 
dial good feeling once more re-established between Tele- 
graphic employers and employes. Whether this is pos- 
sible remains to be seen, but however it may be, we ap- 
peal to every Telegrapher to be prompt and vigilant in 
the discharge of duty. Do not give those under whom 
you serve an opportunity to accuse you justly of a dis- 
position to shirk your duties, or to perform them in a 
slip-shod manner. Do your whole duty under all circum- 
stances, even though you may feel that you have good 
grounds for complaint against your employers. We de- 
sire to see the Telegraphic profession elevated above the 
standard which it has of late years held. It is a highly 
honorable and responsible profession. It should attract 
a high order of talent. Those engaged in it should 
realize that they are something more than mere day 
laborers. Its rewards should be sufficient to satisfy any 
ordinary ambition. That it has not yet reached this 
point we regret. That it can and may reach it we are con- 
fident. We believe that there is a future for the Telegraph 
which shall far exceed its past. It requires some self- 
sacrifice on the part of the fraternity to aid in making 
this future. May we not confidently appeal to those who 
love their profession, and who concur with us in the de- 
sire for its elevation, to make these sacrifices. Above all 
things, remember that if you would have justice done 
you you must do justice to others. So long as you take pay 
from any company labor for its interests. It is not neces- 
sary, in so doing, that you should make yourselves parti- 
sans as between rival companies. With such rivalry you 
have nothing to do ; but discharge your duties faithfully 
and earnestly, so that whatever may occur you may 
always be in the right, and those who seek to do injustice 
to, or oppress you, shall be so manifestly in the wrong that 
you will have the sympathy of the public in any effort 
which you may make to right yourselves. In such a case, 
however, delayed justice and truth will at last triumph 
over oppression and wrong. 

The Three Essentials. 

Three things are essential to seeure reliabilty aud 
promptness in Telegraphic communication. These are a 
good conductor, "a practically constant batteiy, and per- 
fect insulation. The first appears to have been attained 
by the invention of the American compound wire, of 
which a very interesting exposition is given on the first 
page of this paper ; the second by the Manganese Battery, 
of which we published an account from London Engineer- 
ing in The Telegrapher of last week ; and the third by 
the Paraffine Insulator, invented and manufactured by 
Mr. David Brooks, of Philadelphia, which the Engineer 
eulogizes in the article reprinted. Without a good insula- 
tion the other two are rendered practically of little value. 
The perfection of insulation secured by the Paraffine In- 
sulator has been so often and so fully demonstrated in 
the columns of The Telegrapher, that anything further 
in that line may almost be considered superfluous. It has 
been very generally adopted by our best and most reliable 
Telegraph companies, and we are pleased to learn that Mr. 
Brooks' manufactory is taxed to its utmost capacity to 
fill the orders for his insulators, and that the demand for 
them is constantly increasing. The use of the com- 
pound wire is also increasing, and the proprietors of the 
pateut are likely to be handsomely remunerated for the 
large outlay and labor required to bring it to its present 
state of perfection. With the general introduction and 
use of these materials, we may expect the inauguration 
of a new era in Telegraphic communication. 



Important Telegraphic Decision. 
The case of the Western Uuion Telegraph Company vs. 
The Atlantic and Pacific States Telegraph Company, was 
decided by Judge Sexton, of the Twelfth District Court, 
in chambers, on Saturday. The defendants in this case 
had erected a Telegraph line on the line of the San Jose 
Railroad, and thence by way of Stockton. to Sacramento. 
Workmen were also actively engaged in extending the 
line along the Pacific Railroad across the mountains, with 
the design of an early extension to Salt Lake. The suit 
was brought by plaintiffs to prevent the further extension 
of the line, and to recover damages for the work already 
done. The decision of Judge Sexton was for defendants, 
the case having been ably argued on both sides. This 
leaves the new company at liberty to push forward their 
line, and will probably result in early and healthful com- 
petition, not only on this coast but across the continent 
The Western Union Company has been notified, we are 
informed, by the San Jose Railroad Company, that they 
must move their poles so as to place them all on one side 
of the track. Many of them now run zigzag across the 
road. — Daily Morning Chronicle, San Francisco, Cal. 

♦-*-#-• 

Telegraph Books. 
We would call attention to the announcement, in the 
advertisement of C. T. & J. X. Chester, that they are 
agents for Woods Manual of Telegraphic Instruction, and 
also for Prescott's History, Theory and Practice of the 
Electric Telegraph. Their customers, in addition to all 
descriptions of Telegraph material which are manufac- 
tured by this well and favorably known firm, can now 
procure these Telegraph works from them. The Ches- 
ters are determined on supplying everything in the 
Te legraph line that their customers may call for. 



Coming Home. 
Mr. Cyrus W. Field leaves Liverpool for this city on 
the steamer China to-day. He will be accompanied by 
Mr. T. H. Wells, the traffic accountant of the Anglo- Amer- 
ican (Cable) Company. 

The American Compound Wire. 

We would call the attention of parties interested to 
the article on our first page, on the newly invented 
American Compound Wire for Telegraph fines. The ad- 
vantages possessed by this wire over the iron wire here- 
tofore used in the construction of Telegraph lines, is 
rapidly bringing it into favor. Auy additional information 
in reference to it may be obtained of L. G. Tillotsox & 
Co., agents, No. 11 Dey street. 



Query. 
O.v Tuesday night, Oct. 13th, the elections in several 
States necessitated keeping the operating force in many of 
the Western Union offices on extra service nearly all night. 
Will the editor of the official give us the names of the 
superintendents who " sent out for wholesome refresh- 
ments ?" 

-•*» 

The Pacific Coast. 
We learn from a private letter, from a friend in San 
Francisco, that tw"o or three first class operators could ob- 
tain good situations on the Pacific Coast. Operators pro- 
posing to go there, however, would do well to make their 
arrangements with the superintendents before making the 
journey, as otherwise, when they reach California, they 
may find themselves unprovided for. 

Prospering. 
We learn from Chicago that the M. V. N. T. Co., 
which recently completed its wires to that city, and opened 
for business, is receiving a good share of business to 
points which it reaches. Eastern connections will be 
made in a few days, and Chicago bids fair, very shortly, to 
be relieved of the pressure of the Western Union mo- 
nopoly. 



October 17, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 




65 



Remarkable Method of Working a Fire Telegraph 
Alarm. 

It is the custom among our policemen, after giving an 
alarm of fire from a signal box, to repeat the alarm 
after a brief interval, so as to preclude the possibility 
of mistakes occurring. The policeman who gave the 
alarm yesterday from box fifty-four undertook to repeat 
the same, but to his surprise found that the alarm could 
not be given a second time. "What could be the matter ? 
No one knew ; and an investigation was therefore insti- 
tuted to ascertain the mysterious silence of the instru- 
ment. Search revealed the fact that two or three squares 
off was a place where a box is soon to be put up, and 
where the wires are arranged therefor, and that a simple- 
minded and excited fellow had got upon the fence, seized 
with one hand one wire and with the other the other, 
and had frantically pulled upon the two wires until he 
had torn both from their fastenings and severed their 
connections, he innocently thinking he was thereby per- 
forming heroic service in raising and spreading the alarm 
of fire. The damage he occasioned was considerable, 
and took some time to repair. His abashed and fright- 
ened appearance, when informed of his mistake, coupled 
with the laughter and jeering to which he was subjected 
when he stammeringly apologized that he "thought that 
was.the way to ring the bells," made up a scene almost 
as ludicrous as the irresistible comic blunder he had per- 
petrated. — Exchange. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

The Electric Light. 

Lv Holmes' magneto-electric machine each revolution 
developes sixteen currents in opposite directions ; hence 
the light it produces must be discontinuous, being extin- 
guished and relighted sixteen times in the course of each 
revolution. As the machine makes 500 revolutions in a 
minute, the interval of time during which the current is 
cut off is excessively small; nevertheless, M. Jamin 
thought he could demonstrate the intermittance of light. 
He failed to do this, but was able to recognize that the 
light of the luminous arc was less intense than that 
given off by the charcoal points, which he attributed to 
the interruption of the current. 

Properly speaking, he says, we have in this lamp not 
the discontinuous electric light, but that of the carbon 
poles, heated to intense whiteness, and giving a light 
nearly uniform. The light of the magneto-electric ma- 
chine is therefore less blue, and poorer in chemical rays 
than that from a lamp extracted by a battery, and con- 
sequently better adapted for light-houses. 

A Telegraphic Thermometer. 

An instrument of this kind, constructed by Professor 
"Wheatstoxe, was described at the British Association 
meeting. 

The details of its arrangement are too numerous for our 
columns, but the instrument is likely to prove of immense 
value in meteorological inquiries. Professor "Wheatstoxe 
gives the following account of its application to the pur- 
pose of meteorology. In this class of instruments the in- 
dications are not spontaneously conveyed to the observer, 
but they must be asked for ; and whenever this is done, 
the indications will be immediately transmitted to him, 
however frequently the question is put. The uses to 
which this Telegraphic thermometer may be applied, are, 
among others, the following : The responder may be 
placed at the top of a high mountain and left there for 
any length of time, while its indications may be read at 
any station below. Thus, if there should be no insuper- 
able difficulties in placing the wires, the indications of a 
thermometer placed at the summit of Mount Blanc may 
be read as often as required at Chamouni. A year's hourly 
observation, under such circumstances, would no doubt be 
of great value. If it be required to ascertain, during a 
long continued period, the temperature of the earth at 



different depths below its surface, several responders may 
be permanently buried at the required depths. It will be 
requisite to have separate questioners for each, as the 
same may be applied successively to all the different 
wires. The responder, made perfectly water-tight, in 
which there would be no difficulty, might be lowered to 
the bottom of the sea, and its indications read at any in- 
tervals during its descent. 

In the present mode of making marine thermometric 
observations, it is necessary that the thermometer should 
be raised whenever a fresh observation is required to be 

made. 

< < » > 

Heat of Electric Discharges. 
Some interesting experiments have been performed by 
M. Poggexdorff on the heat developed in the passage of 
an electric discharge. From these experiments, it ap- 
pears that, by the discharge, by sparks, or with the 
addition of conductors, the total heating is less than in 
the " brush" discharge, or without conductors, and from 
them be concludes that the difference of temperature at 
the two poles has no relation to the source of the elec- 
tricity, but only depends upon the manner in which the 
discharge is made. 

Inductive Currents. 
It has been discovered by Signor Blaserga, of Padua, 
that inductive currents are not produced instantaneously. 
Their development requires a definite period of time, 
which he estimated at about 2 £„ of a second. He also 
states that, when established, an appreciable time is oc- 
cupied in arriving at the maximum. 

BORN. 
To M. H. Bedding, manager Bankers and Brok rs' Telegraph 
office, in this city, on the 6th inst., a daughter. 



MARRIED. 

Findley— Muneelt.— At Washington, D. C, Thursday Even- 
ing, Oct. 8, by the Eev. Peyton Bbown, Mr. D. L. Findley, 
operator in Western Union Telegraph Washington office, to 
Miss Et.t,\ G. Munebet, of New York. 

ELECTRO SPECIFIC GRAVITY 
" FLOATINS PEN." 



I hereby inform all interested in Telegraphic matters that the 

Injunction in the case of Hidden w. Little has been dissolved, 

and that an Injunction in the case of Little vs. Hidden has been 

granted. 

GEOBGE LITTLE, 

33 Bergen Avenue, 

Hudson City, New Jersey, 

United States. 
October 5th, 1868. 

OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE! 

Parties having OLD TELEGEAPH WIEE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 

L. Q. TILLOTSON & Co., 

Box 171L 11 Dey Street, New York. 

THE TELEGKAPHIC MANUAL, 



W. 0. LEWIS, 



PEACTICAL ELECTEICIAN AND TELEGEAPH 
SUPEEIN TEN DENT. 

A few copies of this Elementary Treatise on the Art of Tele- 
graphy may be obtained, if immediate application is made. It 
should be in the hands of every person who is engaged in learn- 
ing Practical Telegraphy, and will be found very useful, even to 
those more advanced. 

Price— Single Copy 25 cents. 

Five Copies to one address, $1.00. 

Orders must be addressed to Box 2692, P. O., New York; and, 
to receive attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EYEEY SATUEDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW" YORK. 

[OVEB THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



Ox Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fiith 
Volume of The Telegbapheb will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most nattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGEAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fbateenity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices ot 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world- 
Through it3 peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegbapheb what it purports to be — a journal 
of electbical pbogbess, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of new3 or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegbapheb is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

terms of subscription: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

t£g~ . Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts. 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to Vie subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper wxll always be discontinued when the paid 
subscbiption expires. 

t^~ Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVEETI^EMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per liue 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

ftg- No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

4S5=-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegkather : 

Joseph W. Stover. Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P.. and M. V. N . Teig. Co., Chicago. 
L. H. Kobty, W. U. Telg. Office, Chit-ago. 
W. H. Young, B. ft B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 

A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Union Office. " 

E. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms. Parker House, Boston. 

B. Frank Ashley. Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 

Jas. M. Wakneb, " '• Aurora. N. Y. 

K.McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. Torrence, " «' " " 

C. P. Hoag, " " San Francisco, Cal. 
M. Eaphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended tor 
The Telegraph kb, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



66 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 17, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, N. Y., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTKUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVEKT DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH .SUPPLIES. 



¥:i- 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR, 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUIES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool, Jot anfl Commercial Printim. 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, x 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever demised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eoi a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 

Also, Agents for 
PRESCOTT'S HISTORY, THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPH, 

AND 

WOOD'S PLAN OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUCTION. 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight 'years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines! 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALEB IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 

REPAIRING DONE PROMPTLY. 
No. 162 SOUTH "WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, Ltjl. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds & Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 
Wiolesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAUL C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

-A. X FL IjinSTE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



TiEUE 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOR 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AND OTHER 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B. — We are prepared to lat down and wauuani Bui. marine 
Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 113 LIBERTY STREET. 

New York. 



October 17, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



67 



REMOVAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Cetegraplj Instruments anb Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. P. Varley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered "Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

"Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph "Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

126 South Clare St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

folegrapjj Statjmttrg mfo Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto : 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVEKED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 
SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 
Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 
29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN AT.T. KINDS OF 
MAIN-LIN E 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

"The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
Ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAY. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best "Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Cauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Eegulators, &c, &c. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 7 Exchange Place, 
Jersey City, If. J~., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and finer than brass, he now preseu ts 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of file helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the 1-tSOOth of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire wttl be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 50 

SmallBox Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 76 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Key 8 6 60 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he wiU make no charge for package. 

He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tele* 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 



68 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 17, 1868. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AXD DEALER IN ALL KLYDS OP 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights f 13 00 

" No. 2, " Brass, •• " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adj ustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

,"' " Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
' factnred or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INTENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 
OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

Ln its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
.and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
t jf ti *** ^WSifct»th*,advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines hi ft of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co. , Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume ni. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at J 5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nog. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

>8S"Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

BLASTING BY ELECTRICITY. 



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SAIL C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

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All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
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To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
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A LARGE SUPPLY OP 
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VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of Thk Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hoid good until the first of December, 18G8. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
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for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
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many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
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For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
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Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, "Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
"Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
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For twelve subscribers, " Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
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W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
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For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
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To the person who shall, before the first of December 
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It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
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WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRArrfY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

«#* 

SHAFFNER, T. P.-Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 025 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentucky. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY, R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published witt he sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Eletiric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adoj • I by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Se< :1 Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., Illustrated. . London, 1867 5 25 

SABlN, ROBT.— The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Des< >tion of Telegraphs now 
In use in the U. S. and Euror ± vol., 8vo. Illustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over . ^ pp. London, 1867 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, by Dr. 

LAKDSER. — A new Edition, ] evised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. R. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Illus- 
trations. London, 1867 2 50 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged by the Profess ^ns of " Morse's Telegraph 
Bastitute." 1 vol 12mo 125 

TURNBULL, L.— The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol, 8vo 2 50 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. SnOW.) A Treatise on Frac- 
tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NOAD, H. M.— A Manual cf Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol. , 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

DE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 50 

NOAD, H. M .—Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol., 12mo. 400 Illustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M .-Electricity. 1 vol., 12mo.... 1 75 

BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

DU MONCEL.— (Lee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electiique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

H I C H TO N E .—History of Electric Telegraph. 1 00 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12nio 2 80 

tS' A Xeic and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Works 
ready October 1, sent Free on Application, 

New York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 9. 



New York, Saturday, October 24, 1868. 



Whole No. 119. 



[Written for The Telegbapheb.] 

SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF THE ELECTRIC 
TELECRAPH. 

I. 

STATIC OR FRICTIOXAL ELECTRICITY. 

Electricity is an imponderable power, which in one 
form or another may be made to affect all our senses. 
It appears to extend throughout nature, and is probably 
inseparably connected with matter in every form. 

From the manner in which this peculiar force is appa- 
rently transmitted through certain bodies, such as metal- 
lic wires, it has been customary to denote its apparent 
progress by the term " current,"' and to speak of elec- 
tricity itself as a "fluid;" but it should be understood 
that these terms are used at the present day merely in 
a conventional sense, and as convenient symbols for the 
purpose of simplifying explanation. 

The early theories regarded the various phenomena of 
electricity either as produced by a single fluid, whose 
particles are self-repellant, but attractive of all matter, 
or else as tbe result of the action of two fluids, each be- 
ing self-repellant but attractive of the other. 

The phenomena of electricity are now regarded as the 
result, not of the action of a fluid or fluids, but of a 
molecular-polarization of the articles of ordinary matter, 
acting by attraction and repulsion in a definite direc- 
tion. 

It is not necessary, however, in tbe present treatise, 
to enter into a discussion of this subject, or enlarge upon 
those branches of electrical science not directly bearing 
upon its application to Telegraphy. 

A dry and warm glass tube, rubbed by a silk hand- 
kerchief, or a vulcanite comb, rubbed by a woollen cloth, 
become excited in such a manner as to attract to them- 
selves small pieces of paper or other light substances, 
holding them for an instant and then repelling them. 
Bodies thus excited are said to be electrified. — a condition 
which is only transient. Electricity so produced is 
usually termed friclional electricity. 

The species of electrical excitement depends upon the 
material which is subjected to friction. If a pith ball be 
attracted by the excitement from glass rubbed with silk, 
it will be repelled by the vulcanite comb rubbed by 
flannel, or vice versa. 

This difference of action is owing to an inherent dif- 
ference in the two substances, and the kind of electrical 
excitement produced by each is opposite and antagon- 
istic to those of the other. The one is vitreous or posi- 
tive, and is designated by the sign + (plus), and the 

other resinous or negative, designated by the sign 

(minus). These terms are of course conventional or 
arbitrary, signifying merely that the two states are 
opposed to each other, not that one contains more elec- 
tricity than the other. Glass and vulcanite are but 
types of two large classes of substances which possess, 
more or less perfectly, this characteristic difference in the 
kind of electricity they are capable of producing. 

Bodies similarly electrified, both + or both — repel. 

Those dissimilarly electrified, one + and the other 

attract. 



Two substances, when rubbed together, become oppo- 
sitely or dissimilarly electrified, and to an equal degree, 
the two opposite tensions being always produced at the 
same time and in exactly the same proportion. Thus, 
when glass is rubbed with flannel, the glass becomes + 
and the flannel — ; but when vulcanite is rubbed with 
flannel, the former becomes — and the latter + ; but if 
glass be rubbed with fur it becomes — and the fur +. 
Therefore glass does not, under all circumstances, pro- 
duce -+- electricity, nor ebonite always — . 

Some substances, such as metals or cloth, possess the 
property of allowing electricity to diffuse itself freely 
throughout their whole substance, and are therefore termed 
conductors. 

Others, such as glass and vulcanite, offer very great re- 
sistance to this diffusion, and are called non-conductors or 
insulators. 

The division of substances into conductors and non- 
conductors is not absolute. These terms imply merely 
a difference in degree — good insulators being bad con- 
ductors, and vice versa. 

The substances in the following list are arranged in 
the order of their conducting power, according to the 
present state of knowledge upon the subject. Although 
probably not absolutely correct, the table will serve to 
show how insensibly conductors and non-conductors 
merge into each other. Conduction and insulation are 
but the extreme degrees of one common condition, and 
are the same in principle and action, except that in con- 
duction an effect common to both is raised to the highest 
degree, but in insulation it occurs in some cases only in 
an almost insensible quantity : 

Silk. 

Glass. 

Sealing wax. 

Sulphur. 

Resin. 

Gutta-percha. 

India-rubber. 

Shellac. 

Yulcanite. 

Paraffine. 

Dry air. 

Cclley states that some descriptions of glass, if arti- 
ficially dried, insulate better than gutta-percha. 

When a conductor is fixed upon or supported by a non- 
conductor, it is said to be insulated. 

If a metallic rod be insulated by being fixed upon a 
glass handle, it then repels or attracts, the same as a 
non-conductor, for the electricity cannot escape, the com- 
munication with the earth being cut off by the insula- 
ting handle ; in the same manner, if the cloth be insulated 
by being held in a sheet of india-rubber, its electricity 
will manifest itself. 

Any apparatus by which electricity may be devel- 
oped is called an electrical machine. The simplest appa- 
ratus of this kind is that known as the elect rophorus, 
which will be hereafter described in treating of induc- 
tion. 



Silver. 


Saline solutions 


Copper. 


Sea water. 


Gold. 


Rarefied air. 


Zinc. 


Melting ice. 


Platinum. 


Pure water. 


Iron. 


Stone. 


Tin. 


Dry ice. 


Lead. 


Dry wood. 


Mercury. 


Porcelain. 


Carbon or coke. 


Dry paper. 


Acids. 


Wool. 



"When larger quantities of electricity are required than 
can be obtained by the means already described, resort 
is had to machines of larger size and more power, which, 
though various in form, always consist of three principal 
parts : 1st, a non-conductor or electric, usually of glass 
or vulcanite, revolving upon an axis and producing fric- 
tion ; 2d, a rubber, against which the non-conductor 
presses. The rubber is a soft, elastic, non-conducting 
body, usually a cushion of leather stuffed with horse- 
hair. 3d. Two conductors, usually of brass, and mounted 
upon insulating supports, one to receive the + and the 
other the — electricity. 

When an electrical machine is set in motion the rub- 
ber takes a — and the electric a + tension, and these 
may therefore be termed the negative and positive poles 
of the machine. The electric communicates its + ten- 
sion to one conductor, which then becomes the positive 
pole, while the other conductor, in connection with the 
rubber, acquires a — tension, and therefore becomes the 
negative pole. 

As long as these poles remain insulated the friction 
constantly increases their tension, until it becomes so 
great as to cause the electricity to dart in a spark from 
one conductor to the other. This is termed an electric 
discharge. 

Static electricity properly implies the condition existing 
in all bodies in a state of electrical quiescence, or in other 
words, not electrically excited, being the opposite of that 
state following friction, chemical action, &c, which i» 
called dynamic electricity, or electricity in motion. 

An arbitrary meaning has, however, attached itself to 
the terms static and dynamic, electricity differing materi- 
ally from the exact meaning of those terms, as used in 
mechanics. Static electricity is ordinarily understood to 
mean only that form of electrical excitement produced 
by friction, while dynamic electricity is a term confined 
to the electrical excitement produced by chemical action, 
and usually called Voltaic electricity. Strictly speaki ng, 
all quiescent electricity is static, and all electricity in 
motion is dynamic, but such is not the established use of 
these terms. 

If the + and — conductors of an electrical machine 
are connected by a wire, no electrical effects are ob- 
served, because the two tensions combine and neutralize 
each other as fast as formed. If the wire is replaced by 
an imperfect conductor, such as a wet string, this neu- 
tralization will be effected gradually by a current. 

If a difference of tension exists between any two points 
connected by a conductor, a current passes between them 
until an equilibrium is established. 

As previously remarked, the term current is used here 
in a conventional sense, not implying the actual passage 
of a fluid but merely a transfer of force, an action which 
is progressive in its nature, like the transmission of heat 
through a bar of metal 

The source of electrical excitement hitherto referred 
to has been friction ; it may also proceed from a number 
of other sources, among which may be enumerated chem- 
ical action, or the contact of dissimilar substances UDder 
circumstances favorable to chemical change, magnetism 



70 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 24, 1868. 



producing magneto-electricity, and beat producing 
thermo-electricity. 

The electricity produced by these different modes of 
excitement differs in degree and intensity but not in 
kind, and each may, in turn, become cause or effect. 
Voltaic electricity produced by chemical action, and 
magneto-electricity, are the only species now employed 
to operate the Electric Telegraph. F. L. P. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

JVo notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



A Raking Fire.— Comparative Statement of Pay and 

Labor of Operators.— The Night Managers' 

Efforts, etc. 

Chicago, III., Oct. 19. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Tour paper of the 10th inst. created quite a sensation 
in this office, and has met with general commendation 
from the Telegraphers everywhere, as far as I have been 
able to ascertain. The editorial on the labor question 
is regarded as admirable and unanswerable, and none of 
the Western Union small fry here even attempt to re- 
fute it. The effect of the editorial and the letter on 
Maynard and Wilson was very marked. They both 
looked subdued, and there was no display of their usual 
arrogance and self-sufficiency. It was evident that they 
were hit, and felt that the truth is a powerful weapon, 
and tells in the long run. 

There have been a number of changes here of late, but 
not much improvement in our condition. We are still 
overworked and underpaid. Two of Maynard's night 
men (no doubt at his suggestion, as they both previously 
expressed themselves highly pleased at the way The 
Telegrapher was ventilating the abuses practiced 
toward the employes in this office) got up a petition 
substantially denying all the statements made in this 
correspondence and passed it around for signatures, sup- 
posing that the employes would not dare to refuse to 
sign it. They found out their mistake, however, as all 
refused signing; for, while they were willing to sign 
anything complimentary to the manager, Mr. Rankin, 
for his courtesy and kind treatment, they could not con- 
scientiously do more. The hours for work were hard, 
beyond those required at any other principal office of 
the Company, and salaries ranged at from ten dollars to 
thirty-five dollars less per month. 

When we have talked about the hours and pay being 
better in other places than here, we have been told by 
the officials that they thought we were mistaken, or, 
"oh, I gue3S not !" And when we have spiritedly asserted 
that such were the facts, they say — " Well, they always 
did pay better salaries" at such and such places. We 
have been particular to get facts, and the comparison 
stands as follows : 

Salaries here are ninety dollars for day men, night 
men receive ninety-five dollars, report operators one 
hundred and five dollars, one special one hundred dol- 
lars. The balance of the night men receive ninety dol- 
lars per month. In Cincinnati many day men receive 
one hundred and five dollars, and night report operators 
one hundred and ten. In St. Louis one hundred and 
five for all day men, and for night report operators one 
hundred and ten. At Omaha one hundred and twenty- 
five per month. For instance, the operator woo works 
the Omaha line from Chicago receives just thirty dollars 
less per month than the man at the other end, while his 
necessary expenses are as much or more. The operator 
who works the St. Louis line receives fifteen dollars less 
than the operator at the other end, while expenses in 
Chicago are higher than in St. Louis. The expenses for 
board, etc., in Cincinnati, are at least one third less than 
in Chicago, which, being a great city, overflowing with 



transient people, prices of everything are greatly in- 
creased. Of the operators who work the New York 
lines one receives ninety-five and the other ninety dol- 
lars, while the men at the other end receive one hundred 
and eighteen dollars per month, and are off every day at 
half past five, P. M., while the poor devil at Chicago 
has to work four or five hours longer for so much less 

Pay- 
When the fact is taken into consideration that the 
work here is harder than at other offices, the injustice of 
this scale of compensation is the more manifest. All the 
business in this office is re-copied, and operators are con- 
stantly occupied, and seldom have a moment's leisure 
from the time they come on duty until they are per- 
mitted to drag their weary frames to their sleeping apart- 
ments. Should one be unemployed for a moment his 
attention is called to another line, where there may be a 
call to answer or a message to send. These statements 
and comparisons are not made because we are jealous of 
our more fortunate brethren, or desire that their fate may 
become like ours, but we cannot understand why this 
discrimination against us should be made, or why such 
injustice should be meted out to the 

Chicago Operators. 



Commendatory. 

Boston, October llth. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

In the desert of complaints of injustice, oppression and 
overwork which have filled the columns of The Tele- 
grapher, and which possibly have favorably influenced 
the evils at which t:iey were aimed, it will be pleasant to 
learn, and but justice to write you of an oasis eagerly 
sought for, where, it is true, the gall of strictness, in its 
most rigid form, exists, but where that strictness bears 
the good fruit of regularity and promptness, and is tem- 
pered and alleviated by general fair treatment of men in 
the respect of hours of work and recompense for extra 
services. 

Under the efficient control of Messrs. C. F. Wood, and 
more especially G. F. Milliken, manager, the Boston 
office of the Western Union Co., has been conducted for 
years on principles of general justice to all employes. 
The hours for work vary but little either way from nine 
hours per day for each man, the day and night force being 
entirely distinct, with no rotation of hours, and all extra 
service is either paid for or recompensed in equal time off 
duty on the day following the extra service. 

The force employed is small for the immense amount of 
business, but the regularity of its various parts, and the 
general fair treatment, as compared with many other 
offices, which prevails, give a zest to each man to work 
with a will. Of course there are many things which 
seem out of place in the minds of employes. It always 
was the case, and probably always will be, that autho- 
rity and labor view the same things in different lights ; 
but the fact that nearly every man who has come to the 
Boston office in the past five years, has used his utmost 
endeavors to retain his situation in that office, is palpable 
proof of the good repute which it has among its employes. 

It is not a millenium, by any means ; neither is it, as 
many who sneer at its strictness, term it — a school house ; 
but on the whole a fair place, where a man must do his 
work, gets a good return for his services, as salaries run, 
and is not treated to a course of damning and blackguard- 
ing every few moments, although he may occasionally re- 
ceive a complimentary benefit when the wind blows east. 

Brevity. 



Illiberal Compensation. 

Rawlings, W. T., Oct. ±th. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

In a recent number of The Telegrapher a correspon- 
dent, writing under the date of Laramie, W. T., Sept. 14th, 
endeavors to show that the salaries allowed by the Union 
Pacific R. R. are all that could be desired. The following 



will show how operators' salaries compare with other 
callings — 

Laborers receive, per day $2 25 a $3 00 

Carpenters, per day 4, 00 a 6 00 

Stoue masons, per day 6 00 a 12 00 

Stone cutters, per day 8 00 a 18 00 

Machinists, per day 3 00 a 6 00 

Blacksmiths, per day 8 00 a 15 00 

Shoemakers, per day 7 00 a 12 00 

Tailors, per day ' 10 00 a 15 00 

Lathers, per day 3 00 a 5 00 

Plasterers, per day 5 00 a 10 00 

Steam-titters, per day 3 50 a 5 00 

Conductors, per month 90 00 

Brakemen, per month 65 00 

Engineers, per day 3 83!^ 

Section men, per day 2 25 

Telegraph operators, per month 65 00 a 75 00 

Freight clerks and book-keepers, per month 75 00 a 100 00 

Cooks, per month, and board 75 00 a 125 00 

Waiters, per month, and board 50 00 a 65 00 

The best trades here are carpenters, stone-masons, 
stone-cutters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, and tailors. 
Board costs, for permanent boarders, $1 to $1 50 per 
day — lodging extra. Transient boarders, $3 to 4 50 — 
lodging extra. Washing 25 to 50 cents per piece. A 
great many men are going into the washerwomen (?) busi- 
ness. A pair of boots, costing $10 in Chicago, sells for 
$20 here ; and all other kinds of wearing apparel in pro- 
portion. A person with a small capital, by investing in 
ready-made clothing, and coming to this country, can 
double his money in a short time. 

As has been previously stated, the Western Union 
Co. pay double the salaries allowed by the Union Pacific 
R. R. Co. in this part of the couutry. For instance, the sa- 
laries at Cheyenne are — Western Union, $140; Union 
Pacific, $80 per month. Salaries paid by the Western 
Union Co. out West are certainly very liberal, compared 
with the miserable pittance allowed in some of the more 
eastern cities — Chicago and Pittsburg for instance. 

The comparison might be pursued further, and would 
show that the Union Pacific R. R. is pursuing a policy in 
this matter of salaries which, in the end, must prove 
greatly to its disadvantage. It cannot expect to retain, 
even if it succeeds in obtaining, a good class of operators, 
so long as its salaries are so much below those paid by 
the Western Union Company in similar localities. 

Fair Play. 

Waiting for the Verdict. 

Chicago, Oct. 8. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Within the last three minutes / have been called a 
Plug ! 

I write it calmly, bearing no malice, but with the tears 
of injured feeling in my eyes. 

Before accepting the situation I would make a few re- 
marks, casting myself upon the calm, unbiassed judg- 
ment of fellow operators. 

To sit amiably at one's key, with twelve death mes- 
sages in one hand and fifteen involving instant financial 
wreck in the other, with an agitated populace at your 
elbow, demanding immediate replies to their every de- 
spatch, or $10,000 suit against the beloved Company — to 
yearn for circuit as watchers for the morning — to finally 
make a wild dash and secure it — make just three jubilant 

dots and a half, and be driven off by a volley of " - - 

's" ! I Is that a Plug ? 

(To the uninitiated, in case my MSS. should be copied 
extensively, I will just explain that " " on cir- 
cuit means "Idiot! you're breaking I") Not a cheering 
announcement! 

Again, to sit at your desk dutifully writing to aged and 
distant parents — to make a commotion on circuit — to 
lend a pitying ear, only to catch these words : 

" It's that Plug at Ch. ! report her." 

To feel the blood of your ancestors leap to the rescue — 
to spring to your key and valiantly remark — " IdidritP' 

and then — be shot dead by a powerful , or treated 

to some gentle expletive of gentlemanly profanity, and 
told to " Go soak your head !" 

Is that a Plug ! 

To finally gain circuit, and joyfully proceed with your 
death message — get, perhaps, as far as — " Six of the chil* 



October 24, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



71 



dren are dead and the others dying. Come — I" when, 
like the opening on Fort Sumter, comes a booming rail- 
road signal ! To struggle madly, to clench your teeth and 
tear your hair with the disengaged hand, but finally to 
listen to such words as these and retire : 

" Better give up this circuit and retire, without you want 

to hear from ," and then comes a name which strikes 

terror to young vitals ; your nerveless hand drops, the un- 
finished message is hooked for another half day, and the 
dying infants perish alone. 

I will say no more now. I throw out these few que- 
ries to my brother and sister operators, and stand, with 
dropped veil, awaiting your verdict. 

If you pronounce me guilty — if you hail me Plug — I 
seek some Western wild and die to fame. 

I shall leave by first train, taking only a pan of ashes 
and a potsherd, with a roll of sackcloth, perhaps. 

If, on the contrary, your verdict be "Not guilty," 

a^ain I rear my head in defiant scorn of persecution, 

and, like some star, move on my silent way, 

" To dazzle when the sun is down, 
And rob the world of rest." 

"Waiting for the verdict, 

I am, excitedly, yours, 



L. E. M. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Ixdigxaxt Reader. — If you will read the standing 
notice at the head of the correspondence columns, you 
will see that we do not assume any responsibility for the 
statements made by our correspondents. This part of the 
paper is open to any respectable Telegrapher to express 
his or her views in, providing they are couched in cour- 
teous language, and that the topics discussed are of inte- 
rest to the readers and supporters of the paper. 

Local. — Send you all numbers current volume you 
wish, except No. 1. which is entirely exhausted. Will 
be pleased to hear from you as proposed. 

PERSONAL. 

A. J. Shepard, manager Houston, Texas, office, has 
leave of absence for 30 days to visit his home in Vir- 
ginia. 

P. Holcombe, of the Western Union office, Chicago, 
has resigned his position on the California line and gone 
into the "Western Union office at Memphis, Tenn., where 
he receives thirty-five dollars additional per month, and 
has one third less labor. 

Mr. E. B. Clarke, the excellent superintendent of the 
M. & C. Telegraph line, is about to leave Chillicothe, the 
position he has been filling having been abolished. He is 
an obliging gentleman, and faithful in the performance of 
his duties. 

Mr. Charles B. Noyes has returned to No. 145 Broad- 
way, after wandering "West and South, and is once more 
engaged in manipulating the keys of the combination 
printing instrument. 

Messrs. Geo. H. Bowker and E. L. Dodge, of the 
Western Union office at Augusta, Maine, are spending 
their vacation at the home of the former, in Brunswick, 
Maine. 

Ed. Angel has made a successful debut at Wood's 
Museum during the past week, in the Telegraph scene in 
the " Long Strike."' He is now regarded by his less 
fortunate Telegraphic brethren as a first class " artist." 

Mr. Geo. Cole, who has for a year and a half been the 
efficient chief of the "W. U. Company at Columbus, Ohio, 
has resigned his position, and accepted one in St. Louis. 
May his shadow never gow less. 

Geo. Doxaldsox has accepted a position as way ope- 
rator in this office. 

C. F. "Webb has resigned his position at Columbus, and 
accepted a situation in Cincinnati "W. U. Co. office. 

The Lake George, N. T., office has been closed for the 
season, and the operator, "W. A. Crooks, transferred to 
Lakeville, Conn. 



The "W. U. Co. have opened an office at Greenwich, 
nine miles west of Cambridge, N. Y., which is in charge 
of Fred Beldex, late of the Mountain House office. 

The W. U. Co. have opened an office in the new hotel 
at "West Albany, called the New York Central House, and 
placed the same in charge of J. B. Nelsox, formerly of 
the Cornwall, N. Y, office. 

The A. and P. Co. have opened an office in Cohoes, 
N. Y. Johx Gay, late of the Harlem R. R. fine, is the 
operator in charge. 

Ed. Schemerhorx, formerly of New York, is in New 
Orleans. 

W. D. Gextry is to be manager of the Southern Tele- 
graph office at Nashville, Tenn. 

Charley Taylor, formerly of New York and Cincin- 
nati, is to be manager for the same company at Mem- 
phis, Tenn. 

There have been several changes in the Chicago office 
of late. Earl J. Rudd has resigned, and goes to the 
Milwaukee office. 

J. C. Dorchester has accepted the Keokuk, Iowa, 
office. 

E. G. Johxsox has also resigned his position in the 
Chicago office. 

J. H. Stearxes has resigned, and goes into the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific office. 

P. Holcojibe has resigned and gone to the Memphis 
office. 

Charles Johxston, of Evansville, Ind., has accepted a 
place in the Chicago office. Also, Mr. Valextine, 
formerly of the Milwaukee office. 

Dave Axdersox changes from night to day work at 
his own request. 

C. M. Greexe takes the night job on press report. 

J. Q. MasOX takes a day position to work the California 
wires. 

Mr. D. R. Saexders, of Rogersville Junction, Tenn., 
has accepted a situation with the Union Pacific R. R. 

Mr. Johx J. Dickey, the gentlemanly superintendent's 
clerk at Chicago, has, in addition to his other numerous 
duties, been detailed as the correspondent of the official 
organ. Promotion to the deserving is prompt. John 
bears his honors meekly. 

THE TELEGRAPH. 

Another New Cable to Europe. 

"We are informed that negotiations are being carried on 
with the American Atlantic Cable Telegraph Company, 
of this city (who have by act of Congress the exclusive 
i right of lauding a cable on the coast of the United States, 
except the coast of Florida), and some foreign capitalists, 
to join them in laying a cable direct to Belgium — arrange- 
ments having been perfected for securing a most liberal 
concession from the Government of that country. It is 
said responsible parties have signified their readiness to 
enter into a contract to put down a cable for £500,000. 
No doubt we will have many cables laid between 
America and Europe, and certain it is that those repre- 
senting the least capital can serve the public at the lowest 
tariff, and at the same time pay to their shareholders good 
dividends. — V. Y. Times. 

Telegraphic Communication with India. 

Telegraphic messages from India, via the Persian 
Gulf, have been arriving with great rapidity lately. Last 
returns give 538 messages via Turkey, averaging 1 day 16 
hours, and 121 via Russia and Persia, averaging 2 days 
20 hours. Of the 533 messages 40 arrived in half a day 
each, and upwards of 300 in less than a day each. This 
is very good, and certainly the Turks must be stirring 
themselves. The late conference at Vienna has, no doubt 
had a good effect, and we almost doubt if much greater 



rapidity will be obtained, even when Messrs. Siemexs' 
Indo-European through-lines are established, which will 
not be for a year at least. Exgixeerixg. 

«•* 

The Paraffine Insulator. 
Mr. David Brooks has made a contract with the "West- 
ern Union Company to reinsulate wires Nos. 12 and 20, 
between New York and Harrisburg, Pa, and is now doing 
the work. 

The Prince Edward's Island Cable. 

A despatch from Halifax, N. S., October 16, states, 
that Hon. Mr. Heasley had returned from a mission to the 
United States, one object of which was to procure a new 
Submarine Telegraph Cable to connect Prince Edward's 
Island with the main land. He did not succeed in this, 
however, the subsidy asked by the Telegraph Company 
being larger than could be agreed to without consulting 
the government. 

Extension of the Atlantic and Pacific Company's 
Wires. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company have 
commenced the construction of a new line from Toledo, 
Ohio, to Detroit, Michigan, and will push it through this 
season. The line will have but fifteen poles to the mile, 
the use of the American compound wire enabling them 
to dispense with the large number of poles required for 
the ordinary heavy iron wire, thus reducing the chances 
for escape materially. A new iusulator, the invention of 
the General Superintendent of the A. and P. Co., Mr. 
M. L. "Wood, which, in the opinion of the inventor, is 
more perfect and combines more desirable qualities than 
any heretofore introduced, will be used upon this line. 

Sensible Change. " 
Ox and after November 1st, prox., messages over the 
Atlantic Cable will be counted by words only, without re- 
ference to the number of letters. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

A New Battery. 

M. Mierque, of Boufarik, has experimented with a bat- 
tery consisting of a cylindrical cell of porous carbon, con- 
taining nitric acid, and an exterior cylinder of amalga- 
mated zinc in a cell full of water. 



Application of Voltaic Induction. 

The first application, with practical success, of the force 
of electricity furnished by Voltaic induction, for military 
purposes, was made by Colonel Verde, a Spaniard, in 
1853. 

He succeeded, with only one element of Buxsen's bat- 
tery, in exploding six mines in one circuit at the same 
instant, at a distance of 300 metres. 

A New Voltaic Pile. 

M. J. E. Balsasio has presented a memoir to the 
Academy of Sciences on a new Voltaic Pile. It is formed 
of two plates of iron, one plunged in dilute sulphuric 
acid the other in a solution of chloride of sodium, sepa- 
rated from the acidulated water by a porous diaphragm. 

The irou of the acidulated water acts as zinc, and that 
of the saline solution acts as copper. The current, con- 
stant and of considerable intensity, proceeds from the 
property possessed by iron of polarizing itself differently 
in certain solutions, between which osmogenie action 
takes place. M. Balsamo has also tried another experi- 
ment of considerable theoretical interest. He plunges at 
the same time, in oxalic acid, two small magnetized bars 
of the same surface and of the same weight, one having 
its north pole in the liquid and its south pole out of it. 
The second bar is in the contrary position. 

The first acted as zinc, the latter as copper, and a cur- 
rent of electricity was the consequence, 



72 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 24, 1868. 




SATURDAY, OCT. 24, 1868. 

OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. H. Young.. ..Box 248 P. O., Washington, D. C. 

Vice-President .W. P. Merrill.. W. U. Tel. O., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple.. Box 39 P. O., Albany, N. Y. 

Recording Sec. J. W. Duxbury..W. U. Tel. O., Boston, Mass. 

Corrts. Sec F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. 0., New York. 

-#» 

THE TRUE POLICY. 

The interests of the Telegraphic profession and the 
public require effective and permanent competition in the 
Telegraph business of the country. The genius of our 
institutions and the natural instincts of the American 
people are opposed to monopoly in any branch of busi- 
ness, and this is especially true in regard to the Tele- 
graph. "We have tried Telegraphic monopoly and it has 
not worked satisfactorily. Costly as have been the efforts 
to secure competition, and futile as they have hitherto 
proved, the people continue to invest their money in 
new Telegraph enterprises rather than submit to a mo- 
nopoly. These enterprises have been very generally mis- 
managed, and have often times been used by speculators 
for their personal advantage, without reference to the ob- 
jects for which they have been undertaken. These facts 
are patent to all ; yet, so general is the feeling of opposi- 
tion to a monopoly on the part of the people, that new 
projects receive support, and new lines are built notwith- 
standing. The Western Union Company has pursued 
the policy of consolidation until its capital has become in- 
flated to an enormous extent, and its stock is sold in the 
market at about one third of its nominal value. It has 
reached a point where further consolidations are imprac- 
ticable, and it now seeks to ruin rather than absorb its 
opponents. 

After the consolidation of the American and United 
States Companies into the Western Union, the managers 
of the Consolidated Company supposed that, for some 
years at least, any considerable attempts at competition 
would p rove impossible. Experience has demonstrated 
the fallacy of this supposition. Numerous competing 
companies have come into existence, and are rapidly ex- 
tending their lines. These, of course, are met by the 
Western Union with bitter and unscrupulous opposition. 
On routes covered by these companies tolls have been re- 
duced, in some instances, below a living rate, in the at- 
tempt to prove the futility of competition with this mam- 
moth corporation. 

Under these circumstances, what is the true policy of 
competing companies? How can they best maintain 
themselves against their unscrupulous opponents? These 
questions deserve the earnest and intelligent considera- 
tion of the parties interested. The difficulties and dangers 
to be encountered are well known, and due precautions 
and preparations should be made to meet and overcome 
them. 

We may set it down as an indisputable fact, that the 
American people will not conseut to any one private cor- 
poration controlling the entire Telegraphic facilities of the 
country. Sooner than this should be the case, they will 
insist upon the Government assuming the control of the 
businesa. There is already a considerable number of 



people in favor of this course. This, above all things, we 
desire to avoid, regarding it, as we do, as the most un- 
fortunate thing which could happen to Telegraphic pro- 
gress and interests. We have already argued this point 
at considerable length in the columns of The Tele- 
grapher, and it is unnecessary here to restate those argu- 
ments. 

As at present being manipulated, we do not consider 
the prospects of the competing companies as very encour- 
aging. They have to encounter not only the competition 
of the Western Union Company but of each other on impor- 
tant routes. The wires of no one company are sufficiently 
extended to furnish a general Telegraphic system which 
can prove advantageous either to itself or the public. 
Taken altogether, they do not yet nearly equal the West- 
ern Union in their facilities. Each is striving to cover 
the important routes, and no regard is paid to a properly 
considered and adjusted distribution of facilities which, 
when completed, shall constitute a well balanced Tele- 
graphic system. Much of the money is spent in building 
improperly constructed lines, which will be required to 
be replaced at an early day. Insufficient allowance is 
made in the estimates of expense for the natural deprecia- 
tion of the lines, and the cost of repairs and reconstruc- 
tion, which, after the first three or four years — even on 
the best constructed lines — will average annually from 
eight to ten per cent. la order to insure permanence 
and success, all these items must be taken into account, 
or in a short time we shall ha7e another lot of misernble 
dilapidated wires, and bankrupt companies seeking a 
purchaser. 

The true policy, then, of these competing companies is 
to combine their forces and make one strong and reliable 
company. Let a properly balanced Telegraphic system 
for the whole country be determined upon, and the 
means which are now wasted in futile attempts at sepa- 
rate aggrandizement be devoted honestly and faithfully 
to carrying out the plan. With a concentration of the 
means, talents and Telegraphic experience which are now, 
to a great extent, being frittered away and wasted, to the 
unconcealed joy of the Western Union Company, a com- 
pact, powerful and profitable enterprise may be inaugu- 
rated, which will fairly divide with that company the 
Telegraph business of the country, and furnish the per- 
manent competition which the public demands. 

We know that in such a consolidation individuals must 
make some sacrifices, and some who aspire to the first 
positions must be content with those of secondary im- 
portance ; but, unless they consent to make these sacri- 
fices, all must come to ruin together. It is high time 
that the present wasteful and ruinous policy should be 
abandoned. It is due to the stockholders who invest 
their means in these enterprises — it is due to the public, 
whose necessities require additional and improved Tele- 
graphic facilities — and last, but by no means least, it is 
due to the practical Telegraphers, who depend upon the 
practice of their profession for a livelihood, and whose 
interests are disregarded and sacrificed in this selfish at- 
tempt to secure to a few individuals important positions, 
and the profits which may arise from the misapplication 
of the pecuniary means of these companies. 

A well digested and carefully considered plan of Tele- 
graph distribution and construction is in existence, and 
the means required to carry it into successful operation 
would be much less than the amount which is sure to be 
ineffectually wasted under existing arrangements. Let 
us have, then, this winter, a consultation between the 
managers of the various opposition companies, and a con- 
solidation of interests ; and, when another season opens, 
let all be united in carrying out the plan adopted by the 
Co-operative Telegraph Company, and we have no doubt 
of the ultimate and speedy success of the enterprise. 
When this is done the public may feel a confidence that 
the money they may invest will be properly applied to 
secure permanent and effective Telegraphic competition; 
and Telegraph operators need not fear to accept situations 
with the consolidated company. 



The Science and Practice of the Telegraph. 

We commence, in this number of The Telegrapher, 
the publication of a series of articles on the Science and 
Practice of the Telegraph. We shall continue these ar- 
ticles from time to time, as we can find room for them, 
and they will probably extend through the present vol- 
ume. The article which we publish to-day is rather dry, 
and to those well instructed in regard to the science of 
electricity, may not appear particularly interesting, but 
it is necessary, as the foundation upon which the pro- 
posed literary and scientific edifice is to be constructed. 
The papers which follow will be found of constantly in- 
creasing value and interest. We need merely mention 
that they are prepared and written by Mr. ¥. L. Pope to 
afford sufficient guaranty of their scientific and profes- 
sional accuracy and literary ability. 



* + *■* 



Aiding Deception. 

The Editor of the Journal of the Telegraph, probably in 
the excess of his amiability, and with the desire to aid an 
old associate, in the last number of that paper endorses a 
notorious "plug" manufactory in Fourth Avenue, in this 
city, with a branch in Brooklyn. We have so often ex- 
posed these so-called Telegraphic colleges or institutes, 
that it is almost impossible to state anything new in re- 
gard to them. We are surprised that the Editor of the 
Journal, well knowing, as he does, the impossibility of 
these pretended teachers of the Telegraphic art doing 
what they falsely promise, should prostitute the columns of 
his paper to aid in such an attempt to extort money from 
unwary victims, for which he is fully aware they will re- 
ceive no equivalent. The principal of these shops may 
have been " up in a balloon," as the Editor states — at 
any rate, he is gassy enough for that or any other windy 
achievement — but that he is competent to teach Tele- 
graphy is notoriously untrue. Whatever may have been 
his abilities in " overtaking a train," he certainly has no 
requisite, except an unlimited supply. of facial brass, for 
teaching even the rudiments of the Telegraphic art. It 
may suit the purposes of the Western Union Company, in 
order to obtain, by such means, a supply of incompetent 
and low salaried plugs for its unimportant offices, to en- 
courage such institutions, but it certainly is not for the 
interest of the profession, the public, or even of the 
victims of these pretenders, that they should receive 
sufficient encouragement to keep them from their legiti- 
mate and appropriate work of pole setting or hod carry- 
ing. 

We trust that no person desirous of becoming a Tele- 
grapher will be deceived by the pretensions of the princi- 
pals of these dens, or their endorsement by the oigan of 
the monopoly, into wasting their money in supporting 
them. 

Worthy of Imitation. 

The female compositors of this city have organized a 
Women's Typographical Union. Flakes Galveston (Texas) 
Bulletin recently requested that a number of women com- 
positors be sent to Galveston, to work at wages below 
the established rate in that city. 

At a meeting of the Union, Monday evening, the fol- 
lowing resolution was passed : 

Resolved, That the offer of the proprietors of Flake's 
Bulletin is rejected, and that the female compositors of 
New York take this occasion to inform all proprietors 
making such offers that they cannot be induced, under 
any plea, to place themselves in antagonism to any or- 
ganization under the jurisdiction of the National Typo- 
graphical Union ; the price in the above city being in 
advance of the offer made, it is wished to be understood 
that the object of this Union is to raise wages instead 
of lowering them. Anna Lewis, 

President Women's T. U, No. 1. 

If the female Telegraph operators would take similar 
action it would do much towards removing the prejudice 
of their brethren against their employment. The fact 
that women can be employed as Telegraph operators at 



October 24, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



73 



salaries on which it is impossible for men to lire, is, n 
our opinion, the most prominent objection to their par- 
ticipation in the business. 

We copy the action of these sensible typographical 
women to commend and encourage them, and as an ex- 
ample for their Telegraphic sisters, and not for the pur- 
pose of reopening the discussion of a vexed question in 
the columns of The Telegrapher. 

Another Telegraph Institute Swindle. 

A fellow, who calls himself James W. Bradley, 
advertises for one hundred young men to learn the Tele- 
graph business. This last swindle is located at Buffalo, 
N. Y. In his advertisement the fellow states that the 
design of the institute is to qualify young men and 
women for the duties of Telegraphing on the new lines 
now building by the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company. 

"We are authorized by Mr. M. L. Wood, General 
Superintendent of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, to state that he has no knowledge of this fel- 
low, Bradlet, that his so-called institute is in no way 
connected with that Company, and that he has no facil- 
ities for procuring situations for his victims on the lines 
under his charge. 

The fellow signs one of his advertisements as Superin- 
tendent Telegraph. He is not, and probably never was 
a Telegraph Superintendent of anything more important 
than a clothes line. 

We shall refer to this matter again. Will the press 
generally please expose this swindle ? 



More Science in High Places. 

The Memphis Appeal of October 7th contains an ac- 
count of the testing and repairing of the cable across the 
Mississippi river at that place, from which we extract 
the following : 

"The operation of 'under-running' and taking the 
cable up was successfully performed by Colonel Cole- 
man and Captain Baker, in a steam tug with a barge 
attached. As it was raised, and at intervals of a few 
yards, a needle was driven into the cable, so as to touch 
the conducting wire, and instruments applied to test the 
soundness of the portion raised. When near this shore, 
by this means, it was discovered that the disturbing 
cause lay within a space of twenty yards between two 
points. This piece was cut out, the two ends spliced, 
and the cable immediately worked throughout its whole 
length." 

When the action of the current has developed each of 
those needle holes into a large sized " escape," we expect 
that Superintendents Coleman and Baker will be able 
to " evolve from their internal consciousness" some 
equally ingenious method of locating that difficulty. 
Meanwhile, the engineers and electricians of the Atlantic 
Cable will do well to adopt the new system of testing. 
wherein a common sewing needle takes the place of the 
more costly galvanometer needle. Economy is wealth. 



» <♦> < 



Bliss, Tillotson & Co., of Chicago. 

The young but already eminently successful firm of 
Bliss, Tillotson & Co., of Chicago, have removed to 
more suitable and commodious quarters, at No. IT 1 South 
Clark Street. We are pleased to record the well deserved 
success of this firm. It is another evidence of apprecia- 
tion of merit, and the advantages of advertising in The 
Telegrapher. 

The Telegraph in Diplomacy. 
We see that the magnetic Telegraph has been used by 
our Secretary of State for diplomatic purposes. The cor- 
respondence published in the Herald yesterday, between 
Mr. Seward and Mr. Hale, our Minister at Madrid, rel- 
ative to the Spanish revolution and the recognition of the 



revolutionary Government, is beautifully short and to the 
point. How our verbose Secretary ever brought himself 
to dispense with long-winded despatches on such an 
interesting occasion, and to use this short and quick 
method of communication, is a mystery. However, we 
give him credit for his good sense and taste for this 
new and unique specimen of diplomatic intercourse. It 
is really a model of brevity. This mighty agent of 
modern civilization — the magnetic Telegraph— is destined 
to make a revolution in diplomacy as in everything else. 
It will be the end of red tape diplomacy and all its subter- 
fuges and intricacies. It will save a vast amount of 
labor, loads of writing paper, and the services of numerous 
clerks. Better than all, it will let the public know 
promptly what may be going on in international affairs. 
We do not see, indeed, why, by its use directly between 
Governments, the army of diplomats, ambassadors, minis- 
ters resident, diplomatic breeches and all, may not be dis- 
pensed with. Surely this is an age of progress, when 
Mr. Seward can be brought to transact the business of 
the State Department in such a curt, prompt and sensible 
manner. — N. T. Herald. 

New Patents. 

(For week ending October 13, 18G8.) 
82,981. — Voltaic Battery. — Henry Palmer, Evanston, 111. 

I claim the combination of the plates B, and the positive and 
negative elements when arranged to operate in the manner and 
for the purpose specified. 

83,031. — Compound for Insulating Telegraph and Electric 
Wires. — S. C. Bishop, New York City. 

I claim the insulating compound for telegraph and other elec- 
tric wires or conductors composed of the ingredients described, 
in, or about in, the proportions specified. 

83,109. — Device for Stretching Telegraph Wires. — G. M. 
Thompson, Boston, Mass. 
I claim the within described instrument for stretching tele- 
graph wires, consisting essentially of the plate or bar A, and jaws 
C C, as set forth. 

MARRIED. 

Malin — Hardcastle.— At West Chester, Pa., September 2d, 
1868. Mr. Samuel O. Malin, night train despatcher on the Phi- 
ladelphia and Erie B. R., at Benovo, Pa., to Miss Hannah Habd- 
castle, of West Chester. 

We knew Samuel aud have worked with him. Wish him joy in 
his new field of labor. G. 

Thresher — Ingersoll. — On the 14th inst., at the First Baptist 
Church, Syracuse, Ed. H. Thresher, night report operator in 
W. U. Co.'s Rochester office, to Mis* A. Florence Ingersoll, of 
the former place. 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 
Washington, D. O, Oct. 20th, 1868. 

To all District Directors K. T. U. 

Please forward to me a full list of the officers and 
members of your several Districts, and the date of your 
original organization as a District. 

WM. H. YOUNG, 

President N. T. U., 

P. 0. Box 248. 



OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE! 

Parties having OLD TELEGBAPH WIBE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 

L. G-. TILLOTSON & Co., 

Box 1714. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

THE TELEGKAPHIC MANUAL, 

BY 

W. 0. LEWIS, 

PRACTICAL ELECTBICIAN AND TELEGBAPH 
STJPEEINTENDENT. 

A few copies of this Elementary Treatise ou the Art of Tele- 
graphy may be obtained, if immediate application is made. It 
should be in the hands of every person who is engaged in learn- 
ing Practical Telegraphy, and will be found very useful, even to 
those more advanced. 

Price — Single Copy 25 cents. 

Five Copies to one address, $1.00. 

Orders must be addressed to Box 2G92, P. O., New York; and, 
to receive attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED eveby sattjbday 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION 



Nos. 16 k 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK 

[OVEB THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct hag 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIKST-CLASS TELEGBAPHIC NEWSPAPEE. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. Thia is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

terms of subscription: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

43" Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts. 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia, 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, fa. 12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

8^~ Bemittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or draf ts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVEBTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

8gj~ No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

HSf-The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. k P., and M. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
L. H. Forty, W. U. Telg. Ofince, Chicago. 
W. H. Young, B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 
A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Bice, Western Uuion Office, " " 

E. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 
B Frank Ashley, Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 
Jas. M. Warker, " " Aurora, N. Y. 

K . McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. Torrknce, " " " " 

C. P. Hoag, " " San Francisco, Cal. 

M. Baphael, " " Houston, Texas. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



74 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 24, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. K. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, X. T., 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVERT DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



^_ 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the spac eoi a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 

Also, Agents for 

PRESCOTT'S HISTORY, THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPH, 

AND 

WOOD'S PLAN OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUCTION. 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines'. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER" that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool, Job ai Commercial Printing. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTINC A SPECIALTY. 

L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 

KEPAIROIG DONE PROMPTLY. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, Lll. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds & Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 



JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 

IIS LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

^ i :e=i LjIkte 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 



Respectluliy inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 



SUBMARINE 

AND OTHEB 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cu tta- Per cha, 

That may be required for use in thu country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturer!. 

N. B We are prepared to lay down and warbant Submarine 

Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 



Office, 113 LIBERTY STREET. 



Naw Vouk 



October 24, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



75 



BE3IOVAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegraplj Instruments airtr Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. F. Yarley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered "Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSOJY & CO., 

171 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Celeppjj Patjmterj! &nb Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co., Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following roles and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn 2 livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which snail be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who wiil receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto : 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct ? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

lElec-triosil Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 
SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 
Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to auy particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 
CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 
29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH" INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN AT.T, KINDS OF 
MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

"The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAT. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Cauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 

A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THET SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
^Regulators, &c, &c. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 7 Exchange Place, 
Jersey City, A". «T., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and finer than brass, he now presen ts 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $ 6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 60 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 76 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 

He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers ' prices. 



76 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 24, 1868. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AND DEALER IN ALL KINDS OP 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

" No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

" 2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" " PonySize 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, ivith 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nos. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

,6tS"Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

BLASTING BY ELECTEICITY. 

BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

G-UTTA PERCHA CAPS; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 

FOR 

EXPLODING NITK0-GLY0ERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PAMFFI1 INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
a manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
| usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

No. 38 South Fourth St., Philadelphia, 

Manufacturers and agents for every variety of 

Telegraphic and Philosophical Instruments. 

A LARGE SUPPLY OP 
BATTERIES, WIRE, AND OTHER MATERIALS 
Constantly on hand. 
.^"Particular attention given to the construction of Telegraph 
Lines throughout the country. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 1868. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
casts, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, " Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
" Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or -" Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal valu9. 

For twelve subscribers, " Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or " Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. 

W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Kive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



"WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

«** 

SHAFFNER, T. P.— Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 625 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentucky. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 50 

CULLEY, R.S.-A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., Illustrated. London, 1867 5 25 

SABIN, ROBT.-The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the U. S. and Europe. 1 vol., 8vo. Hlustrated 
with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. London, 1867 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, by Dr. 

LARDNER. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. E. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Illus- 
trations. London,1867 2 50 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged by the Professors of " Morse's Telegraph 
Institute." 1 vol. 12mo 1 25 

TURNBULL, L.— Tne Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Bise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 60 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. SnOW.) A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NOAO, H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol. , 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

DE LA RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 60 

NO AD, H. M .— Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol., 12mo. 400 Mustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M .-Electricity. 1vol., 12mo.... 1 76 

BOND, R .—Handbook of the Telegraph 60 

DU MONO EL. —(Lee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorlque et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 50 

H I C H T O N E .—History of Electric Telegraph 1 00 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol. , 12mo 2 80 

JB£3~ A New and Revised Catalogue of Scientific Works 
ready October 1, sent Free on Application. 

New York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 10. 



New York, Saturday, October 31, 1868. 



Whole No. 120. 



[Written for The Telegrapher.] 
NEW TELECRAPHIC RECORDINC APPARATUS. 

GEORGE LITTLE'S SPECIFIC GRAVITY "FLOATING PEN." 

This instrument is intended more especially as a means 
of obviating the difficulties attendant upon the use of 
" electro-magnets," and ensuring the more perfect and 
certain direct recording of the characters by the auto- 
matic process, when received upon moving strips of 
paper by a self-inking device. The " floating pen" itself 
is composed of a thin glass sphere or bulb, about seven 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter, with a tube or hollow 
stem one eighth of an inch in diameter by two and one 
half inches in length, the weight of which is three grains. 
Into the stem two small permanent magnets are inserted, 
each magnet being one and one sixteenth inches in 
length, made of steel wire, known as Stubbs' No. 52, 
and weighing five and one half grains each. Both mag- 
nets are inserted in the glass stem, with like poles op- 
posed to each other, and kept from touching by means of 
a fillet of glass three eighths of an inch in length. A 
small nib is inserted in the end of the glass stem, also 
made of glass, and secured to the same by means of 
shellac, so that no leakage can take place into the in- 
terior of the bulb or its stem. The nib, which is very 
small and hollow, has a small portion of cotton thread 
inserted in the same, in order to prevent the too rapid 
passing of the ink from the reservoir through a small 
opening in the side of the nib in which the same is 
immersed. The reservoir, which is made of vulcanite, 
is so formed that the lower end of the same has a hollow 
cone, so fitted that the nib of the pen may protrude 
loosely through the end of the same about one sixteenth 
of an inch. The main body of the reservoir is one half 
an inch in diameter, and fits in the centre of an adjust- 
able coil of fine, insulated copper wire, offering a resist- 
ance of forty-eight Ohm's — the coil being one inch in 
thickness by one and one half inches in diameter when 
wound or complete, and is placed in a horizontal posi- 
tion. The upper end of the reservoir, and situate right 
over the coil, is of a spherical form, having in the inside 
of the same a projecting socket, against which the head 
of the pen is kept, in a normal state, when floating in the 
ink. The external part is made to receive a regulating 
tube, forming, in connection with the reservoir, as it were 
a syphon. On the lower end of the glass regulating 
tube, which must be of the same length as the main 
reservoir and its cone, a glass cistern with a metal or 
hard rubber top is so arranged that the same can slide 
up or down the leg of the glass regulating tube. The 
cistern is used to keep up the supply of ink to the main 
reservoir, by keeping the level of the ink contained in 
the same about one quarter of an inch above the line of 
the lower point of the cone through which the pen nib 
projects. The pen having been previously placed in the 
interior of the main reservoir, before filling the reservoir 
and regulating tube, which is done by jnverting the 
same,' and introducing by way of the regulating tube 
(having at first placed the mouth to the cone and with- 
drawn or created a partial vacuum in the reservoir on 



removing it away from the mouth the ink will then 
readily flow into the same,) an anti-viscid ink, composed 
of four drachms of soluble blue to each quart of distilled 
water, on turning over the reservoir and regulating 
tube to its proper position the ink will be found to keep 
therein by the balance of atmospheric pressure. 

The use of the cistern, before mentioned, being to keep 
up a continuous supply of ink for a much longer period, 
as it will be obvious that the same may be made so as 
to feed the pen continuously for one year, or more if de- 
sirable, without replenishing, I prefer the temperature 
of the ink, together with the air of the room in which 
the same is being used, to be kept at an even degree, or 
nearly so — say about seventy-six degrees Fahrenheit. 
I use also, in connection with my floating pen, an adjust- 
able permanent bar magnet, about three inches long by 
one quarter of an inch in thickness, placed immediately 
over the upper part of the reservoir, in such a position 
that the same shall be made to influence the pen mag- 
nets for purposes of adjustment. I also provide a simi- 
lar magnet, situate on the stand (between the clock- 
work which carries the paper) and made adjustable, so 
as to influence the lower end of the pen. These are only 
to be used in connection with land or air lines when 
this instrument is used on such lines. But on submarine 
lines or cables I intend to dispense with the external 
adjusting magnets entirely, by the use of reverse electric 
currents of equal duration, and to keep the ink, together 
with the temperature of the operating room, at about 
the same degree of heat — the specific gravity of my 
" floating pen" being also equal, or nearly so, to that of 
the ink in which the same is immersed. A horizontal 
modification of the floating can be adopted for the sys- 
tem of varying strengths, as well as tbat of positive and 
negative, as also for the purpose of making dots and 
dashes or long and short signals, known as the Morse 
alphabet. In the use of my floating pen all difficulty is 
entirely obviated as regards the uncertain production of 
correct marks from a very light body when in rapid 
motion, as also undue vibration of the floating pen 
which never occurs during the manipulation of the same, 
and therefore requires no provision to be made in order 
to check or damp the vibrations. I prefer to mount the 
coil and its frame upon a converted ordinary Morse 
train, the goose-neck of the reservoir being kept in posi- 
tion by an insulated stationary crotch, having a T or 
cross spring resting against the upper edge of the top 
plate of the coil, so as to allow of the fine adjustment of 
the coil, and at the same time keeping the electric cir- 
cuit unbroken. 

During some preliminary experiments between New 
York and Boston, which took place on Good Fridav 
1868, in the chief office of the "Western Union Telegraph 
Company, Broadway, New York, in presence of General 
Marshall Lefferts and some six other gentlemen, the 
day being very stormy, with much rain, leakages on line 
very great, but, notwithstanding the line was made up 
into a circuit of five hundred miles, we obtained a 
steady rate of speed, with distinct writing, of four hun- 
dred letters per minute, and this rate would be doubled 



on long cables by the use of reversed currents. I do not 
wish to presume on claiming too much for my floating 
pen, but, from past experience with the same, I feel not 
the. least hesitation in asserting that my specific gravity 
floating pen can be made to receive and record, by the 
automatic process (which will yet become universal), at 
least six hundred words per minute ; being close on 

TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND VIBRATIONS OF THE PEN re- 
corded on paper (and that without the use of chemicals) 
in the space of one hour. And I see no difficulty in 
the way of working my pen, through submarine cables 
of 8,000 to 12,000 Ohm's, by the electro-motive force 
of one or two Daniell's elements. In conducting and 
carrying out my experiments, extending over a period 
of twenty years, I have always kept in view one object, 
combined in two words, viz., simplicity, utility. 

G. L. 
Hudson City, N. J., Oct. 19th, 1868. 

> <•> < 

The Registration of Earth-Currents at Greenwich. 

In a darkened room, in the meteorological department of 
the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, the Astronomer 
Royal fixed, some two or three years ago, a sensitive 
little galvanometer, with reflecting mirror, to register 
Earth-Currents by photography. One end of the wire of 
this galvanometer is connected with the earth, and the 
other end with a telegraphic wire, which, after running 
several miles along a neighboring railway, is again con- 
nected with the earth. Now, currents of electricity are 
constantly running to and fro in the earth, and sometimes 
these currents enter the telegraph wires ; also, when they 
are strong enough, they overpower the ordinary working 
batteries, and send unreadable messages on their own ac- 
count. Such disturbances sometimes stop, for a time, all 
messages and news, and, on one exceptional occasion, 
caused a panic on the stock exchange, by delaying news 
of importance. Being a source of great occasional loss 
to the Telegraph Companies, the endeavor of electricians 
has always been to neutralize and get rid of the currents 
as soon as possible. The object of the apparatus in Mr. 
Glaisher's department at Greenwich, is, on the contrary, 
to watch and examine all the movements of these Earth- 
Currents. From the description already given, it will 
readily be seen that, as currents from the earth flow 
through the wire erected from Greenwich Observatory, 
the needle of the galvanometer shows the direction, and 
approximately the strength of the current. On the little 
magnetic needle a mirror is mounted, and a ray of light 
from a steady flame, after falling upon the mirror, is re- 
flected upon a sheet of photograph paper. Hence, as the 
needle moves, the ray of light moves to and fro upon the 
paper. This sheet of sensitized paper is fixed round a 
cylinder of ebonite, which, by clock-work, makes one re- 
volution every twenty-four hours. At the end of the 
twenty-four hours the paper is taken off the cylinder and 
a fresh sheet substituted, the record on the first is then 
developed in the usual way, and a zig-zag dark line, pass- 
ing across it from end to end, shows the movements of the 
galvanometer needle and spot of light during the past 
twenty-four hours. 



78 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 31, 1868. 



The darkened room in -which this self-registering ap- 
paratus is at work, is built without iron nails, and this 
metal is used nowhere in the room, so that the magnetic 
instrument shall not be disturbed by artificial causes. In a 
communication made by Professor G. B. Airy, F. R. S., 
to the Royal Society, not long since, he made known the 
fact that the declension of the magnet and the Earth- 
Current Galvanometer are affected at the same time, 
showing some relationship between the two phenomena; 
the causes of both which are a perfect mystery to men of 
science. — Lonlon Telegraph. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, ivithout distinction of person or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Chicago Operators have Rivals.— Hard Work, Poor 

Pay, Filthy Accommodations, and Scarcity 

of Supplies. 

Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 26th. 

To the Editoe of The Telegrapher. 

The several communications in The Telegrapher, 
signed "Chicago Operators." have attracted my atten- 
tion as well as that of Telegraphers generally. Having 
the professional pride of a Telegraphic artist, I cannot 
consent that the Pittsburg office of the 'Western Union 
Company should unjustly be deprived of its legitimate 
credit or discredit, as the office where operators are 
paid less for their services than in any other. If any 
other office can match us we should like to hear from it. 

The Chicago operators are laboring under a delusion 
if they suppose that their lot is the hardest, and their re- 
muneration comparatively the least, for services rendered, 
of any of their fellow laborers. 

I will tell a plain unvarnished story, and leave the 
readers of The Telegrapher, the Executive Officers and 
the "Western Union Superintendents, Division and Dis- 
trict, to judge between us. 

First. — The scale of compensation here is as follows : 
Operators receive, in this office, from seventy dollars to 
one hundred dollars per month — the majority of them 
only from seventy to eighty dollars. Only four receive 
salaries as high as one hundred dollars per mouth, which 
the " Chicago Operators" think is so inadequate a sum 
for their services. 

I trust that none of the readers of The Telegrapher, 
and more especially the Chicago Operators, will suppose 
that we harbor any ill-feeling towards our more fortunate 
fellow sufferers. Unquestionably their compensation, 
though exceeding ours, is inadequate for the service ren- 
dered. 

But the matter of compensation is not all that we have 
to complain of. The operators in this office of the "Wes- 
tern Union Company are required to do duty both day 
and night without extra compensation. In fact, an ope- 
rator here who should suggest, in the mildest manner, a 
desire to receive extra pay for extra work, would be re- 
garded as a lunatic with whom the continued association 
of his professional brethren would be unadvisable. 

We are not as yet disposed to charge all the blame of 
this state of things to our superior officers. Probably it 
has escaped their attention, but as they all read The 
Telegrapher, the publication of this communication 
will, perhaps, lead to a reform. At least we will hope so 
until the influence of The Telegrapher has been tried. 

Our accommodations and surroundings are not of a 
character to inspire cheerfulness and contentment, even 
if the little matters of salary and compensation were satis- 
factorily arranged. The operating room wherein we pass 
so many weary hours contains, also, the local batteries, 
which number fifcy-two jars. Once a week these are 
cleaned. A mammoth tub, somewhat dilapidated (as is 
the case with everything about this office), is placed 



in the centre of the floor, and the work of cleaning is 
commenced. In a few moments the floor, for five yards 
around, is one mass of pestilential filth, which, after the 
work is completed and the tub removed, is spread over 
the floor with the stump of what was once a broom. 
Sometimes an operator, in crossing the slimy mass, is 
thrown to the floor, to the serious injury of such clothes 
as small salaries and restricted means permit of his pos- 
sessing. 

Our windows, which have been cleaned only once in 
five real's, have engraved in the incrustation of dirt 
verses, prose, poetry, cabalistic sentences and figures, 
which would lead the uninitiated to believe it was a 
headquarters of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the matter of blanks, pens and other supplies, our 
condition may be equalled, but certainly cannot be sur- 
passed in wretchedness and poverty by any other office 
of the Western Union or other Telegraph Company. It 
is no unusual thing for an operator, on a call being heard, 
to start suddenly from his chair and frantically ejaculate 
"Where is the pen !" 

In conclusion, allow me to express the hope that some 
action may soon be taken which shall insure us fair 
work and compensation — decent and suitable accommo- 
dation — supplies of sufficient quantity and respectable 
quality — and that, in short, life and labor may be made at 
least tolerable for the Pittsburg Operators. 

Telegraph Extension in Canada.— The Dominion 
Telegraph Company. 

London, Canada, Oct. 11th. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Herewith is sent my subscription for The Tele- 
grapher for a year. I should like to see your paper 
even more extensively circulated in the Provinces than 
it is now. Will try to get up a club for you in this part 
of the Dominion. It is only necessary that the paper 
should be brought to the attention of the fraternity, as 
it has been to mine, to insure its hearty support. 

The Montreal Telegraph Company are beginning to 
discover that the new "Dominion Telegraph Company" 
is thoroughly in earnest in its attempt to break down 
the monopoly which they have so long enjoyed. The 
stock of the Dominion Company is being rapidly taken 
up, and the rule which they have adopted and are strict- 
ly carrying out, of selling the stock only to merchants 
and business men of the different places through which 
the wires of the Company will pass, must certainly en- 
sure its success when constructed and in good working 
order. 

Mr. Martin' Rtan, the General Superintendent, has 
been here for some time, bringing the matter before the 
business men, and has everywhere received an earnest 
welcome and warm support. The Company have their 
poles up from Hamilton to Clifton (the point of connec- 
tion with the Atlantic and Pacific Company), and expect 
to open offices at Clifton, St. Catharine's, Hamilton and 
Toronto, in a few weeks. 

I notice in your advertisements one of a " novelty," a 
sounder that will work practically with one cup. This 
would'nt be much of a novelty here. I work all the 
sounders in my office with one cup to each, and they 
work first rate, and have done it for years. It is known 
as the Montreal Telegraph Company's Sounder. It has 
a hollow board, and works very clear and distinct with 
one cup of battery. Local. 

Courtesy of the Western Union.— A New Corres- 
pondent. 

Chicago, HI., Oct. 18ft. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

As a compliment to Gen. Grant, the Western Union 
Co., previous to the late State election, ran a loop into the 
residence of Hon. E. B. Washburn, at Galena, 111., con- 
necting Chicago direct with an instrument placed in Mr. 



"W.'s library, where the General and other prominent 
gentlemen and friends were kept posted in regard to the 
results of the late elections, as fast as the returns were re- 
ceived at Chicago. 

Mr. Frank B. Knight, operator, of the Chicago office, 
and Mr. John Dean, repairer, were honored with the per- 
formance of duties on this occasion. Frank, whose 
beautiful chirography is "excelled only by his good 
looks," made an excellent and creditable representative 
of the Chicago office ; and the General and his friends, 
judging from the praise given by them in their acknowl- 
edgments to General Stager, were highly pleased with 
the services of both gentlemen. 

Mr. Colfax, we believe, declined a similar arrange- 
ment tendered him by the same company, preferring to 
get his intelligence through the regular channel. 

One of the owls of the Chicago office, who prides him- 
self on not losing a single character transmitted him, hav- 
ing taken a " special" from Springfield, 111., was asked by 
the latter, immediately after the word " sig," " H — w 
much ?" meaning, " how many words have you got ?" Not 
giving any signature, as it is customary with specials, our 
friend, with his usual correctness, wrote — " sig," H. W. 
Much. 

The Times concluded they had a new reporter at Spring- 
field. Signet. 
*»•. ~ 

The Washington District. 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 25. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

On the evening of the 21st instant the Washington 
District N. T. U. held a special meeting, for the purpose 
of organizing under the new constitution, and adopting 
by-laws, &c. There were about fifteen members present, 
the District Director, Mr. Young, in the chair. After 
some discussion, and the adoption of several resolutions, 
it was agreed to proceed to consider the by-laws, which 
were then reported by the committee appointed some 
time since to prepare them. After some discussion and 
amendment, they were referred to another committee for 
further consideration and revision. 

The Secretary ihen announced the names of ten Tele- 
graphers who were desirous of joining the Union. 

The District Director stated that, as he had been 
elected President of the Union, it would be necessary for 
him to resign. Resignation accepted, with the thanks of 
the District. 

An election for a Director then took place, resulting in 
the choice of J. Frank Hahn. 

After the usual formalities of installation, &c, the 
meeting adjourned at 10.40 P. M., subject to the call of 
the District Director. 

We have not witnessed as much interest among the 
fraternity for a long time as was shown on this occasion. 
All seemed to feel the deepest interest in the proceedings. 

We have reorganized with even far better prospects 
than was anticipated, and hope ere long to have a thriv- 
ing district. We are forwarding applications rapidly for 
the Insurance Bureau, and everything is working admir- 
ably. 

In my next communication I hope to give you a glow- 
ing account of the meeting to be held shortly. H. 

<» » — -~~- — ■»*■ 

San Antonio, Texas, Oct. 16. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Having been a constant reader of your paper for the 
last two years, and not having seen anything in its 
columns from this distant section of the country, I thought 
a few lines from here might prove of interest to your 
readers. 

This place is at the extreme western end of Telegraph 
communication in this direction, on the confines of civili- 
zation and on the border of the great plains of the west. 
We have no railroad communication from here, and the 
prospect of any for some time to come is small, and yet 
this is a very important commercial point. San Antonio 



October 31, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



79 



ig one of the largest if not the largest city in the State, 
having some twenty thousand inhabitants. 

Our Texas wires are working very well of late, rain or 
shine. This is a decided improvement, as a few months 
since the least rain would render it almost impossible to 
work the line to Houston. Hope this favorable condition 
of things will continue. 

Our Company (the "Western Union) are about to build 
a line to our seaports, Indianola and Lavaca via the pre- 
sent route to Houston and Columbu3, t hence to Victoria 
and Indianola. It will be of great advantage and con- 
venience to our merchants and the community, and is ex- 
pected to be ready for business by the first of January 
next. 

There was some talk of the construction of a military 
line to El Paso, on the Rio Grande, for the purpose of con- 
necting all the frontier military posts by Telegraph, but 
it seems to have been abandoned, as nothing has been 
heard of the project of late. 

The proposed Mexican line from here to the city of 
Mexico also seems to be in a state of collapse, and we 
hear nothing about it now. 

Grasshoppers, I regret to say, are not confined to Ne- 
braska. "We have been having a light sprinkling of them 
here for nearly two weeks past. They are numbered by 
millions, and have devoured all green vegetation here- 
abouts. 

Telegraph news in this section is meagre. The Tele- 
graph boys are not on the " Benedict" line hereabouts, but 
I expect to hear of one or more shortly. Alamo. 



Assumes the Responsibility. 

Chicago, Oct. 18. 
To thk Editok of The Telegrapheb. 

In your issue of the 10th, a correspondent, under date 
Chicago, Oct. 5th, speaks of myself in more flattering 
terms than I probably deserve. He may not understand 
my position, and in order that he may no longer be with- 
out information, I desire to say to him, and to others who 
have interest in the matter, that of all the " petty officials" 
referred to in former letters, I alone am responsible for 
errors (if any) committed in the management of this 
office. 

Oblige me by publishing this. 

Yours very respectfully, 

R. C. Raskin, 
Manager, W. U. Tel. Office. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

C. R. Hosmes. — W. Snyder is General Superintendent 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, and H. H. Cook of the 
U. P. Railroad Telegraph line. The headquarters of 
both are at Omaha, Nebraska. 

Martha. — Your communication received. Would be 
pleased to publish it, but we cannot spare the room for a 
renewal of the discussion of that question. "We would 
merely say that the true remedy lies in united action. 
Individually, neither class can effect much; but with 
union of purpose aud effort their influence would be very 
powerful. "We have no prejudices against any class of 
workers, and only desire that the value of labor, mental 
or physical, should be recognized and justly remunerated. 



The " Floating Pen" Litigation! 

BEFORE JUDGE BARRETT. 

Hidden vs. Little. — This case was again up on Mon- 
day, October 26th, on motion to renew the injunction 
previously obtained by the plaintiff, which had been dis- 
solved. A motion was now made to renew the injunc- 
tion, upon the affidavits of experts that the invention of 
Mr. Little was an improvement of a former patent. The 
electrical apparatus was produced in court, and after 
much discussion the Court appointed Wednesday week 
to hear the a'guments. 



PERSONAL. 

Mr. Yandergrift, night manager of Indianopolis office, 
has resigned, and is travelling as agent for a tobacco 
house in Cincinnati. 

Gus. Fuller takes the position vacated by Mr. Yan- 
dergrift. 

J. Conner, late of the Cincinnati office, supplies the 
place vacated by Mr. Fuller. 

Mr. "Walker has accepted a situation with the Miss. 
Yalley N. T. Co. at Chicago. 

Mr. Charles H. Bogle, " one of the best boys in all 
creation," has resigned his position as operator in the 
Western Union office at Providence, to accept a situation 
with the Union Pacific R. R. Co. at the "West. He is ac- 
companied, in his migration, by Mr. Alfred H. Betts, 
for several years the delivery clerk in the same office. 
Both are intelligent and capable, and will, no doubt, 
come home rich, either in money or experience. Mr. 
Bogle is succeeded by Mr. "William F. Branch, a vete- 
ran, formerly of Norwich, Ct, Springfield and Worcester, 
Mass., who for some time has been out of the business, 
and who now returns to his " first love." 

Mr. C. P. Rector, of Nashville, Tenn., has gone to the 
Union Pacific R. R. lines. 

Mr. Walter Steinhoff has gone into the employ of 
the Union Pacific R. R. 

Mr. E. P. Whitford, from the Dubuque office of the 
M. Y. N. T. Co., has taken a place in the Chicago office. 

Mr. Griffith has taken a place in the W. U. Chicago 
office. 

Mr. F. B. Goodrich, of Keokuk, Iowa, has accepted a 
situation in the Western Union office at Cincinnati. 

Mr. J. F. McConnell is at Cheyenne. 

Mr. H. W. Cowan is at Wadsworth, Nevada. 

Geo. A. Hinman, formerly of Milwaukee, and recently 
at Cheyenne, has taken a place in the W. U. office, 
Chicago. 

C. H. Stolfraud, of the W. U. Co., Chicago, takes the 
Great Western office at Milwaukee. 

Jerry McConnell has withdrawn from the W. U. 
office at Milwaukee. 

Mr. J. M. Nte has resigned his position in the West- 
ern Union Stock Exchange office in this city, having 
been appointed Superintendent of the Telegraph line of the 
Southern Minnesota R. R., now in progress of construc- 
tion. This promotion is well deserved, and we are 
pleased to record the success of our friend Nte, who is a 
good Telegrapher and a first rate fellcw. 

Mr. Thomas Dolan has been appointed night manager 
of the Western Union office, 145 Broadway, New York, 
vice D. F. Marks. 

Mr. A. C. Snyder has resigned the position he has 
held for two years in the New Orleans office, and taken 
charge of the W. U. office at Altoona, Pa. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 

The New Atlantic Cable. 

The London papers report that the manufacture of the 
new Atlantic Telegraph, which is to be submerged be- 
tween Brest and New York, is making satisfactory pro- 
gress. The cable is almost identical in construction 
with those which were completed in 1866, the only dif- 
ference being that the diameter of the conducting copper 
core is slightly greater, and the outside wires are of 
homogenous Bessemer steel, galvanized, haviog a break- 
ing strain of about one thousand pounds, while the wires 
outside the existing Atlantic lines have a breaking strain 
of only about eight hundred pounds. Sir James Ander- 
son, who will command the Great Eastern during the 
expedition, has made the following observations regard- 
ing the Newfoundland Banks : By keeping in the five 
hundred fathom line upon the Milne Bank, and arouud 



the southern edge of the Grand Bank, there is no possi- 
bility of ice or any other agency that can be suggested 
injuring the cable. The northern edge of the Grand 
Bank was avoided, because it is uncertain at what depth 
the icebergs ground. They are said, upon good author- 
ity, to ground at times in ninety fathoms. It is not cer- 
tain at what depth the vessels employed in the seal trade 
may sometimes choose to drop an anchor for the purpose 
of keeping in the track of ice floes. These dangers are 
avoided by the track chosen for the proposed cable, and 
I am justified, by my own experience, in saying that the 
track from the southern edge of the Grand Bank to St. 
Pierre, and thence to the place of landing in America, is 
entirely free from any danger of ice, and does not cross 
any anchorage resorted to by the fleet of fishing ves- 
sels. 

The breaking strain of the new steel cable will be 
seven and a half tons, and the strain required for sub- 
mersion need not be more than fourteen hundred pounds. 
Even if at any time it be necessary to haul up any por- 
tion of it already laid, the strain need not exceed a ton 
and a half in the deepest water. The weight of copper 
forming the conductor of the existing Atlantic cables i3 
three hundred pounds per knot ; in the new cable it will 
be about four hundred pounds. The Great Eastern has 
arrived at Sheerness, whence she will proceed with the 
cable, probably in the end of next June. After leaving 
the Medway she will go to Brest to finish coaling, and 
will thence start on the telegraphic expedition. 

Western Union Extension. 

The Western Union Company is constantly engaged 
in strengthening or extending its lines. We understand 
that a new Western Union line is building or about to 
be built along the Michigan Central Railroad, between 
Detroit and Chicago, a distance of nearly three hundred 
miles. 

Quick Cable Telegraphing. 

A dispatch sent from Boston, Mass., September 26th, 
at 11.30 A. M., was received in Smyrna in two hours 
and twenty minutes. 

Extension of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph 
Wires. 

The wires of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Com- 
pany have been extended to Memphis, Tennessee, and 
an office opened at that point by them. The Franklin 
Telegraph Company in this city, through its connection 
with the P. and A. Co., is enabled to take business for 
Memphis. The charges to that point have been materi- 
ally reduced. 

«»•. — -^- 

Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 
The German Telegraph Gazette says that the new French 
cable will be utterly unable to compete with the Anglo- 
American line, inasmuch as no business man in Germany, 
Austria, Italy and Russia, will send any important dis- 
patches by it, as long as the French Government insists 
on being informed of the contents of all dispatches pass- 
ing over the French wires. It is owing to this fact, too, 
that the French Telegraph lines do by far less interna- 
tional work than those of any other State of Western 

Central Europe. 

< ^ » > 

No Claim for Damages. 

A Firm in Pittsburg, a few days since, ordered two car 
loads of wheat and received ten. As the price of wheat 
advanced considerably in the mean time, they have not 
made any claim upon the company for damages. 

A similar error was made, not long since, on a Western 
Circuit, by which two car loads of salt were ordered and 
twelve shipped. We have not heard the result in the 
last case. 



80 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 31, 1868. 




SATURDAY, OCT. 31, 1868. 



OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. E. Young.. ..Box 248 P. O., Washington, D. C. 

Vice-President. TV. P. Merbiij,..W. U. Tel. O., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple.. Box 39 P. 0., Albany, N. Y. 

Recording Sec . .3 '. W. Duxburt..W. U. Tel. O., Boston, Mass. 

Corres. Sec F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. O., New York. 

*»• 

THE NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 
"We are pleased to observe indications of a revival of 
interest among Telegraph employes in the National Tele- 
graphic Union. ¥e have been waiting with some in- 
terest the development of the result of the action of the 
Albany Convention. As far as we have been able to as- 
certain the opinions of the Telegraphers, the action of the 
Convention, in its amendments and revision of the Con- 
stitution, meets with general approval. The changes 
made were such as were previously indicated, as required 
by the large majority of the members of the Union, and 
were such as were unanimously approved by the delegates 
present. 

It is, perhaps, too soon to look for a decided manifesta- 
tion of the effect of that action upon the prosperity of the 
Union, but so far as known it has been favorable. We 
hear of the formation of a new district, with its head- 
quarters at Summit Station, Pa., and from other local- 
ities inquiries have been received and information re- 
quested as to what steps are now requisite to authorize 
the formation of districts. The districts previously estab- 
lished are commencing to take action to conform their 
organizations to the changes made in the Constitution. 
"We publish, in this paper, accounts of meetings of the 
districts in New York and "Washington for that purpose. 
In Washington the brethren expect soon to have enrolled 
as members nearly all the Telegraphers in the city. Many 
new members have already been admitted. The New York 
district has appointed a committee to revise the by-laws 
and conform them to the changes in the constitution. 
Several new members were admitted at the last meeting, 
and this district, which a few weeks since was apparently 
lifeless and inert, now manifests hopeful signs of renewal 
of strength and prosperity. The Maine district, under 
the leadership of our worthy Vice-President, Merrill, re- 
tains its advanced position, and is fully alive and earnest 
in the good work. 

Since the Convention the Insurance Bureau has taken 
a new start, and the actuary, Mr. A. L. Whipple, informs 
us that he is receiving many applications for insurance. 

The additions to the subscription list of the organ of 
the Union, The Telegrapher, have been so much more 
numerous than was anticipated and provided for, that our 
supply of three numbers of the current volume is ex- 
hausted, and the demand for them is scarcely abated. 

These facts are well calculated to inspire with hopeful 
confidence those who have maintained the Union and its 
organ through the season of apparent supineness and 
indifference, which at one time was cause of considerable 
discouragement even to the most sanguine. We hope to 
see this spirit of renewed interest deepen and increase, 
until the great majority of the Telegraphers of the country 
shall connect themselves with the Union and enroll them- 
selves among its active members. 



It certainly is of the first importance that the Telegra- 
phers of this country should maintain some central organ- 
ization, which shall enable them to act unitedly on mat- 
ters of common and general interest and importance. The 
Telegraphic Union is already successfully established, 
and through it the Telegraphers can, in our opinion, work 
more advantageously than through any new organization, 
even if the establishment of a new one were practicable. 
If the Telegraphers will not support this it is folly for 
them to talk of establishing any other. If the Telegra- 
phic Union should fail, any similar organization would be 
impossible, at least until a new generation of Telegra- 
phers should come into the business. Holding these 
opinions, we would once more earnestly appeal to the 
Telegraphers of the country to come forward and join us. 
With a considerable majority of the practical Telegraphers 
enrolled in its membership, it would be a powerful organ- 
ization, and capable of demanding and securing to its 
members every just right. In localities where districts 
are already in existence their ranks should at once be re- 
cruited from the active Telegraphers. Where districts 
have not heretofore been organized, or having been es- 
tablished, have ceased to exist through the supineness 
and indifference of their members and the profession 
generally, steps should at once be taken to organize new 
districts, and application be made for charters. 

This matter is of far more importance than is, perhaps, 
realized by the profession generally. Individually Tele- 
graphers are comparatively weak and powerless, united 
they will be all powerful. With an united, compact and 
earnest organization, they can demand their rights, and 
will no longer be subjected to the unreasonable require- 
ments of any company, or even of any combination of 
companies. 

The district organizations will have it in their power to 
provide for the relief of members sick or in distress, and 
may bo made the means of promoting fraternal feeling 
and social intercourse among the fraternity. They can 
also institute discussions on scientific and professional 
subjects, in localities where the number of Telegraphers 
is sufficient for the purpose, with great benefit to all. Let 
such a course be taken and we shall no longer be asked 
what benefit is to be derived from membership in the 
Union. 

We throw out these words of encouragement and 
counsel in the hope that they may be earnestly considered 
by all Telegraphers whom we can reach through the 
columns of the paper. The subject is one which it is 
eminently desirable that they should consider earnestly 
and intelligently, and whether they realize it or not is of 
paramount importance to every Telegrapher. 

Worthy of Mention. 

We are informed that Mr. M. L. Wood, the General 
Superintendent of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, has allowed the operators on the line under his 
charge two weeks' vacation each during the present 
season, without requiring extra labor, or a reduction of 
compensation therefor. The fact that a Telegraph com- 
pany and a Telegraph manager has acted thus liberally 
towards the employes is worthy of mention. We are in- 
clined to think that a company which treats its employes 
with some degree of liberality as well as justice, will not 
suffer therefrom in the end. 

When Telegraph companies were poorer, and the busi- 
ness but a tithe of what it is now, this matter of vacations 
was regarded as something to which operators were en- 
titled, if they served their employers faithfully during the 
year. We believe the Western Union Company was the 
first to abolish the custom, which we are pleased to see 
revived in the Atlantic and Pacific. 

Packard's Monthly. 

We have received the November number of Packard's 

Monthly. It well sustains the reputation of this popular 

magazine. We hope, however, that our friend Packard 

won't inflict upon his readers any more such slobbering 



as CuiiirrxGS is permitted to bestow in this number upon 
the personnel of the Tribune office. His eulogistic puffery 
of everybody and everything connected with that estab- 
lishment, and especially his fulsome and ridiculous lauda- 
tion of the managing editor, excites general ridicule 
among the newspaper fraternity here, to whom the rela- 
tive positions of the parties are known. The writer 
seems to be somewhat in doubt as to which is the great- 
est man, Greeley or Young, but inclines somewhat to 
regard the latter as the embodiment of more real genius 
and talent than any other living newspaper man. 

Chester, Partrick & Co. 

We would call attention to the card and advertisement 
of Chester, Partrick & Co., of Philadelphia, in this 
paper. This young but vigorous firm have already 
achieved a brilliant success. So rapid has been the 
increase of their business that they have recently been 
compelled to remove to more commodious quarters and 
largely increase their facilities. They are now prepared 
to fill all orders promptly, and guarantee satisfaction to 
their customers. Among the special novelties which 
they present to their Telegraphic customers, we would 
call attention to Benton's Patent Trunnionless Key, which 
was described and illustrated in The Telegrapher of 
June 27th, 1868, and which is now manufactured by this 
firm in the improved form shown in our advertising 
columns. The adjustable spring adds the finishing touch 
to this neat and ingenious arrangement, A full explana- 
tion of its advantages may be found in the article re- 
ferred to. 



«-*-»-» 

The Chicago Western Union Office Outdone. 

It will be seen by the letter from Pittsburg, Pa., in 
our correspondence columns, that the Pittsburg operators 
make out a worse case than their Chicago brethren 
Economy seems to have reached the closest point at this 
office, and the Superintendent of that district and the 
manager of that office are certainly entitled to the highest 
place in the estimation of the executive officers of the 
Western Union Company. 

We have heard from other reliable sources of the dilapi- 
dation and generally disgraceful condition of this office; 
but, as long as the employes there made no complaint, we 
did not deem it incumbent upon us to call attention to it. 
While we do not deem it our duty to seek to establish 
reforms in the offices of any Telegraph Company on our 
own motion, the columns of The Telegrapher are always 
open to employes or customers to ventilate their griev- 
ances; and although it is the organ of the employes, and 
sustained by them, still, as the official organ of the West- 
ern Union Company has nothing to say in its defence, 
we will cheerfully publish anything, if there be anything, 
that its friends may have to say in its favor. We are 
always actuated by a spirit of justice, and our columns 
are always open for the ventilation of both sides of any 
matter which may be discussed therein. 



Meeting of the New York District. 

At a meeting of the New York District N. T. U., 
held this week, several new members were proposed and 
admitted, and a committee was appointed to revise the 
by-laws of the District, and make such changes as are 
necessitated by the action of the Albany Convention. A 
majority of those present were not in favor of making 
any specified relief for sick members, but to have each 
case of sickness or distress dealt with as it may come 
up. The meeting was well attended, and an excellent 
spirit was manifested. 

A Testimonial. 

A Chicago correspondent informs us that the em- 
ployes of the Western Union Company, recently under 
the superintendence of Mr. E. D. L. Sweet, intend to 
present him with a testimonial of their respect and es- 
teem. Mr. Sweet was a popular Superintendent, and 
his retirement from active Telegraph duties was very 
much regretted by those who served under him. 



October 31, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



81 



MISCELLANEA. 

Paying a Wager. 
Mr. J. S. Shattuck, Telegraph operator at Aurora, 
Indiana, recently wheeled Jacob Ingubthoen, of that 
place, down Second street to the river in a wheelbarrow, 
to fulfil the terms of a wager on the Congressional elec- 
tion. A large crowd assembled on the street to witness 
the sight, and, as the procession moved, at the suggestion 
of Mr. Shattuck, two gentlemen preceded it, taking up 
a collection for the benefit of a poor widow women, which 
amounted to over forty dollars. The parties were up- 
roariously cheered a'.ong the whole line of march. 



Important, if True. 

The most important news by cable from Europe last 
week was the announcement that " Shere Ali has been 
crowned Ameer at Cabool." This will be gratifying news 
to all of Shere's old friends in America. We are sure we 
express the sentiment of a majority of our readers when 
we congratulate the Caboolerson their selection of a new 
Ameer. "We do not believe there is another man in all 
Affghanistan that would make a better Ameer than Ali. 
And if there is another man in all Asia whose great ser- 
vices and distinguished abilities more entitle him to the 
Ameership than S. Ali, we confess we have never heard 
of him. Shere should have been crowned twenty-five 

years ago. — Exchange. 

< <» » > ■ 

A New Voltaic Combination. 

A New Voltaic Combination of great power has just 
been exhibited to some of the learned societies of England. 
It is the invention of Messrs. De La Rue and Hugo 
Muller, and has been designed for Mr. Gassiott. The 
elements consist of small cylinders of pure zinc and chlo- 
ride of silver. The latter is cast upon a thin silver wire, 
which forms the conductor. The exciting liquid is merely 
a dilute solution of common salt. 

Tn the battery shown the cylinders were only 3 inches 
long, and about the size of a goose-quill, arranged in two 
ounce phials cut down to two thirds of their length, but 
a series of ten such couples decomposed water with great 
rapidity. By the chemical action taking place in the cell, 
the chloride of silver is reduced and chloride of zinc 
formed. The action proceeds so long as any chloride re- 
mains, for the reduced silver adheres to the wire as a 
spongy mass, which allows the liquid to premeate to any 
unreduced chloride. 

The first cost of such a battery will be considerable, 
but as the only loss will be a little zinc, it will be very 
economical in working. Mr. Gassiott, it is said, is hav- 
ing a battery of 1,000 pairs constructed, of which, no 
doubt, the scientifio world will, in good time, here of and 
learn much. 



»■♦»■> 



MARRIED. 
Howe — Campbell. — In Mazomanie, Wis., on Thursday, Oct. 
15th, 1868, by the Eev. A. W. Curtis, Mr. Kit B. Howe, night 
operator, to Miss Bell Campbell, daughter of Alexander 
Campbell, Esq. 

OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE.! 

Parties having OLD TELEGEAPH WIEE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 

L. G-. TILLOTSON & Co., 
Bos 1714. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

CARD. 

We heartily thank our numerous friends for the warm sup- 
port they have accorded to us, and the patience thus shown to- 
wards our many short comings during the last (our first) 
business year. 

We owe to them a success beyond our most sanguine expecta- 
tions, and increased facilities and resources, which enable us to 
commence another year with the promise to give greater satisfac- 
tion to our present patrons for the quality of our goods, and the 
promptness with which we will fulfil their orders, and to hope 
that we shall largely increase the number of our regular 

customers. 

CHESTEE, PAETEICK & CO., 

No. 38 South Fourth Street, 

Philadelphia. 



CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGEAPHIO & ELEOTEIOAL ENGINEERS, 

CONTRACTORS, etc., 

38 SOUTH FOURTH STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

Manufacturers of, and Dealers in every variety of 
TELEGRAPHIC, 

ELECTRIC, AND 

PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 

BATTERIES, WIRE, ACIDS, 

INSULATORS, MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
AND OTHER SUPPLIES, 

EESPECTFULLY ANNOUNCE 

that they have increased their facilities for the Prompt Execu- 
tion of all orders with which they may be entrusted. They are 
prepared to Contract for the Construction and Equipment of 

NEW LINES OF TELEGRAPH, 
for the Be-Construction or Bepair of 

EXISTING LINES, 
or for the supply of TELEGEAPH MATEEIAL of all descriptions. 
Among other improvements for which they have secured the 
sole or joint agency, attention is called to the following valuable 
and useful novelties: 




IWilASD tua 



PATENT ANTI-TEUNNION KEY, 

WITH ECCENTRIC CIRCUIT CLOSER. 

They above KEY has recently been patented, and is believed to 
be the best form of Key yet presented for adoption and use by 
Telegraph Companies or Operators. 




PATENT ANTI-TKTJNION KEY, 

WITH AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT CLOSER. 

This cut represents the Anti-Trunnion Key, with an Automatic 
Circuit Closer. By the use of this Key an absolute certainty of 
exemption from accidental opening of circuit, either through 
carelessness or otherwise, at the Key, is secured. 

We would also call attention to the following articles and sup- 
plies, which we are prepared to furnish promptly, and guarantee 
every article to prove as represented at the time of purchase. 
Kerite (or horn covered) Copper or Compound Wire or Cables. 

COVERED COMPOUND ATB LINE WIRE. 

BLASTING APPABATUS, CABTEIDGES, BATTEEIES, &c, &c. 
CALCIUM LIGHTING APPARATUS, 

MEDICAL BATTEEIES, 
INDUCED AND DIRECT CURRENTS. 

ELECTRO PLATES, BATTERIES k MATERIALS 

ELECTRO GONGS, 
of any desired size or weight. 

ALAEM APPARATUS, 

ETC., ETC. 

ELECTRICAL CLOCK-WORK. 
The success of the past year, with our increased resources and 
facilities, warrants us in promising prompt dispatch in the 
execution of all orders. Our terms will also be found satisfactory 
and liberal by our customers. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVEEY SATUEDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVER THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher wiU commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIEST-CLASS TELEGEAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

terms or subscription: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

IBS' Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

v& " Eemittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVEETISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

8®" No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 

Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

4S~The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P., and M. V. N . Telg. Co., Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
W. H. Young, B. & B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 

A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Bice, Western Uuion Office, " ' " 

E. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 

B. Frank Ashley, Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 



Jas. M. Warner, 
K. McKenzie, 
J. A. Torrence, 
C. P. Hoag, 
M. Eaphael, 



Aurora, N . Y. 
St. Louis, Mo. 

U tt 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Houston, Texas. 



All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapber, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 



82 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 31, 1868. 



CHARLES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, If. Y. 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 



AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



INSTKUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



■SW 9 - 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR, 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the space of a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 

Also, Agents for 

PRESCOTT'S HISTORY, THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPH, 

AND 

WOOD'S PLAN OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUCTION. 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines. 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER" that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Boot Job and. Commercial Printing. 



TELECRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 



L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALEB IN 

TSLE&HAFB INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 

REPAIRING DONE PROMPTLY. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 



CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds & Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Calvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

W7iole.sa.le and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 



JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER of 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 



OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTi-PERM COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGKAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

.A. I IE=L IjINE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 

our office, 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA. 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AND OTHEB 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms at 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B. We are prepared to lay down and wabkant Submarine 

Cables. 

Apply to 

SAMUEL C. BISHOP, 

General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 
Office, 113 LIBERTY STREET. 

N*w York. 



October 31, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



83 



REMOVAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegrapji Instalments aifo Supplies 



OF EVEBY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, <fec. ■ - 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical TVorks. 
" C. F. Yarley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

"Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph "Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



BLISS, TILLOTSOIV & CO., 

171 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Cdejrapjj Iftatjmttri aito Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co., Geo. H. Bliss, 

New York. Chicago. 



The Natiokal Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
I ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn s livelihood. Every 
applicant 3hall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plau affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event, of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN", BRAIDED, ENAMELED 

SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 

29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KLNDS OF 

MAIN-LINE 
TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

"The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAY. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the hest "Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Gauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 



Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Kegulators, &c, &c. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 7 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, 3T. «/., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much eicheb and feteb than brass, he now presents 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and wiU make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 50 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 60 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense ot returning funds by express, remittances may be mads 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 

He has ample facilities for furnishing all other kinds of Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 



84 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[October 31, 1868. 



W. E. FACER, 

No. 48 Socth Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

AST) DEALER D." ALL KINDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adj ustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

'• " Pony Size 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, xoith 
Decreased Weight of Metal, 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it wiU the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

iVo. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale ac $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to ordei 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nog. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

a®="Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
i furnished on most reasonable terms. 



BLASTING BY ELEOTKIOITY. 

BISHOP'S ELECTRIC FUSE, 

WITH 

GUTTA PERCHA CAPS; 

ALSO, 

ELECTRIC MACHINES, 

For use with the above, furnished to order, of any size required. 



BISHOP'S GUTTA PERCHA CAPS, 



FOR 



EXPLODING NITROGLYCERINE 

WITH 

MATCH FUSE, 

On hand and furnished to order with promptness, and 

"Warranted Sure Fire. 
The Bishop Gutta Percha Company, 

113 LIBERTY STREET, 

SAM. C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

THE BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFFIXE INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



All varieties cf Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

THE TELEGRAPHIC MANUAL, 




W. 0. LEWIS, 



PRACTICAL ELECTRICIAN AND TELEGRAPH 
SUPERINTENDENT. 
A few copies of this Elementary Treatise on the Art of Tele- 
graphy may be obtained, if immediate application is made. It 
should be in the hands of every person who is engaged in learn- 
ing Practical Telegraphy, and will be found very useful, even to 
those more advanced. 

Price — Single Copy 25 cents. 
Five Copies to one address, $1.00. 

Orders must be addressed to Box 2692, P. O., New York; and, 
to receive attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapheb, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 1868. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums durit, g tL ■ last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, "Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
"Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal valu9. 

For twelve subscribers, "Shaffuer's Telegraph Manual," op 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or " Noad's Student's Text- Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. 

W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very haudsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we wiU give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of s"i scribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity, " by A. De La Rive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



WORKS ON 

ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY, 

FOR SALE BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 
Publisher and Importer of Scientific Books, 

192 BROADWAY, JS'JSW YORK. 



SHAFFNER, T. P -Telegraph Manual. 

— A complete History and Description of the Semaphoric, 
Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, with 625 Illustrations. By Tal. P. Shaffner, of 
Kentuckv. New Edition. 1 vol. 8vo., cloth, 850 pp 6 60 

CULLEY, R.S, -A Handbook of Practical 

Telegraphy. — Published with the sanction of the Chair- 
man and Directors of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Company, and adopted by the Department of 
Telegraphs for India. Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. 300 pp., Illustrated. London, 1867 6 25 

SABIN, ROBT.— The Electric Telegraph. 

— Containing a Complete Description of Telegraphs now 
in use in the U. S. and Europe. 1 vol., 8vo. Illustrated 

with 200 Engravings. Over 400 pp. London, 1867 6 25 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, by Dr. 

LARDNER. — A new Edition, revised and re-written. By 
E. B. Bright, F. R. A. S. 1 vol. 12mo., 275 pp., 140 Illus- 
trations. London, 1867 2 60 

Wood's Plan and Telegraphic Instruc- 
tion, arranged by the Professors of " Morse's Telegraph 
Institute." 1 vol. 12mo 1 26 

TURNBULL, L.— The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, 
with an Historical Account of its Rise and Progress. 1 
vol., 8vo 2 60 

HARRIS (Sir Wm. Snow.) A Treatise on Fric- 

tional Electricity, in Theory and Practice. 1 vol., 8vo. . . 7 00 

NO AD, H. M.— A Manual of Electricity, including 
Galvanism, Magnetism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dyna- 
mics, Magneto-Electricity, and the Electric Telegraph. 1 
vol., 8vo. Fourth Edition. 500 Engravings 12 00 

Q£ [_A RIVE, A.— A Treatise on Electricity. 3 vols., 

8vo 36 50 

NO AD H. M .— Students' Text Book of Electricity. 1 

vol. , 12mo. 400 Illustrations. London, 1866 6 25 

FERGUSON, R. M .-Electricity. 1vol., 12mo.... 176 

BOND, R.— Handbook of the Telegraph 50 

DU MONCEL.— lEee Cte Th.)— Traite Theorique et 

Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique. 1 vol., 8vo 4 60 

HICHTON E .—History of Electric Telegraph. 100 

PRESCOTT, C. B.— History, Theory, and Practice 

of the Electric Telegraph. 1 vol., 12mo 2 50 

%g~ A Xexr and Recisrd Catalogue of Scientific Worht 
ready October 1, sent Free on Application. 

Xew York, Sept. 15, 1867. 




Vol. V. No. 11. 



New York, Saturday, November 7, 1868. 



Whole No. 121. 



[Written for The Telegrapher.] 

SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF THE ELECTRIC 
TELECRAPH. 

II. 

DYHAMIO OB VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. 

Electricity produced by chemical action is called 
voltaic or galvanic electricity, from tho names of its dis- 
coverers. It is also termed dynamic electricity, from a 
Greek word signifying force or power. 

If we immerse two plates of different metals, for ex- 
ample, copper and zinc, in a vessel of pure water, with 
their upper portions in contact outside .of the liquid, a 
galvanic circle will be formed, and the water will be 
gradually decomposed, its oxygen uniting with the zinc, 
the oxidizable metal. At the same time a current of elec- 
tricity will be transmitted through the liquid to the cop- 
per, upon the surface of which the other constituent of the 
water, hydrogen, will make its appearance in the form of 
minute bubbles of gas. The electrical current returns 
to the zinc plate at its point of contact with the copper, 
and thus a continuous current is kept up. When the 
circuit is broken by separating the metals, the current 
instantly ceases, but is renewed when they are again 
brought into contact. It is not, however, necessary that 
the plates~should be in actual contact with each other, for 
they may be connected by a metallic wire, which maybe 
of any length provided it is continuous throughout, as 
shown in Fig. 1. 

The effect with pure water is very feeble, and after a 
time the current nearly ceases, in consequence of the surface 
of the zinc becoming coated with oxide. If, however, we 
add a little sulphuric acid to the water, the effect is 
greatly increased, because in the first place we make the 
liquid a better conductor of electricity, and second- 
ly and chiefly because the oxide of zinc is dis- 
solved by the acid, and removed from the sur- 
face of the metal as fast as it is formed, con- 
tinually exposing a new and clean surface, and 
affording increased facility for the decomposition 
of the water. The force originates with the oxi- 
dation of the zinc, passes in the direction of the 
arrow through the liquid to the copper, and thence 
back through the conducting wires to the zinc. 
Sulphate or chloride of zinc is formed in the water, 
but the formation of either of these salts has little 
or anything to do with the development of the 
electric current, chemical decomposition being absolutely 
necessary for the development of a current of voltaic elec- 
tricity. 

When the connection between the two plates is broken 
outside the liquid, the electricity generated remains in a 
etatic condition, and may be made to produce attraction 
and repulsion the same as frictional electricity. The 
tension of a simple voltaic circuit, however, is very 
feeble, and a great number of cells are therefore required 
in order to produce this effect. 

Upon bringing the wires into contact and restoring the 
connection, the opposite tensions neutralize each other ; 
but they are constantly restored by the chemical action 



and as rapidly destroyed. Thus a constant transfer or 
current is established, and the electricity is said to be in 
a dynamic state. 

The plate (usually zinc) upon the surface of which the 
electricity is generated is called the negative or — pole, 
because it is there that the negative electricity accumu- 
lates, the positive having passed into the liquid. Similarly 
the other plate is called the positive or + pole, since from it 
the positive electricity sets out to return to the zinc. 




Fig. 1. 

If both metals in this arrangement were equally acted 
upon by the liquid, an equal tension would be acquired 
by each, and there would consequently be no tendency 
towards a transfer of electricity ; but whenever the 
chemical action upon one plate is greater than upon the 
other, the tension of the two will differ by an amount 
equal to the difference of chemical action, and the tension 
will increase in proportion to the increase of this differ- 
ence. When, therefore, there is no action upon one 
plate the difference of tension is the greatest possible. 

The apparatus for producing voltaic electricity, which 
has been described in its most simple form, is called a 
battery. As voltaic electricity is produced whenever 



zJLiilLc ?■ lie zB li e zJB 



Fig. 2. 

the conditions just mentioned are complied with, there 
are various methods of constructing a battery. 

The specific power possessed by each combination, of 
causing the transfer of electricity from one place to ano- 
ther, is called its electro-motive force. This term strictly 
implies any cause whatever by which a difference of elec- 
trical tension is produced between any two points. 

In dilute sulphuric or nitric acid, the substances far- 
thest apart in the following list form the most energetic 
combination. 




Carbon or coke. 


Iron. 


Platinum. 


Lead 


Silver. 


Tin. 


Copper. 


Zinc. 



As the power of evolving electricity depends on the 
difference of the chemical action upon the two plates, it 
will be altered by a change in the liquids employed ; for 
instance, iron stands below copper when sulphuric acid 
or a solution of common salt is used, while in ammonia 
the order is reversed. — Culley. 

If two or more pairs of plates be connected together 
in such a manner that the positive plate of the first is 
united by a metallic conductor with the negative plate 
of the second, and so on, as in Fig. 2, the electrical ten- 
sion is increased in direct proportion to the number of 
pairs. Therefore, four pairs will possess four times the 
tension of one pair, and the current generated by their 
combined action will be capab le of overcoming four times 
the resistance of that from a single pair. 

Suppose the electro-motive force of each pair to be 
such as to produce a difference of tension between its 
plates equal to ten, the difference between the poles or 
end plates of the battery of five cells will be forty. 

If both poles are insulated the plates in the centre will 
be neutral while the zinc pole will have a — tension of 
20 and the copper pole a + tension of 20. 

If either pole be connected to the earth its "tension 
will fall to zero, but as the electro-motive force of the 
battery remains the same, the difference between the 
poles will still be 40, and the other pole will have a + 
or a — tension of 40 instead of 20. 

Although the tension increases with each additional 
pair, no greater q uantily of electricity will be produced 
from a great number of pairs than from one pair, the ac- 
tion in each cell serving only, as it were, to urge forward 
a quantity equal to that arising from the chemical decom- 
position in the first cell. 

A By connecting together the four zincs and 

also the four coppers, forming in effect a single 
pair of four times the original surface, (he tension 
will remain as at firat but the quantity will be 
fourfold ; that is, there will be four times as much 
electricity generated, but its power of overcom- 
ing resistance will be no greater than that of a 
small pair, for the difference in the tension of 
its poles will be but 10. This subject will be 
more fully elucidated hereafter. 

As the number of cells is increased the effects 
of the battery approach more and more closely 
to those of the electrical machine described in 
the previous article. With a battery of 500 cells, well 
insulated, attraction and repulsion are readily manifested. 
The distinction between frictional and voltaic electri- 
city is merely one of degree and not of kind. The for- 
mer is of exceedingly high tension, but small in quantity; 
but in the latter the tension is comparatively feeble, but 
sufficient in quantity to keep up a sensible current, even 
from a very small pair of plates. No perceptible current 
can be maintained in a good conductor connecting the 
two poles of an electrical machine, as has been previous- 
ly mentioned. 

It is in consequence of the comparatively low tension 
of voltaic electricity that the insulation of the conduct- 



86 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November 7, 1868. 



ing wire is rendered comparatively easy, while frictional 
electricity, from its high tension and power of overcom- 
ing resistance, escapes from the wire through the most 
imperfect conductors. 

When a battery is formed of copper and 'pure, zinc, im- 
mersed in dilute sulphuric acid, no chemical action 
takes place as long as the poles are disconnected. If, 
however, the ordinary zinc of commerce be employed, its 
surface gives off bubbles of hydrogen as soon as it is 
immersed in the liquid, even if the copper plate is not 
present. This evolution of hydrogen arises from what is 
termed local action, caused by particles of iron, lead, and 
other foreign impurities contained in the zinc, which 
being negative to the metal itself, form small batteries 
upon the surface of the plate, which dissolve away 
numerous small cavities in the zinc, without producing 
any useful effect. 

By means of a process called amalgamation this 
local action may be almost entirely prevented. This is 
usually done by dipping the zincs into a vessel contain- 
ing dilute muriatic or sulphuric acid, and then plunging 
them into a bath of metallic mercury. After remaining 
in this for a minute or two they are taken out and placed 
in a vat of clean water, where the superfluous mercury 
is allowed to drain off. The mercury dissolves a little of 
the zinc, which flows over and covers the impurities, and 
prevents the acid in the battery from eoming in contact 
with them. The surface of the zinc is also rendered more 
electro-positive than when in its ordinary state. 

"When the poles of a battery are united by a conductor, 
a current is established, the water in the cells is decom- 
posed or separated into its component gases ; the oxygen 
combines with the zinc, forming oxide of zinc, which the 
acid immediately dissolves, converting it into sulphate. 

" The hydrogen is set free upon the copper plate, and 
escapes in bubbles, but hydrogen in this particular con- 
dition, called its nascent stale, has the power of separating 
metals from their solutions, so that as soon as the sulphate 
of zinc dissolved in the water reaches the copper plate 
it is decomposed by the hydrogen, coating the copper 
plate with zinc. This action tends to convert the battery 
into one in which zinc is eventually opposed to zinc, and 
therefore reduces, and finally destroys its force. Again, 
the hydrogen adheres to the copper, setting up a current 
opposing that produced by the battery ; it is then said 
to polarize the negative plate." — Culley. 

In order to render a battery uniform and lasting in its 
action, these effects must be in some manner prevented. 
Several different combinations have been invented, in 
which this condition is more or less perfectly fulfilled, 
which are termed constant batteries. Those which are 
most commonly employed in this country for Telegraphic 
purposes will be fully described in another article. 

F. L. P. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Cratified Officials.— The Labor and Pay Subjects 

again.— An Amusing Scene.— Wilson and 

Maynard. 

Chicago, Oct. 3lsl. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

You have at last succeeded in printing something that 
pleaseB the Western Union officials here. They affect to 
consider your article on the duties of Telegraphers to 
their employers as a sort of backing down from your pre- 
vious positions. This view of the matter amuses the 
operators here very much. We think the article just and 
well timed, and are pleased that you should remind the 
Telegraph employes of their reciprocal obligations to their 
employers. We ask nothing but what is right and just, 



and are willing to render justice and proper service in 
return. 

Much as has been written about the treatment of the 
employes in this office, the subject is by no means ex- 
hausted. At the same time it is no pleasure to us to be 
compelled, in self defence, to expose the treatment we 
receive, but as long as we are overworked and underpaid, 
and have an organ through which our wrongs can be 
ventilated, we shall continue to make them public. 

On at least a part of the districts of the Western Union 
Company the Superintendents and Managers work the 
employes with some regard for their health and comfort, 
while here they are perfectly merciless. They (the offi- 
cials) have easy times, and it never seems to occur to 
them that the operators are also human, and can be over- 
worked. 

There is something, however, conceded to us lately, 
which, in all fairness to our Superintendent, &c, should 
be recorded. One or two more of the operators have re- 
cently been allowed to bring their dinners and work the 
dinner hour, and, in return, are allowed to go off duty at 
six p. m. In neighboring cities operators who do this 
are allowed to go off at five o'clock, but so much of a 
concession is not to be looked for here. 

It would amuse you, should you drop in at this office 
between noon and two p. M., and see the manoeuvres of 
those operators who bring their dinners to get an oppor- 
tunity to eat them. They will slip out into the cloak 
room for that purpose, and, when they get fairly started, 
the chief operators will call them to go to work, and in 
they come with a piece of bread or a chunk of pie in one 
hand and a slice of meat in the other. These they lay 
down upon the operating table — take a message — then a 
bite — then another message, until the whole is disposed of. 

It is disgraceful that men who are compelled to labor as 
hard as the operators in this office are, should not be al- 
lowed time even to eat their frugal dinners. 

A day laborer is allowed this privilege, and besides is 
not required to render more than ten hours' labor per day, 
and receives about as much remuneration. 

The overworking is not confined to the day force, but 
is general throughout the whole office. In the next let- 
ter we will give some more details in regard to work, 
pay, &c, which will satisfy any unprejudiced person of 
the justice of our complaints, and the urgent necessity 
that exists for an amelioration of our condition. We 
seem to have no friend but The Telegrapher, but so 
long as that stands by us we shall not utterly despair. 

Supt. Wilson has been very polite to us lately, but 
that is all. He is greatly exercised at the continued 
expose of the affairs of this office under his administration, 
but shows little disposition to do us justice. He has, 
however, given up the swagger and bluster which cha- 
racterized him when this discussion was first commenced, 
and takes things more quietly, though it is evident to 
every person in the office that he is anything but happy 
under the infliction. He continues to read The Tele- 
grapher with great interest, and the operators here 
think of subscribing for a copy for his exclusive use. 

Maynard, the celebrated night manager, still flourishes 
in all his glory, and spends his days and nights in trying 
to devise some method by which to redeem his character, 
and get an endorsement from his associates, but since the 
failure of his first attempt in that line, he is at his wit's 
end to know what to do. If he will behave himself in 
the future, and try, by kind, courteous, and gentlemanly 
behavior, to make amends for the past, he may rest as- 
sured that his efforts will be appreciated, and that there 
is no vindictiveness towards him on the part of the 

Chicago Operators. 

Washington, Nov. 1st. 

To the Editor ov The Telegrapher. 

The good work goes bravely on. We are receiving 
assurances daily from the Telegraphers of this city, an- 
nouncing their intention of becoming members of the N. 



T. U. and Life Insurance Bureau. We expect to hold a 
meeting this week and thoroughly organize. There will 
be a good number who will become members immediately, 
and many others who have assured us that they shall 
join as soon as we get started. 

We have still brighter prospects than ever before, and 
all seem determined to keep the ball moving. With that 
noble " head" of the President in our midst there can 
be no such word as fail. We all know " G," and have 
confidence in him. We are encouraged by the action of 
other districts, and hope we shall hear of great results 
from the action of the late Convention. 

Telegraphic news has been dull this week. W. E. 
Kettles, the District Secretary, has returned from his 
late visit east, and has resumed his duties in the W. U. 
office. 

W. C. Hall, of the Fifteenth street " Franklin" office, 
has gone east on a three weeks leave. Mr. Dun, of 
Baltimore, substituting for Mr. Hall. 

G. E. Cromwell, late of the W. U. Co., has accepted 
a temporary situation with the Franklin Co. 

The B. and B. Co., on the 2d inst, will commence the 
construction of a third wire from Baltimore to Washing- 
ton, and expect, in two weeks, to have it in complete 
working order. We also learn the same Company in- 
tend removing their wires into the capital by cable in- 
stead of on poles, as is now the case. Spring. 



< •» » > 



A Drove of Bulls. 

Albany, Oct. 29. 

To the Editor ov The Telegrapher. 

I s'pect the prevalence of the cattle disease lately is the 
reason for the paucity of " bulls" in your funny column. 
I herewith consign to you a drove, for you to dispose of 
to the best advantage. They have been in quarantine 
here long enough to bo disinfected. 

One of us the other day astonished a real estate agent 
by sending him a telegram from one of his patrons — " do 
not hang about my property until I come." It should 
have read " do nothing about my property," &c. The 
imputation that the agent was no gent and a loafer was 
not sufficient ground for damages, or the W. U. Co. 
would have been seen about it. 

A message passed through here lately to the Rev. 0. 
C. House, Boston. That gentleman couldn't be found, 
but the " Revere House" was, which answered every 
purpose. 

" Subs," before they get the hang of the ropes, make 
some funny errors occasionally. We had one here this 
summer, fresh from the daisies, who had never seen the 
strips which the combination instrument turns off. The 
first one he happened to get hold of was New York, No, 
51, which, being numbered as usual with the Roman 
characters, thus, LI, he ingeniously sent as from Long 
Island, N. Y., and didn't discover anything wrong until 
the receiving office asked if he should check direct with 
Long Island. 

Another " sub" made a gentleman send for ." and date 
for poison," instead of " antidote for poison." 

Away up in the country, almost out of civilization and 
into Canada, is an office whose operator, if he is as gen- 
erous with his stamps as he is with his dots, will yet lend 
the charm of his presence to grace a poor-house. He 
makes his telegrams hail from Handy Pill. When gently 
chided for such a wanton waste of the Company's dots, 
he sarcastically calls us "papa," (no doubt meaning it 
for a laugh, which we assure him is no laughing matter,) 
and retorts that he is not a very handy pill for us to take, 
judging from the length of time it takes to raise us. We 
reply that we have seen pills that were better operators 
than he is, and after taking him once it's difficult to get 
any one to hazard a second dose. 

This opening of a key and letting loose a rnshing tor- 
rent of dots every time one wishes to make a letter P, 
should be frowned down. The mammoth should issue 
a general order forbidding it, or insist upon the dots 
being counted and properly checked. 



November 7, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



87 



We have written you before of the little unpleasant- 
ness which occurred between one of our city offices and 
the stubborn clock at the observatory. That clock is the 
occasion of a good many " cuss-words." The old pro- 
verb, "Time waits for no one," is proved true many times 
a day upon that city wire. Its measured seconds, remind- 
ing us of the rapid passage of the hours, are forced upon 
our attention, and sometimes get inextricably mixed in 
with the letters of a message. Its beat is like a letter 
" 1," and happening in once right after " To" in an 
address, the receiving operator copied one L after another 
until he had got down four or more, when he stopped 
aghast, and remarked loud enough to be heard, and after- 
wards laughed at, " that he never knew of a name with 
so many initial letter "Ls" in it before. 

An operator passed a message the other day to 
" Harod" instead of H. A. Reed. That was a gay " bull." 

As our ventilation of the falling out between the 
clock and a fair operator hereabouts caused an answer 
to be prepared in vindication, we adopt your disclaimer, 
and say we are not responsible for the opinions expressed 
in the above, or the facts stated, and if forced at the 
point of the bayonet, or otherwise, to retract, we shall do 
so with the'best grace possible. 

Yours, in our dot-age, 



Operators must Submit.— A Superintendent as is a 
Superintendent. 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 2d. 
To the Editor or The Telegrapher. 

" The time has come when operators must submit .'" 
says one of the wise Superintendents of the Great "Wes- 
tern Union Company. 

The case stands thus : Not long since one of the ope- 
rators employed in the Washington office happened, in 
conversation, to make use of "disrespectful language" 
(as it is stated) towards the Western Union Co. This 
terrible and unusual conduct was speedily reported to 
the Superintendent of this district, and thereupon he 
writes the Manager a letter upon the subject, and notifies 
him that " such proceedings (?) by operators will not be 
tolerated, and the time has come when operators must 
submit. Upon the receipt of this letter the Manager posts 
a notice in the office to that effect, and in order that 
the affair should lack no ridiculous element, adds — 

" I hope the guilty party will come forward and apo- 
logize, otherwise he will be dismissed." The original 
"Bates" all, but as "Tinkered" it is supremely ridicu- 
lous. 

Now, it is not intended to defend the use of denunci- 
atory language, or even complaints towards employers, 
unless deserved, and in this instance it undoubtedly was 
deserved by the Western Union. The ridiculously ab- 
surd order posted up in the office here is rather ahead 
of anything that our Chicago and Pittsburg brethren have 
complained of. Further comment is unnecessary. 

Wide Awake. 



*-4~*-+ 

PERSONAL. 

The Sharon Springs Western Union office having 
been closed for the winter, Mr. W. M. Mallet, formerly 
operator at that place, has been transferred to the Utica 
W. U. office. 

Johnny Foley, formerly of the Utica, and more re- 
cently of the Syracuse office, in company with Joe 
Thatcher, of the Buffalo, and Jimmy Parsons, formerly 
of the New York Western Union office, sailed for Cali- 
fornia on the 24th ult., having the promise of situations 
there under Supt. Fellows. 

Mr. M. A. McCoy has resigned his position in the 
Western Union, Pittsburg, Pa., office, and accepted ap- 
pointment as manager of the Pacific and Atlantic office 
at Titusville, Pa. 

Mr. Henry H Taylor is now, and expects to be for 
the winter, at Fort Laramie, D. T. 



Mr. E. R. Howe has retired from the position of re- 
port operator in the Indianapolis Western Union office, and 
taken a position with the E. and W. lines, as report 
operator at Evansville, Ind. 

H A. Bogardus, who has been employed in the 
Saratoga Springs office during the past season, has ac- 
cepted a position with the W. U. Co. in their Springfield, 
Mass., office. 

Act Schall is becoming quite a "carpet bagger." 
Since leaving Utica branch office he has been transferred 
three times, viz., Oswego to Syracuse, Syracuse to Ro- 
chester, and from Rochester to Syracuse again. Aut 
takes it easy, however. 

Mr. C. E. Disbrow, of Chicago, takes the night office 
at Wapella, vice A. Turney, resigned. 

Mr. Wheeler Robinson, formerly of Galena Depot ) 
takes Pana, 111., office, vice J. D. Anderson, resigned to 
go into other business. 

Mr. J. W. McDonald, of Titusville Western Union 
office, has been transferred to the Pittsburg office of the 
same company. 

Mr. Orin Jenks, of Parkersburg, W. Va., has accepted 
a situation in the Pittsburg Western Union office. 

Mr. Samuel H. Stewart, of Ashley, 111., has accepted 
a situation in the office of Superintendent Hughitt, at 
Chicago. 

Mr. C. W. Harned, formerly night operator at Glney, 
III, takes charge of the office of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road at Mendota, as night operator. 

Mr. George Cutts, formerly night operator of the C. 
B. and Q. R. R., Mendota, HI., accepts the Wapella office, 
vice F. H. Berry, who goes to Matteson, 111. 

THE TELEGRAPH. 

Opening of the A. and P. Co. at Chicago. 

The wires of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Com- 
pany were completed to Chicago, 111., on Tuesday, the 3d 
inst., and its office there opened for business. We con- 
gratuate the Company and the Contractor on having 
reached this stage in their labor of building up a system 
of competing Telegraph wires. We are also pleased to 
learn that, immediately upon opening, abundant business 
to profitably occupy the wires was tendered both at its 
Chicago and New York offices. It is evident that there 
is no lack of business at remunerative rates for any Tele- 
graph Co. that will furnish adequate facilities and do the 
business promptly and satisfactorily. 

At Chicago the A. and P. makes close connection with 
the Mississippi Yalley N. T. Co., and through it reaches 
Milwaukee and other important localities in the north- 
west. 

The Chicago office is under the management of that 
staunch friend of The Telegrapher and the Telegraphic 
Union, Mr. A. H. Bliss, whose superior fitness and ability 
for the position augurs well for the future of the Chicago 
office. He has secured the services of able and efficient 
assistants, and we have no doubt but that the adminis- 
tration of the Chicago office will be eminently satisfactory 
to the public and the Company. 

Progress of the M. V. N. T. Co. 

The Mississippi Yalley National Telegraph Company, 
on Wednesday last, completed its lines via St. Paul to 
St. Louis, Mo., and opened its office for business at the 
latter place. It is a two wire line, and at Chicago forms 
a close connection with the Atlantic and Pacific Co., 
through which it is put in communication with the ex- 
tensive system of competing lines throughout the coun- 
try already constructed and in process of construction. 
The M. Y. N. T. Co. appears to be under skilful and 
energetic management, and is pushing ahead rapidly, and 
we understand, successfully, in the Northwestern section 
of the country. 



A Tough Job. 
Mr. A. B. Waite, Supt. of Repairs of the Western 
Union Company, has been engaged, with a large gang of 
men, for several weeks past, between Albany and Syra- 
cuse, painting cross-arms with an insulating composition. 
He also takes out all defective wire and poor connections. 
The results of his labor are already very apparent, as 
wires that before could not be worked between Utica 
and Albany during a storm, now work in all kinds of 
weather. Mr. Waite passed Utica, westward bound, 
Oct. 31st. He reports it as being " a tough job." 

Telegraphic Extension. 
The Northern Telegraph Company, of which Mr. J. W. 
Robinson is the Manager and Superintendent, on Octo- 
ber 30th opened a branch from Concord to Pittsfield, N. 
H., the building of which we noticed some weeks since. 
Mr. Robinson is certainly an energetic and live Superin- 
tendent, and believes in pushing things. 

Telegraph Extension in Maine. 
The Internation Telegraph Company will soon extend 
its wires from Alfred to Limerick, Maine. 

*-*+*-< 

A Telegraph Line Purchased. 
We understand that the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph 
Company have purchased the wires of the Southern Tele- 
graph Company, of which Gen. Kirby Smith was Presi- 
dent, and which we believe had been completed from 
Cincinnati via Louisville to Memphis, Tenn., and have 
added them to its system of line already in operation. 



Effect of Competition. 

Competition has reduced the tariff for Telegraph des- 
patches of ten words between Chicago, 111., and Dubuque, 
Iowa, from ninety to fifty cents. 

The Telegraph in Minnesota. 

The Northwestern Telegraph Company have opened 
an office at Mankato, Minnesota. 

»*^-~^~^ — 

Paying Dearly for It. 

The Trojans are paying dearly for their folly in refusing 
to put up the Fire Alarm Telegraph in their city. It is 
only a few days since their largest elevator was totally 
destroyed, involving a loss of $300,000, and now the new 
Bessemer steel works is in ruins. It is believed, and with 
good reason, that if the steamers could have been promptly 
notified of the fire at the elevator, the loss would have 
been, comparatively speaking, small. The Bessemer 
works was as good as destroyed when the alarm reached 
the steamer houses. The Whig says the superintendent 
drove from the works to the Osgood steamer house and 
gave the alarm, and that "in consequence of the brilliant 
light visible in the lower part of the city every evening, 
caused by the running of the Rensselaer mill, the firemen 
were deceived for a long time as to the location of the 
fire. The result was they were slow to reach it." Now, 
if our neighbors had an Alarm Telegraph, the men in 
charge of the steamers would have known of the fire in 
about one minute after it was discovered, and long before 
they did receive information of it would have been on the 
ground, with their steamers in service. Our neighbors 
should hesitate no longer. Let them order up the Tele- 
graph at once. Our people would not be without it for 
ten times its cost. — Albany Express. 



■<■»»•► 



Important to Inventors. 
The Commissioner of Patents has ordered that here- 
after applicants shall not be allowed to withdraw original 
applicatiens for the purpose of amendment, but when it 
is desired to amend an application a copy of the original 
must be had of the office for such purpose. 

To invest your money where it will insure satisfactory 
returns — Advertise. 



88 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[November 7, 1868. 




SATURDAY, NOV. 7, 1868. 



OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. H. Young.... Box 248 P. O., Washington, D. C. 

Vice-President. W. P. Merrill.. W. T7. Tel. O., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple. .Box 39 P. O., Albany, N. Y. 

Recording Sec. .3. W. Duxbubt..W. U. Tel. O., Boston, Mass. 
Corres. Sec ... .F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. O., New York. 



THE TELECRAPH INSTITUTE SWINDLE. 
We trust the readers of The Telegrapher will 
excuse us for our frequent reference to the (so-called) 
Telegraph Institute swindles. It is a subject of great 
interest and importance to every practical Telegrapher, 
and as such receives from us so much attention. 

"We have persistently exposed every one of these swin- 
dles that has been brought to our notice, and shall con- 
tinue to do so. Notwithstanding these exposures, how- 
ever, they continue to be established, and their unprinci- 
pled and usually incompetent managers continue to 
defraud their victims out of the money which they are 
induced to invest for tuition, and for the pretended influ- 
ence of the wretches in procuring them situations on tele- 
graph lines. "We have so often demonstrated the ina- 
bility of the proprietors of these concerns to fulfil their 
promises, that it seems almost useless to repeat the argu- 
ments heretofore adduced in that direction. It is a fact 
well known to every telegrapher that competent opera- 
tors cannot be graduated by these swindling establish- 
ments. "While there is no doubt but that competent 
instructors can impart to students much important ele- 
mentary information, yet there is but one method in 
which a person can become a competent practical opera- 
tor, and that is by actual experience on a regular tele- 
graph line. 

Another point which should be brought prominently 
to the attention of every person who is likely to be swin- 
dled by the falsehoods of these fellows, is, that out of the 
number who undertake to learn the telegraphic art in 
the regular way, not more than one half, and probably 
a less percentage, ever become capable operators. It can 
be seen from this how small a proportion of the patrons 
of these establishments, even admitting that in excep- 
tional caaes they ean impart a practical knowledge of 
the telegraphic art, will ever obtain a return for the 
money invested. The truth is, and these fellows well 
know it, that there is a better chance for their patrons to 
get a return for their money in a policy shop than through 
any instruction which they can impart, or any influence 
which they can exert in their behalf in procuring situa- 
tions for them. Notwithstanding the lying assertions of 
these fellows, it is well known that no respectable tele- 
graph company will furnish employment upon the recom- 
mendation of the proprietors of these so-called Institutes. 
Unless an applicant for a situation can demonstrate his 
ability to discharge the duties of the position applied for, 
all the recommendations that can be brought from Tele- 
graph Institute swindlers will not avail. 

The tricks of these fellows to obtain patronage are as 
numerous and as unscrupulous as those used by pocket- 
book droppers and confidence operators generally. As 
fast as one lying pretence is exposed they resort to 



another. They not only falsely claim to be able to take 
any person of ordinary intelligence and make him or her 
a first class operator, but their oiroulars are filled with 
lying and exaggerated statements as to the salaries paid 
and the chances of operators for obtaining remunerative 
employment and advancement. It is an indisputable 
fact that the number of paying situations on Telegraph 
lines is comparatively small, and that in this respect the 
business is not improving. Every day almost we hear of 
good first class operators who are quitting the business 
for easier and more remunerative employment, and 
almost every week we are called upon to record such 
cases in The Telegrapher. As at present conducted, 
except in a few instances, the business is not remunera- 
tive for persons who have the talent and ability to 
become first class operators. Under these circumstances 
it is easily to be seen how outrageous must be the course 
pursued by these Telegraph Institutes in seeking to rob 
their victims of fifty to one hundred dollars for a three 
months' course of pretended instruction. And then, 
again, every Telegraph operator knows the impossibility, 
even under the most favorable circumstances, of making 
a proficient and first class Telegrapher in three or even 
six months. The truth is that a person may study and 
practice a year with these fellows, and will, at the end 
of that time, find that he or she is utterly incompetent to 
take even an inferior telegraphic situation. 

"We think that one of the principal reasons why these 
fellows obtain patronage is, that they are enabled to pub- 
lish quasi endorsements from parties known as connected 
more or less prominently with telegraph enterprises. "We 
have frequently been astonished by the publication, in 
the circulars of these swindlers, of endorsements and 
recommendations from parties who are generally consid- 
ered honorable and fair-minded gentlemen. We call to 
mind in this connection one of these fellows in this city, 
who formerly got an honest living as a line builder, who 
is endorsed by parties who cannot but know his utter 
incompetence as an instructor of anything telegraphic 
beyond line construction. There is generally too much 
facility in granting applications for recommendatory let- 
ters on the part of many who are applied to by such 
people for such letters. They will sign statements 
endorsing the ability of, and recommending parties to 
patronage whom they would not give an important or 
responsible situation under any circumstances. This is 
all wrong, and should be corrected. No one can know 
what influence his written recommendation may have, or 
how many may, by confidence in the truthfulness and 
good faith of their published recommendations, be led to 
throw away time and money in a vain and fruitless effort 
to acquire a profession upon which they expect to rely 
for a support. "We hope that every person who has been 
persuaded into endorsing one of these concerns against his 
better judgment, will at once withdraw such endorsement, 
and forbid the further use of his name in aid of such dis- 
reputable enterprises. 

In conclusion we call upon every person, whether a 
telegrapher or otherwise, into whose hands this paper 
may fall, to in all cases discountenance these so-called 
Institutes, and prevent, as far as may be in their power, 
the accession of students to sustain these establishments, 
and suffer swindling at the hands of their proprietors. 

We can assure every person, male or female, young or 
old, who may be proposing to throw away time and 
money in this direction, that it would be much better to 
bestow their money in charity, and devote their time to 
some more satisfactory and remunerative employment. 

Avoid these Telegraph Institute swindlers as you would 
the Gift Jewelry swindlers and Mock Auction shops of 
this city, and warn all your unsophisticated friends 
against them. 



The Monopoly Don't Like It. 

The bitter attack, in the last number of our usually 
good-tempered and benevolent official contemporary, on 
the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, and on 
Henry Clews 4 Co., bankers, for undertaking to dis- 
pose of its stock, shows that opposition is beginning to 
awaken decidedly unpleasant feelings and anticipations 
on the part of the managers of the would be monopoly. 
The rapid extension of the A. and P. Company's wires, and 
those of other competing companies, is not, it must be 
confessed, calculated to induce pleasant feelings on the 
part of those who seek to monopolize the telegraph busi- 
ness of the country. "We have no doubt but that Henry 
Clews & Co. fully understand the character of the stock 
they have undertaken to dispose of, and they also under- 
stand the determination of the people that the telegraph 
business of the country shall not be monopolized, what- 
ever may be the cost of establishing and maintaining 
competition. 

"We hope soon to see all the competing companies 
working together on one common plan, and thus obvi- 
ating the waste of capital and labor, which is inevitable as 
they are at present conducted, and securing the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of effective and salutary com- 
petition. This is what the business men and people of 
the country imperatively demand and will have. "We 
advise our contemporary to possess his soul in patience. 
The stockholders of the Atlantic and Pacific Company 
are abundantly able to look out for their own interests. 
The official organ may well term its attack gratuitous 
advertising, for the active denunciation of the monopoly 
managers is all that is necessary to ensure the speedy 
sale of the balance of the Atlantic and Pacific stock 
which yet remains to be disposed of. 

i o i 

A New Engineering Journal. 

"We are pleased to learn that Mr. D. Van Nostrand, 
the well known publisher and importer of scientific works 
in this city, purposes to issue, on the first of January 
next, the first number of a new monthly periodical, en- 
titled Van Nostrand's Eclectic Engineering Magazine, 
whose contents will consist of matter selected and com- 
piled from all the scientific and engineering journals in 
this country and abroad. There is an extensive field 
here for a journal of this kind. Few professional men 
can spare the money or the time necessary to make them- 
selves acquainted with the really important portion of 
the information contained in all the foreign journals, and 
a publication of this kind can scarcely fail to meet with 
a large measure of popularity and success among the 
class professionally interested in the different branches of 
engineering. 

Mr. A. L. Holley, a well known author and an en- 
gineer of distinction, is to have charge of the magazine, 
which will be a sufficient guaranty of the ability with 
which it will be conducted. The terms of subscription, 
etc., may be seen in the advertisement in another 
column. 

Give Us the Names. 
On Tuesday night last the Presidential election neces- 
sitated keeping open a large number of the offices of the 
Western Union Company all night, and imposed a large 
amount of extra work on the operators. "Will the offi- 
cial organ of that company oblige us with the names of 
the Superintendents who " sent out for wholesome re- 
freshments?" as, according to our contemporary, the 
custom has not been discontinued. "We presume the list 
will be somewhat lengthy, but we promise to print it 
entire in The Telegrapher, if furnished. 



~*+*~ 



Cone to Europe. 
Mr. Hiram Siblby sailed for Europe on Saturday, Oct. 
81st, and will spend the coming winter and spring 
abroad. 



Perpetual Motion. 
A Mexican claims to have solved the problem of per- 
petual motion. His machine produces electricity, which 
causes motion, and the motion in 
tricity. 



turn generates elec- 



November 7, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



89 



Business of the Western Union Company in 
September. 

Thb following iff the official statement of the "Western 
Union Telegraph Company for September, 1868 : 
September, 1868. 
Groes receipts, - - - $630,665 36 
Current expenses, • - 372,197 50 



Net profit, - - - $258,467 86 

An increase of $32,560 57 over the corresponding 
month of 1867, and a decrease of expenses amounting to 
$3,344 00. 

This statement fully substantiates all that we have 
written in reference to the rapid increase of the Telegraph 
business. It should be remembered that this large in- 
crease of receipts is shown notwithstanding the tolls on 
several of the most important routes have been very 
largely reduced, and the business divided with compe- 
ting companies. 

><♦> < 

To Advertisers, 
We would suggest to all those who are engaged in the 
manufacture or sale of Telegraph instruments, wire, insu- 
lators, and Telegraph supplies of any kind, or in the con- 
struction of Telegraph lines, that the rapidly increasing 
circulation of The Telegrapher renders it more than 
ever the medium through which they can best reach 
those who need their goods or services. "We can refer 
them with confidence to those who have heretofore, and 
do now make use of our columns for the certification of 
the benefit to be derived therefrom. Our advertising 
patronage as well as our circulation has steadily increased 
during the last six months, and both are now larger than 
ever before, and constantly increasing. But a compar- 
atively small portion of the space appropriated to adver- 
tisements in The Telegrapher remains unoccupied, and 
this we expect to fill up during the present month, so 
that those who desire to avail themselves of the facilities 
offered should send in their advertisements at once. 

The Western Hotel. 
"We take pleasure in calliDg the attention of Telegraph- 
ers, and others who may have occasion to visit New 
York, to the "Western Hotel, in Cortlandt Street. It is 
an excellent hotel, and our friend "Winchester, and all 
connected with the establishment, take especial care of 
Telegraphers that may patronize it. 

A Cold Medal Awarded. 
At the New Hampshire Mechanics' Exhibition, which 
has just been held at Concord, N. H., a gold medal was 
awarded to Mr. J. "W. Robinson, Superintendent of the 
Northern Telegraph lines, for Telegraph instruments 
exhibited, and for establishing a Telegraph office in the 
exhibition. Mr. Robinson informs us that the instru- 
ments exhibited were manufactured by Mr. C. Williams, 
Jr., of No. 109 Court street, Boston, whose superior 
workmanship in this line is well known, and deserving 
of this flattering recognition. 



■•* ■+ ♦■ >- 



Observations on Atmospheric Electricity. 

[From the Popular Science Review, October.] 
The observations made at Kew on this subject have 
been contrasted by Professor Everett, of Nova Scotia, 
with those made at Windsor, N. S. The Kew observa- 
tions referred to extended from June, 1862, to May, 1864, 
inclusive, and were taken with Sir Wm. Thomas' self-re- 
cording apparatus — specimens of the photographic curves 
thus taken being exhibited at the meeting. 

The Windsor observations taken by Dr. Everett, with 
apparatus of a different kind, also invented by Sir Wm. 
Thomson, but not self-recording, extended from October, 
1862, to August, 1864. 

Monthly averages which had been taken showed that 
at Kew there had in every month been two maximum in 
the day— one of them between eight and ten, A. M., and 
the other, which was considerable, between eight and 
ten, P. M. 



At Windsor, on the contrary, the electricity between 
eight and ten, P. M., had in every month been weaker 
than either between eight and ten, A. M., or between 
two and three, P. M. The annual curve for Kew has its 
principal maximum in November, and another in Feb- 
ruary or March. 

At Windsor the principal maximum was in February 
or March, and the minimum in June and November. 
The annual curves for the two places agreed pretty well 
from January to October, but were curved in opposite 
directions from October to January. 

Honor6 to Prof. Morse. 

Prof. Morse has been the recipient of six decorations 
from different sovereigns of Europe. 

Home Again. 

Mr. Ctrus W. Field has arrived home from Europe, 
but, we understand, intends soon to return there. 

Nature of Electricity Unknown. 

The late Prof. Faraday said : " There was a time 
when I thought I knew something about the matter, 
but the longer I live, and the more carefully I study the 
subject, the more convinced I am of my total ignorance 
of the nature of electricity." 

< * » » 

MARRIED. 

Betts— Phillips.— On the 28th October, at Providence, R. I., 
by the Rev. J. G. Vose, Mr. Alfred H. Betts, late of the 
Western Union Office in that city, to Miss Katie M. Phillips, 
also of Providence. 

Demoll — Bowebs. — On Wednesday, October 21st, at St. John's 
Church, Philadelphia, C. G. Demoll, of the Franklin Telegraph 
Company, New York, to Miss J. M. Bowers, of Philadelphia. 

Fonda— McNeill.— Broadalbin, N. Y., Oct. 15th, by Rev. M. 
Howabd, T. H. Fonda, of Fonda, N. Y., to Miss Hattie Mc- 
Neill, of the former place. 

Hutchinson — Williams. — At Wapella, M., on the 28th Oct., 
Mr. Robebt Hutchinson, operator at Macon, HI., to Miss M. A. 
Williams, of Wapella. 

DIED. 
Dameron. — On the 30th instant, of consumption, at the resi- 
dence of his sister, in Harford Co., Md., C. B. Dameron, late of 
the Augusta, Ga., office, aged 23 years. 

PROSPECTUS OF 

VAN tfOSTRAND'S 

ELECTRIC ENGINEERING MAGAZINE 

80 TO 96 PAGES, LARGE 8VO., MONTHLY. 

FIRST NUMBER to be ISSUED JAFY 1, 1869. 

Price $5 a year, in ad-vance. Single Copies, 50 cents. 

VAN NOSTRAND'S MAGAZINE will consist of Articles Se- 
lected and Matter Condensed from all the Engineering Serial 
Publications of Europe and America. 

This will be done under the direction of Mr. A. L. HOLLEY, 
the well-known Author and Constructor in various branches of 
Engineering. 

Few active engineers or artisans can take all or most of the 
professional newspapers ; none can afford the time to wade 
through the columns of the whole scientific press, to get at the 
really important news, information and opinion. 

The object of the Magazine is to present, within limits of space 
and cost that all can afford, the cream of not less than fifty en- 
gineering, mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical publications. 
The French and German Magazines will be largely translated. 
Papers and discussions before Societies will be condensed. Pro- 
fessional news from all sources will.be compiled at length. 



Address 



D. VAN NOSTRAND, 

Publithtr and Importer, 

182 BROADWAY, 

NEW YORK. 



CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO, 

TELEGRAPHIC & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, 

CONTRACTORS, etc., 

38 SOUTH FOURTH STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

Manufacturers of, and Dealers in every variety of 
TELEGRAPHIC, 

ELECTRIC, AND 

PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 

BATTERIES, WIRE, ACIDS, 

INSULATORS, MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
AND OTHER SUPPLIES, 

RESPECTFULLY ANNOUNCE 
that they have increased their facilities for the Prompt Execu- 
tion of all orders with which they may be entrusted. They are 
prepared to Contract for the Construction and Equipment of 

NEW LINES OF TELEGRAPH, 
for the Re-Construction or Repair of 

EXISTING LINES, 
or for the supply of TELEGRAPH MATERIAL of all descriptions. 
Among other improvements for which they have secured the 
sole or joint agency, attention is called to the following valuable 
and useful novelties: 




PATENT ANTI-TRUNNION KEY, 

WITH ECCENTRIC CIRCUIT CLOSER. 

They above KEY has recently been patented, and is believed to 
be the best form of Key yet presented for adoption and use by 
Telegraph Companies or Operators. 




PATENT ANTI-TRUNNION KEY, 

WITH AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT CLOSER 

This cut represents the Anti-Trunnion Key, with an Automatic 
Circuit Closer. By the use of this Key an absolute certainty of 
exemption from accidental opening of circuit, either through 
carelessness or otherwise, at the Key, is secured. 

We would also call attention to the following articles and sup- 
plies, which we are prepared to furnish promptly, and guarantee 
every article to prove as represented at the time of purchase. 
Kerite (or horn covered) Copper or Compound Wire or Cables. 

COVERED COMPOUND AIR LINE WIRE. 

BLASTING APPARATUS, CARTRIDGES, BATTERIES, &c, &c. 

CALCIUM LIGHTING APPARATUS, 

MEDICAL BATTERIES, 
INDUCED AND DIRECT CURRENTS. 

ELECTRO PLATES, BATTERIES & MATERIALS 

ELECTRO GONGS, 

of any desired size or weight. 

ALARM APPARATUS, 

ETC., ETC. 

ELECTRICAL CLOCK-WORK. 

The success of the past year, with our increased resources and 
faculties, warrants us in promising pbompt dispatch in the 
execution of all orders. Our terms will aUo be found satisfactory 
and liberal by our customers. 



90 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November 7, 1868. 



OHAELES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 

104 Centre Street, N. T., 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 

AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, 

AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OP 

TELEGEAPH SUPPLIES. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE 0N1TED STATES 



FOR 



BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFLNE INSULATOR, 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool Jol ani Commercial Printini. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



FOR 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the space of a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, giving every connection desired in any office for changes 
and test 

Also, Agents for 
PRESCOTT'S HISTORY, THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPH, 

AND 

WOOD'S PLAN OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUCTION. 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight 'years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines! 
They offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
will work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a year; and the very 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND SUPPLIES. 

REPAIRINQ DONE PROMPTLY. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Room No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

CHARLES "WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds & Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER of 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 
HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 



OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTi-PERCHA COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

-A. X FL LINE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can bo had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 



Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 



SUBMARINE 

AND OTHER 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 
I 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cutta-Percha, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B — We are prepared to lav down and warrant Submarine 
Cables. 



Apply to 



SAMUEL C. BISHOP. 



General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-Percha Co. 



Office, 113 LIBERTY STREET. 



Nsw York. 



November ?, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



&1 



REMOVAL OF 



L. GK TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegrapji Instalments nnb Supplies 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, &c. 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery- 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical Works. 
" C. P. "Parley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

171 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Celegrapjj Patjnnerg anb Supplies. 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L, G. Tillotson & Co., Geo. H. Bliss, 

New Terk. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais, one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out the following ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct ? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

ZEleotrioaJL Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 

SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 
29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 
MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

"The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAY. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 
Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder in the world. 



The Telegraphic Gas-Holder Gauge, 
which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 

An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 

Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Kegulators, &c, &c. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 1 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, N. J., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE METAL, 

which is much richer and finer than brass, he now presents 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15llth to 
the l-300th of an inch ; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 60 

Small Box Relays 16 00 

Same in Rosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Relays 17 00 

Same in Rosewood 18 00 

Large Box Relay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Relays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Registers 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 60 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 

He has ample facilities for furnishiDg all other kinds of Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' priciM. 



92 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November ?, 1868 



W. E. PACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing Electrician, 

A>~D DEALER IN ALL KIXDS OF 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Pbices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and "WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects : 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

'* 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

" 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" " PonySize 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 5 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGKAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 
OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing *.he chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
aad such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume HI. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to order 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nog. 16 
Md 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

ASf-Switches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

mfTTj BROOKS 

PATENT PARAFFINE INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE! 

Parties having OLD TELEGRAPH WIRE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 



Box 1714. 



L,. G. TILLOTSON & Co., 

11 Dey Street, New York. 



VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To oe given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 18G8. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-months' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, "Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
" Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal value. 

For twelve subscribers, " Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or "Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. 

We have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Rive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELECRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVER THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE." 



On Saturday, August 29th, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume hag 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices of 
changes of Telegraphic offices; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be 'combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
of electrical progress, and to render it worthy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

One copy, one year. 7 $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

Single copies, five cents. 

j(y Subscribers in the British Provinces must remit 20 cts 
Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

tw Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 

One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

8S5~ No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 
Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
cupied. 

District Directors or others who may interest themselves in 
procuring subscribers at our advertised rates, and remitting us 
the money, will receive our thanks, and an Extra Copy for one 
year for every Club. 

SS~The following persons are authorized to receive subscrip- 
tions for The Telegrapher : 

Joseph W. Stover, Travelling Agent. 
A. H. Bliss, A. & P., and M. V. N. Telg. Co., Chicago. 
L. H. Korty, W. U. Telg. Office, Chicago. 
W. H. Young, B. k B. Telg. Office, Washington, D. C. 

A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, " 

R. J. Black, Western Union Office, Philadelphia. 
J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 

B. Frank Ashley, Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 

Jas. M. Warner, " " Aurora, N.Y. 

K.McKenzie, " " St. Louis, Mo. 

J. A. Torrence, " " " - 

C. P. Hoag, " " San Francisco, Cal. 
M. Raphael, " *' Houston, Texas. 
W. H. Parsons, " " Utica, New York. 

All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 




Vol. V. No. 12. 



New York, Saturday, November 14, 1868. 



Whole No. 122 



The ne- 



[Written for The Telegrapher.] 

CHARLES DURANT'S PATENT NONPAREIL 
RELAY. 

For a number of years the attention of the inventive 
portion of the Telegraphic community has been largely 
directed towards the improvement of the receiving 
magnet, or " relay," as it is usually termed 
• cessity of a continual adjustment of the 
retractile spring, to compensate for varia- 
tions in the strength of the line current, 
arising principally from defective insulation, 
is one of the principal difficulties -which in- 
ventors have sought to obviate, either par- 
tially or entirely, but hitherto with indiffer- 
ent success. In the mode of -working lines 
now in use in England, the sending battery 
is reversed between each signal, and with 
this arrangement the relay is easily made 
self-regulating; but in the American sys- 
tem of working with a continuous line cur- 
rent, the construction of a relay which 
should adapt itself to the varying condition 
of the circuit, has proved to be a task of 
almost insurmountable difficulty. 

We herewith present the readers of The 
Telegrapher with an illustrated description of a re- 
cent invention of this nature, which accomplishes the 
desired result more perfectly than any other apparatus 
of the kind which has yet been brought to our notice. 

The apparatus consists of an electro-magnet of the 
usnal construction, enclosed in a mahogany or rosewood 
box, A, Fig. 1, from which the poles of the magnet pro- 
ject, as shown at C C. The soft iron armature, B, is 
attached to a lever in the usual manner — the lever, 
however, in this instrument, consisting of a round rod 
of steel instead of a bar of brass, as in ordinary relays. 
The lever and armature being placed in a slightly in- 
clined position, the lower edge of the latter is brought 
directly into contact with the poles of the magnet, as 
shown at c, in Fig. 2. The upper end of the armature 
lever carries a slotted head, D, Figs. 1 and 2. A metal- 
lic slide, d, Fig. 2, moves freely in a horizontal direction 
through the slot in the head, D, both the slide and the re- 
cess through which it moves being curved to correspond 
with the circumference of a circle whose centre is at c, 
the point of contact between the armature B and the 
poles of the magnet. The slide d is provided with a pla- 
tina point, for the purpose of closing the local circuit at 
a, and also with a pin at the opposite end, which rests 
against the insulated stud, i, when the local circuit is 
open, as shown in the cut, which represents the position 
of the apparatus when the main circuit is open. 

When the main circuit is closed, the attraction of the 
magnet at C tends to bring the whole breadth of the 
armature in contact with the poles, causing a slight flex- 
ion of the lever below the point, c, as well as of the axis 
upon which it moves, and closing the local circuit at a. 
Any further deflection after the points at a are in contact 
only serves to move the head, D, the slide d remaining 



stationary. As soon as the main circuit is broken, the 
elasticity of the different parts causes the lever to return 
to its original position, but the local circuit is instantly 
broken when the retrograde movement commences. 
Thus the only effect of an unusually strong current is to 
cause an increased flexion of the armature, but the force 
thus absorbed is given out again when the attraction 
ceases. 




In practice, this relay has been found so extremely 
sensitive, from the close proximity of the armature to the 
poles of the magnet, that it sometimes records false sig- 
nals, arising from leakages from other wires, &c. This 
objection, however, has been obviated by an adjustable 
friction arrangement applied to the slide d, consisting of 
a curved bow-spring of steel, e, connected by wires,//, 




Jl?2 



jbJc 



e 



with the lever, F, which allows the friction of the slide 
to be increased to any amount which special circum- 
stances may render desirable. 

In some cases it is necessary to have the local circuits 
of a relay insulated from the cores of the magnet. This 
is accomplished by a thin surface of insulating material 
upon the face of the armature, as shown in Fig. 2, or by 



other arrangements, which will readily suggest them- 
selves. 

L L are the local, and 31 one of the main line terminal 
screws. These are, of course, arranged as in ordinary 
relays. 

The instrument is supported upon springs, H H, for 
the purpose of preventing accidental jars and vibrations 
from being communicated to it by the table on which it 
is placed. This device is found to accom- 
plish the desired result in the most com- 
plete manner. 

These relays are accurately constructed 
and finely finished. They have already 
been tested to a considerable extent on 
the lines of some of the leading telegraph 
companies, with very satisfactory results. 

For further information respecting this 
invention the reader is referred to the ad- 
vertisement in another column. 

Telegraph Extensions. 
Twen'ty-on'e years ago the first telegraph 
wire was brought into this city. Xow the 
Western Union Company alone has sixty- 
six wires running out to different points 
of the compass, and the lines of the Great 
"Western, the Mississippi Yalley National, and the At- 
lantic and Pacific combine here, with connections 
throughout the East and "West. Connection with 
New York by the Atlantic and Pacific Company was 
opened on Tuesday last, with two wires. The gene- 
ral western office of the Western Union is about being 
removed here from Cleveland, and a line has just been 
commenced, running to Omaha, in addition to that now 
in operation. About one hundred operators are employed 
in the city, and the increase of business is constantly 
calling for additions. The Metropolitan Telegraph Com- 
pany also has wires running to different parts of the city 
and the suburbs, for the transaction of local business.— 
Chicago Correspondence A T . T. Evening Post. 



Court of Common Pleas.— Special Term. 

The "Floating Pen" Litigation. 

Before Judge Barrett. 

Hidden* vs. Little. — This case came again before the 
Court on a motion by the plaintiff to renew the injunc- 
tion which had been dissolved as against the defendant. 
Affidavits of Mr. Rexwick were read on the part of the 
plaintiff. 

Edwin James, counsel for the defendant, denounced 
the injustice of trying the case upon its merits without 
the opportunity of cross-examining Mr. Rexwick:. After 
a long argument the Court decided to adjourn the motion 
until the trial, which is peremptorily fixed for the 23d 
inst. 

The very voluminous affidavits put in on behalf of the 
plaintiff by the Messrs. Rexwick: Bros., which were read 
in Court, were intended to show that a direct recorder 
was a mere improvement in relays ! ! or, in other words, 
that a hand organ was an improved coffee mill, because 
both had a handle. 



94 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November 14, 1868. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



An Injustice Corrected. 

■Washington, D. C, Nov. 9th. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

A communication in your last issue, signed " Wide 
Awake," does great injustice both to our Superintendent 
and Manager. The writer could not have been very wide 
awake, or he would have posted himself better on the 
subject before making such an erroneous statement. The 
truth of the matter is this : 

It having been reported to the Superintendent that an 
operator in this office had used abusive and ungentle- 
manly language towards a fellow operator over the wire, 
the Superintendent wrote our Manager as follows; " Dis- 
miss, or censure him severely, and that " the time for 
stubborn operators had passed." The words " must sub- 
mit" do not occur at all in the letter. Our Manager 
merely posted the words of the Superintendent in the 
office, saying " that the fact of the guilty operator know- 
ing that his conduct had been made known to his Super- 
intendent was censure enough, and that he would not 
expose him to his fellow workers until this admonition 
had passed." 

No such words as quoted by Mr. " Wide Awake" 
occur at all. No one doubts the leniency of Mr. Tinker 
in this respect. 

According to reports from other offices in regard to 
their Managers, I think we of the Washington office 
should consider ourselves fortunate with ours. 

Holding the personal regard and esteem I do for my 
Manager, I beg a space in your columns for the forego- 
ing, that the truth may be known, and justice done. 

It is not believed here that the item came from any 
one connected with this office. Justice. 
-~- — — ♦- — „ 

Not so Bad as Stated.— The other Side of the 
Matter. 

Pittsburg, Pa., Nov. 3d. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Do you think the publication of such letters as have 
appeared lately in The Telegrapher, dated Pittsburg, 
in which some growler relieves himself of some imagi- 
nary annoyances (and perhaps real ones too), is calculated 
to benefit the " greater number" here, who have not found 
it necessary to complain after years of experience ? I do 
not wish to attempt a defence of the monopoly. I sin- 
cerely think there is great room for improvement in the 
management of some of its affairs, and a sense of justice 
only prompts me to offer this explanation of the other 
side of the abuse question here. 

In the first place, in regard to the hours of labor, a 
close investigation will show that they will not average 
over nine hours per day for each man. The system of 
" sides" used here is so arranged that each man will not 
exceed six hours' consecutive labor ; and three days in 
the week only five hours' labor are performed in the 
twenty-four. The remaining three days will average 
twelve hours, from eight o'clock until one, and from six 
until relieved — generally about midnight. 

The pay for this amount of work is a subject that, I 
think, will admit of improvement. To be sure, during the 
election times we had extra work, but such occasions do 
not occur very often, and certainly the Company have a 
right to expect a little extra labor from those to whom it 
furnishes constant employment and prompt pay. We 
were, during the night of the Oct. election, supplied with 
a comfortable and abundant repast, in the shape of an 
oyster supper, at which our Superintendent sat down 
with us, and all enjoyed it very much. I looked in vain 
for a slight acknowledgment of this in The Telegrapher, 



but saw only a complaint, in regard to which let me 
explain : 

The dirt belongs to Pittsburg, but might be remedied 
by an occasional cleaning up. I admit the fifty-two cups 
of local are here, but can it be avoided ? Tour correspon- 
dent should remember we are in the third story, and that 
a local circuit to the cellar would be more annoying than 
the presence of the locals under the table. 

Perhaps he thinks, as has been suggested by one of the 
best operators here, that they should make one big local 
do for all. 

That fall in the filth left, after cleaning the locals, is de- 
cidedly far-fetched and very slippery. 

It does seem to me a very lame policy to pursue to re- 
medy the evils that do exist, by complaining through the 
medium of print of such ridiculous matters. Let the men 
here act in a manner becoming them, and go to work 
earnestly and labor hard to effect a reform in a respecta- 
ble manner. 

Why is there not a district of the Union formed here ? 
There is good material and an abundance of it. 

Let me suggest that you urge the matter upon the 
gentlemen in this neighborhood, and let them act in this 
way. Justice. 

A Busy Time.— "Wholesome Refreshments" fur- 
nished at the Chicago Office. 

Chicago, 111., Nov. bth. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The elections, thank God, are over, and quiet once 
more reigns throughout the land. Not few are the 
weary telegraphers, especially night operators, that glad- 
ly welcome the end of the great political contest, which 
has caused more business for the wires than any previous 
election. The Chicago office, on account of the many 
lines radiating therefrom, came in for its full share of the 
work. 

On the night of the election, after seven o'clock, not 
less than three hundred and twenty-five thousand words, 
including Associated Press reports, specials and mes- 
sages, were sent and received at this office, and twenty- 
six lines were in constant use until 3.30 a. m. November 
4th, and over thirty operators were kept on duty until 4 
o'clock. 

Temporary offices were opened at the Sherman House, 
the Democratic headquarters ; the Library Hall, the Re- 
publican headquarters ; the Tremont House, and also at 
Hyde Park, where vast crowds were congregated, eagerly 
awaiting the returns. At the Crosby Opera House, 
where "Humpty Dumpty" was being performed, the re- 
turns furnished the manager by the W. IT. Company were 
read to the enthusiastic audience between the acts, each 
party receiving the announcement with greater cheering, 
when favorable to them, than they did the play. Great 
credit is due our lady operators, whose patient assist- 
ance in transmitting returns to the many annoying way 
offices, was valuable ; their bright faces lent a charm to 
the busy scene, and greatly inspired the boys in their 
labor. 

Through the thoughtfulness of the several " small 
fry" of this office, a superb repast was prepared for the 
occasion at the Tremont House, of which all hands par- 
took most heartily. 

The returns were again transmitted direct to Mr. 
Washburne's residence, at Galena, for the benefit of 
General Grant ; also direct to the residence of Mr. Col- 
fax, at South Bend, Ind. Henry. 
►-<♦♦-« 

The Expenses of Living at Omaha. 

Omaha, Neb., Oct. 3Qth. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Your last issue contains a communication, bearing date 
October 19th, signed " Chicago Operators," in which the 
writer, referring to the salaries paid at Chicago and else- 
where, ventures a bit of information in regard to Omaha 
that betrays a lack of kuowledge of his subject. A com- 



parison of prices must convince our friend of the Garden 
City of his mistake, in asserting that the expense of liv- 
ing in Chicago is equal to or greater than it is in Omaha. 
Room rent, board, washing, bathing, shaving, and the 
common necessaries of life, are a third more here than 
there. Por example — an ordinary room may be had for 
thirty dollars per month ; janitor hire, eight dollars ; day 
board ranges from eight to ten dollars per week ; one 
shave, 25 cents; one bath, $1 ; washing, per dozen pieces, 
$1.50 ; coal costs $27.50 per ton, and a pair of boots, 
that in Chicago may be bought for $17, costs us $22. 

Other things in like proportion. 

Moreover, our men are expected to be on duty Sun- 
days as on week days, and to perform extra service at 
night, as occasion may require. 

As regards the disparity of wages between Chicago and 
eastern offices we have nothing to say. 

Omaha Operators, 
Western Union Telegraph Office. 

Personal and Telegraphic. 

Lee, Mass., Nov. 9th. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I write only to say that up this way we have time for 
warm meals, not cold bites at intervals of business, and 
to give a few items : 

Miss Abbie Hawes, of Housatonic, is temporarily at 
Lakeville, Conn., vice Crooke, who has gone to Vermont. 

Miss Libbie Fryer, of the Tarrytown, N. T., office, 
spent her vacation at her house in Van Deusenville, Mass. 

Miss F. L. Manley has resigned her position in the 
Barrington, Mass., office, and goes home to Washington, 
Mass., soon. 

A new wire from Pittsfield to North Adams, Mass., 
which is being built by the W. U. Telegraph Co., is nearly 
completed to Cheshire, about two thirds of the way. 

Rumor says one of the most efficient operators in New 
York city is soon to take to himself one of the fair daugh- 
ters of Western Mass. • M. A. 

Queries. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Will you oblige by answering the following questions 
through your columns ? 

1. Would the fluid in the porous cup of a local battery 
weaken the battery if poured into the outer solution of 
blue vitriol ? 

2. Is there any way to remove the spots of Electro- 
poion fluid from clothes ? 

3. Does the Electropoion fluid weaken a main bat- 
tery if dropped into the outer solution, or make it grow 
dirty faster ? 

4. What is the proper proportion of Sulphuric Acid to 
water for a main battery ? L. E. B. 

Fitchburg, Nov. 3, 1868. 

(1). The effect on the action of the battery would not 
be perceptible. 

(2). Spirits of Ammonia, or even water, if applied at 
once. If allowed to remain any length of time they can- 
not be removed. 

(3). It will have a tendency to make the solution be- 
come foul sooner than would otherwise be the case, but 
would cause little or no immediate effect. 

(4). One thirtieth part of acid by measure. If more 
than one line be worked from a battery the solution may 
be strengthened in proportion. One fifteenth is strong 
enough for any purpose. 



> <♦> < 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

W. R. M. Picton. — The paper will be discontinued on 
expiration of subscription. 

Several communications, including an interesting one 
from " Horatio," in reference to Telegraph matters on 
the Union Pacific Railroad, in type, and intended for pub- 
lication this week, are unavoidably crowded out. 



November 14, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



95 



"We would say to the correspondents of The Tele- 
grapher that we desire them to be very sure of then- 
facts before making statements through its columns. 
Don't send us statements unless you are prepared to sub- 
stantiate them. "We don't intend that the paper shall be 
made the medium for the vindication and satisfaction of 
real or supposed private griefs or injuries. It is the organ 
and advocate of the practical Telegraphers of the country, 
and is prepared to defend and support them in all cases 
where they have justice on their side, however rich or 
powerful may be the party opposed to them. In this 
connection we are pleased to receive and publish any 
facts, but we don't desire or intend to publish rumors or 
surmises, except as rumors or surmises, and when positive 
statements are made, if disputed, we shall expect our 
correspondents to substantiate them. 

PERSONAL. 

Mr. D. C. Roberts, formerly operator in "Western 
Union Boston office, has retired from the Telegraph busi- 
ness and gone into the flour trade, in Northern New 
York. 

Mr. A. M. Smith has been transferred from night duty 
at White House, New Jersey, on Central Railroad Tele- 
graph, to the charge of the Bergen Point, N. J., day 
office. 

G. M. Laxe, formerly operator at Bergen Point, has 
taken charge of Potter station, as agent and operator of 
the Union Pacific Railroad. 

Mr. Bedford C. Crockett has been appointed Super- 
intendent of Repairs for this city for the Atlantic and 
Pacific Telegraph Company. 

J. M. D. Orrell has resigned his position at Laramie, 
"W. T., and returned to his home in Indiana. 

Mr. J. E. Clarke is at Cooper's Lake, Washington 
Territory. 

Mr. John* Smith, recently at Dubuque, Iowa, has 
taken a position in the Chicago office. This is not Jon- 
smith, but John Smith. 

Mr. Richard Valentine is temporarily in charge of 
the Minneapolis (Minn.) office, while Mr. Robertson, 
the Manager, is at his home in Milwaukee, sick. 

Mr. R. H. Smith has been transferred, at his own re- 
quest, from No. 11 Broad street, Franklin office, to the 
Providence, R. I., office, same Company. 

Mr. Roscoe Sprague has resigned from the Franklin 
Company's office and accepted a position in the Bankers 
and Brokers' Telegraph, Broad street office. 

Mr. "W. D. S. Axdersox, another of the old Chicago 
operators, has resigned, and accepted a position as book- 
keeper in the auditor's office of the Chicago and N. W. 
R. R, Chicago. 

Charley Mixer, recently at Corinth, Miss., has taken 
a position in the Chicago office. 

Miller C. Baldwin, having overcome the late un- 
pleasantness existing between him and the "W. U. Com- 
pany, has, with the permission of Gex. Stager, taken a 
position in the Chamber of Commerce office, Chicago. 

Mr. E. 0. Martin has taken a position with the oppo- 
sition at Memphis, Tenn. 

Jack Beemer is in the Western Union office at Mem- 
phis. 

The address of Superintendent Fellows, of the Cali- 
fornia division, is desired. 

Miss L. E. Athertox, lately of Milwaukee, has been 
appointed an operator in the Northwestern Company's 
St. Paul office. 

Mr. I. M. Judd, Superintendent of Repairs in this 
city for the Atlantic and Pacific Company, has been 
transferred to the same position wiih that Company at 
Chicago, LI. 

Mrs. I. M. Judd has resigned her situation as operator 
at 291 Broadway and returns to the West. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 

The Creat Western Telegraph Company. 

The Great Western Telegraph Company has completed 
its lines to, and opened offices at Milwaukee, Kenosha, 
Racine and Waukegan, Wis., and will soon open thirty- 
two offices on the Rock Island route, including Ottumwa, 
Peoria, Davenport, Sec. 

The Telegraph in India. 

The first line of electric telegraph in British India was 
built in 1851-52. Little progress was made during the 
two succeeding years, but in 1855 an aggregate length 
of 3,255 miles was in working order. When the mutiny 
broke out in 1857, there were 4,162 miles of serviceable 
wires, provided with sixty-two signal offices, in the hands 
of the Government. At the close of 1867 India was 
furnished with 13,390 miles of telegraph lines and 172 
signal stations. The whole system is in the hands of the 
Government; but between 1S55 and 1861 eight railway 
companies had licenses to construct lines of telegraph. 
» < »> \ 

Telegraph Extensions and Reduction of Rates. 

The Southern Telegraph Company opened its office at 
Memphis, Tenn., and the tariff from New York to Mem- 
phis has been reduced from $2.90 to §2.25. The Wes- 
tern Union people say that business has been largely in- 
creased by this reduction. 

Offices have also been, or soon will be, opened at 
Nashville, Clarksville and Gallatin, Tenn., and at Bowl- 
ing Green, Ky. 



New Cable Across the East River. 

Ox Monday last a telegraph cable was laid across the 
East River, connecting New York and Brooklyn, and 
sixty miles of new line along the South Side Railroad of 
Long Island, and also giving telegraphic connections with 
Fire Island. 



The East India Telegraph Company. 

It is announced that arrangements have been perfected 
by which the construction of the East India Telegraph 
will proceed forthwith. The subscription books will re- 
main open up to the 20th inst., in accordance with the 
Company's advertisements, but whatever balance of 
stock shall then be untaken will be subscribed by capi- 
talists already interested in the enterprise. An agent 
will at once proceed to Europe to purchase the cable, 
which will probably be found already manufactured. 
The success of this enterprise is thus assured, and by 
American capital alone.' It is understood that pecuniary 
assistance could have been had in London, had it been 
required, but it is settled that the stock will all be taken, 
and the cable built, though no share should be subscribed 
for abroad. 



The Northwestern Telegraph Company. 

The Northwestern Telegraph Company has opened 
offices at Hamilton Station, Mankato, and Reed's Land- 
ing, Minnesota. 

Their St. Paul general office lias been removed to the 
First National Bank block, in the central part of the 
city. 



Telegraph Construction. 
We would call attention to the advertisement in this 
paper of "Worl & Co., Telegraphic Engineers and Con- 
tractors, of Philadelphia. The senior member of the firm, 
J. N. "Worl, is one of the oldest practical Telegraphers in 
the country, and has occupied almost every position in the 
business, from operator to Superintendent and President, 
and has also been extensively engaged in Telegraph Con- 
struction. "We are informed that this firm has built a 
number of private hues for firms in Philadelphia, which 
have given much satisfaction. 



Mr. Worl was also the projector of the proposed new 
American Atlantic Cable Company, which is to connect the 
United States with France, and for which that Company 
has a valuable and exclusive grant for use of the At- 
lantic coast (except Florida), for cable purposes, for 

wenty years. 

< ■♦ » * 

Stand from Under. 

We understand that the proprietor of one of the so- 
called Telegraph Institutes in this city proposes to utterly 
annihilate The Telegrapher and its editor. We have 
been waiting in great trepidation ah the week for the an- 
nihilating blow to fall, but our nerves are becoming some- 
what quieted by the postponement of the awful catas- 
trophe. The last we heard of this fellow, Sloax, he was 
trying to borrow money to pay the rent of his premises to 
prevent being summarily ejected. 

The squirming and howling of the proprietors of these 
estabhshments, one of whom paid us a visit this week, and 
nearly vociferated the roof off the building in which our 
office is located, indicates that The Telegrapher is seri- 
ously injuring their business. 



Coing Into Business. 

Ax influential party in England, encouraged by the 
adoption in Parliament of the absurd scheme for the pur- 
chase of all the Telegraph lines in the kingdom, now 
propose to urge a similar process in reference to the 
railways ; and one having been conceded there is no 
good reason why the other should not logically foUow. 
After this will probably come a proposition that the Gov- 
ernment should purchase all the breweries, that the 
beer — so important to our British brethren — should be 
supplied of uniform quality and at low rates. Having 
once got its hand into this business we see no reason 
why any absurdity should be rejected. 

Perhaps it would be as well, however, for our English 
friends to wait until the Telegraph experiment has been 
fully tried before entering upon other similar specula- 
tions ; and our own "Washbcrne and his followers had 
best wait until the Britishers have demonstrated, at their 
own cost, the advantages of the new arrangement before 
they further urge it upon the already heavily taxed people 
of this country. Luxuries are apt to be expensive, and it 
is as well to consider the cost before committing the gov- 
ernment to any speculations of this character. 
^^~~~~--^- . « ^^^ » * — ~^~—~ — — 
"Wholesome Refreshments" Furnished. 

Ix anticipation of the reply of our official contemporary 
to our request to furnish the names of the Western Union 
Superintendents who, on election night, sent out for 
" wholesome refreshments" for the operators required to 
render extra service, we have been furnished by our 
own correspondents with the following names, which we 
print with pleasure, and shah be pleased to render sim- 
ilar justice to any other Superintendents entitled thereto. 

J. C. HixcnMAX, Supt. Met. District 
T. B. A. David, " Pittsburg, Pa. 
J. J. S. Wilson, " Chicago, III. 



< « » ► 



Mower Abroad. 

The French Journal des Tclegraphes devotes a column 
to the wonderful scientific attainments and discoveries of 
the great Mower, who, it will be remembered, after hav- 
ing made an exhaustive study of all known chemical' 
substances, places himself on the eastern and western 
shores of Lake Ontario, &c. The Journal thinks it is 
worth while to take Mr. Mower into serious considera- 
tion. 

MARRIED. 
Bvthbick— Chamleklin.— At Brattleboro', Vermont, Saturday, 
October 17, 1868, by the Rev. Wm. H. Wight, Lewis E. Bath- 
kick, operator. Fitchburg, Mass., office, to Miss Emma A. Cham- 
beklin, of Oakdale, Mass., daughter of J. Chambehlej, Esq. 

DIED. 

EeKKiir.— Oil Wednesday, Nov. i. Emeltne Dobe, wife of Thos. 
T. Etkert, General Superintendent of the Eastern Division 
ol the Western Union Telegraph Company. 



96 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November U, 1868. 



rjj ATIONALTELECHARHlCiU^i 



SATURDAY, NOV. 14. 1868. 

OFFICERS OF THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION. 

President W. H. YotrsG ...Box 218 P. 0., Washington, D. 

Vice-President. Yt. P. Mebriix..W. V. TeL 0., Portland, Me. 

Treasurer A. L. Whipple. .Box 39 P. O., Albany, X. T. 

Recording Sec. J. W. DrxBrBT..W. U. Tel. 0., Boston, Mass. 

Corres. Sec F. L. Pope Box 6138 P. 0., Xew York. 

•-*-#-► 



poly, was as wise and considerate as could be expected 
under the circumstances. This is a matter of little im- 
portance, and we will not now discuss it 

The monopoly was short lived, for at once competing 
companies were organized, and the work of construction 
of new lines in place of those which had been absorb- 
ed was actively commenced. The "Western Union mana- 
gers scoffed at these efforts, and confidently asserted that 
the funds for the purpose could not be obtained. They 
argued that the public, were disgusted with contributing 
funds to construct competing lines, which were sold out 
by unfaithful managers, and that further appeals to them 
would meet with no favor. In this reasoning, however, 
they omitted several important premises, which, if duly 



sequent thereon upon many important routes, its receipts 
and profits are largely increased. Besides this, we are 
assured the new lines find no difficulty in obtaining pa- 
tronage. These facts demonstrate the truth of our st ." - 
ments that the Telegraph business of the country is in- 
creasing in a ratio exceeding that of the increase of facil- 
ities, and that without competition the needed additional 
facilities would not be supplied, but by excessive charges 
the business restricted to suit the faculties afforded by the 
monopoly. 

We hope to see not only the "Western Union but its 
competitors recipients of a remunerative patronage, which 
shall insure the conservation of public interests, and se- 
cure sufficient employment, adequate compensation, and 



considered, would have led them to widely different con- just and liberal treatment of Telegraph employes. 



THE RAPID EXTENSION OF COMPETING LINES. 

"We have recently published accounts of extensions of 
competing lines of Telegraph, which show how rapidly 
the system of Telegraphic competition, destroyed by the 
sweeping consolidations of the "Western Union Company 
in 1366, is being reconstructed. Although th's is not 
being accomplished in the wisest and most economical 
manner, as it should be. yet it is a subject of congratula- 
tion that it is being accomplished at all. "When the 
United States and*American Companies were wiped out 
of existence by the consolidations referred to, it was 
believed by the mamgers of the consolidated company 
that a practical monopoly of the Telegraph business of the 
country had been secured, at least for a term of yea'-s. 
which would enable them to profit largely thereby. We 
knew then that they were mistaken, and that their mono- 
poly, for which they had so largely increased the capital 
of the Company, would prove but short lived, and that 
other lines would soon be constructed to replace those 
which had been swallowed up. If oue fact has been in- 
disputably established, it is that the business men and 
the people of the United States are determined that the 
business of Telegraphing shall not be a monopoly in the 
hands of any one Company. It gives to the managers of 
such a monopoly a vast power, which experience has 
shown cannot safely be intrusted to any set of men. It 
cripples the progress of the Telegraph, and limits its ex- 
tension to an extent which cannot be otherwise thou un 
favorable to the general good of the country. It dis- 
courages inventive genius, which should be actively en- 
gaged in simplifying and improving the means of Tele- 
graphic communication, for it could not be expected that 
any company which had secured such a monopoly as the 
Western Union sought to establish would sacrifice any 
part of its assured profits to encourage such inventions 
and improvements. It limited the business by maintain- 
ing high, and in some cases exorbitant charges for the 
use of its facilities, and placed the entire public press of 
the country entirely at the mercy of such a Company. It 
was shown to be most inimical to the interest of Tele- 
graph employes ; for, there being no competitive demand 
for their services, they were forced either to abandon the 
profession which they had spent much time to perfect 
themselves in, or accept employment upon such terms 
and conditions as the monopoly managers might dictate. 
For these and other reasons, which it is not necessary 
that we should now rehearse, it was evident to us then, 
as it ha3 been proved since, that a continuance of the 
monopoly was impossible. 

We write this, as we have written other articles of 
the same tenor, in no spirit of personal hostility to the 
Western Union Company. Perhaps its management of 
affairs, during its brief realization of anticipated mono- 



elusions. 

In the first place, they utterly ignored the determina- 
tion of the people that Telegraphic monopoly should not 
be maintained. They also failed to recognize the evident 
fact that the capital stock of the Consolidated Company 
had reached an amount which would not admit of fur- 
ther augmentation, and that, therefore, the argument that 
such lines were only projected and constructed for the 
purpose of being sold out to that Company by their ori- 
ginators, could not further influence parties relied upon to 
furnish the means for such enterprises. They also con- 
sidered of no account the fact that the influence of the 
large number of Telegraph employes, whether in their 
employ or otherwise, would be given either openly or 
covertly to sustain and aid such projects, and we can assure 
the magn-ites who sit in serene and confident security in 
the Executive offices of the Western Union Company 
that this latter influence is by no means to be de- 
spised. 

The result has justified our reasoning, and to-day we 
find thousands of miles of competing Telegraph lines in 
operation, and every week we record their further pro- 
gress and extension. Tha: this will continue until the 
country is once more intersected with such lines cannot 
be, and is not now doubted, even by the shrewd mana- 
gers of the Western Uuiou Company. Having failed, by 
affected indifference and contempt, to prevent the invest- 
ment of capital in these lines, they now resort to denun- 
ciation and deprecation to arrest their further progress. 
The violent attack of the official organ of that Company 
upon the Atlantic and Pacific Company, which was no- 
ticed in our last week"s issue, is the first printed mani- 
festation of this policy. It will, however, have a con- 
trary effect to that expected and intended. It proves 
that the managers of the Company are seriously alarmed 
at the rapid progress made by the A. and P. and other 
competing companies, and are no longer disposed to treat 
them with calm indifference and lofty contempt. What- 
ever they may say or do cannot affect these enterprises 
injuriously. 

The principal danger to these Companies arises from 
their own internal management. With a proper combi- 
nation and concentration of efforts, they have it in their 
power to insure not only au effective but a profitable sys- 
tem of competition. To do this, however, it is necessary 
that they should at once abandon the present plan of sepa- 
rate, and. in some instances, mutually antagonistic action. 
They must follow the example of their opponent, and 
combine their means and develop a plau of united action. 
It is true that to do this some who aspire to be first must 
be content with a subordinate place in the work ; and 
speculators, who selfishly seek to fill their own pockets 
at the expense of stockholders, must be remorselessly put 
aside. If this be not done, these lines have a season of 
trial before them, which will for a time seriously impair 
their usefulness. 

"We hope to see. before the next building season opens, 
such a combination made ; and rapid as has been the pro- 
gress of the present season, it will be far exceeded in the 
future. The returns of the Western Union Company 
show that, notwithstanding the partial competition 
alreadv established, aud the large reduction of tolls con. 



The future of the Telegraph in this country is full of 
promise and encouragement, and, with reasonable honesty 
and decent management on the part of those who control 
the lines, there need be no apprehension of financial 
failure or embarrassment. 

"Operators Must Submit." 

Uxder this heading we published last week a com- 
munication from Washington, D. C, reflecting severely 
on Mr. Bates, the District Superintendent, and Mr. Tin- 
ker, the Manager of the Washington office. "We have 
received several communications from friends in Wash- 
ington on the subject, and a true statement of the facts 
in the case, which will be fouud in our correspondence 
columns in this paper. "We are satisfied that our corres- 
pondent was in error, but that the misstatement was not 
intentional or malicious ; and while we regret that our 
correspondent should not have been more sure of the 
premises before making our columns the medium for the 
publication of the story, we acquit him of any evil in- 
tent. 

We can only express to Messrs. Bates and Tlvker our 
regrets for the unintentional misrepresentation, and hope 
that our correspondents will hereafter make sure of their 
facts before making damaging personal statements. 

"We alwavs intend to adhere strictly to truth in the 
columns of The Telegrapher, and our correspondents 
and their informants will find that in the end nothing is 
gained by exaggerations or misstatements of facts. 

The Bishop Gutta-percha Company. 

We would call the attention of Telegraph managers, 
and others interested, to the advertisement in The Tele- 
grapher announcing the appointment of L. G. Tillotsox 
i Co.. of this city, and Bliss. Till'jtsox £ Co., of Chi- 
cago, as general agents of the Bishop Gutta-percha 
CoiiPAXT. The excellence of the various manufactures 
of this Company are well known, and the arrangements 
made with the enterprising firms above mentioned can- 
not but result beneficially to all concerned. 

Messrs. Tillotsox & Co. are determined that their es- 
tablishment at Xo. 11 Dey street shall be preeminently 
the depot for everything in the Telegraphic line which can 
possibly be required by their customers ; and the com- 
paratively new branch of the house at Chicago is develop- 
ing an excellent aud profitable business, and is determin- 
ed to be to the West what the New York establishment 
is here. 

Our friend Tillotsox's connection with the Telegraph 
in this country commenced as an operator, but his energy, 
business tact and perseverance, have placed him at the 
head of one of the largest establishments in his line of 
business in the country, and this new arrangement will 
doubtless add materially to its already very exten.-ive 
business. 

Another New Line Proposed. 
A Telegraph line from Yicksburg. Miss., to Mini- 
phis, Tenn., on the Mississippi side, is talked of. 
(Continuation of Editorials on third pooeA 



November 14, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



97 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

11 DEY STREET, NEW YORK, 

AND 

BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

171 SOUTH CLARK STREET, CHICAGO, M, 
Respectfully inform their Customers, and all parties purchas- 
ing 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC MATERIAL, 

that they have been appointed by the 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK, 

GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of any articles manufactured by 

them for 

TELEGRAPHIC AND ELECTRIC USE. 

They are now prepared to fill promptly any orders for goods on 

hand, or to be manufactured, at the Company's prices in New York. 

The long experience of this Company (and that of Mr. Samuel 

C. Bishop, its immediate predecessor) in the manufacture of 

PURE GUTTA-PERCHA GOODS, 
and the reputation they have gained and enjoy for the superior 
quality and perfection of manufacture of their 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES 

AND 

INSULATED WIRES 
of various kinds , insulated with 

PURE GUTTA-PERCHA, 
renders this arrangem ent a very important one for our numerous 
patrons throughout the country, and we confidently recommend 
these goods to th eir especial notice as being 

FULLY EQUAL, IF NOT SUPERIOR, 
to any other in use. 
The Principal Articles manufactured and offered for sale 

are 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

(Any size required). 

Gutta-Percha covered Telegraph Office Wire, in great variety of 
size and style. 

Subterranean Wires, covered with Gutta-Percha and Lead 
outside, various sizes. 

Subterranean Wires with Gutta-Percha and braided fibre, and 

Bishop's Patent Compound outside. 

Subterranean Wtres, with Fibre and Bishop's Patent Compound 
outside. - 

Pole Line Cordage, with Fibre, and Bishop's Patent Compound 
outside. 

Bridge's Patent Electric Cordage. 

Bridge's Patent Double Covered Cordage. 

BISHOP'S PATENT COMPOUND WIRE, 
for out-door use and office connections. 

INSULATED WIRES, 
with two Conductors, both plain and with braid outside, and a 
great variety of other kinds made to order. 
Cotton and Silk-Covered Wires, both twist and braided. 

This arrangement with the 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 
together with our own 

EXTENSIVE MANUFACTORY in NEW YOEK, 

and our great variety of Telegraph Material in stock, fully 
establish our claim that our stores are the 
DEPOTS OF TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES IN THIS COUNTRY. 

OFFICE OF THE 

BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA COMPANY, 

113 LIBERTY STREET. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, General Agent. 

INSULATED POLE LINE CORDAGE 

AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE CONNECTING WIRES. 

We have completed some valuable experiments, and have now 
the pleasure to offer to TELEGRAPH COMPANIES, and others 
interested, the best 

j^ T 1E=L LINE 
AND 

OUTSIDE OFFICE INSULATED WIRES 

that can be had. Parties using are invited to examine them at 
our office. 

SAM'L C. BISHOP, 

General Agent. 



DURANT'S 

NONPAREIL RELAY. 

Patented May 19 and June 30, 1868. 

This Instrument, having been thoroughly tested on the prin- 
cipal Telegraph Lines in this country, is now offered for 6ale. It 
has proved itself a practical 

SELF-ADJUSTING RELAY 
under all ordinary conditions of the circuit. It will be found 
especially valuable in 

RAILWAY TELEGRAPH OFFICES, 
where the Operator, being frequently otherwise employed, can- 
not be in constant attendance upon his instrument. 

THE BUNNELL EEPEATEE, 

by the use of this Instrument, is rendered practically self- 
adjusting, entirely obviating the annoyance frequently arising 
from the inattention of Operators at Repeating Offices. 

THE NONPAREIL RELAY 

is finished in a manner superior to any other instrument in the 
market. 

BRADLEY'S patent naked wire helices, the best in use, 
are used in this instrument, except when otherwise ordered. 
The parts of the instrument are made interchangeable, so 
that a duplicate of any portion can be furnished at any time. 

The ordinary resistance of this Relay is equal to about Thirty 
Miles of No. 8 Iron Wire. 

Relays of any required resistance will be made to order, 
PRICE, $30. 
The usual Discount to Dealers. 

The following Testimonials, out cf a number of similar tenor, 
are presented as a guaranty of the reliability and perfectibility of 

the working of these Relays : 

New York, June 23, 1868. 
Mb. J. C. Htnchman, 

Supt. Met. District, N. T. 

I have observed the working of Durant's Self- Adjusting Relay, 
which has been on trial at this office during the past week, and 
feel warranted in saying it is a Self- Adjuster, and as such, will 
work steadily on wires which, with an ordinary Relay, can only 
be worked with difficulty. 

Very respectfully, 

A. S. BROWN, 

Manager. 



New Yobk, June 24, 1868. 
Mb. A. S. Brown, 

Manager W. V. Tel. Office. N. T. 

On the 16th of this month Superintendent Hinchman directed 
me to try Durant's Relay on our circuits, and report upon its 
merits. 

Since the above date it has been in operation here continually. 

I have tried it upon many of our wires, and find it works 
equally well on all of them. 

There has been but one rainy day during the mean time, and 
on that day it worked very satisfactory over escape and change- 
able currents. 

On the 18th inst., Nos. 33 and 34 south were lying on the 
ground, between Elizabeth and Somerville, N. J. We could just 
get Philadelphia by very high adjustment with ordinary Relay, 
while Durant's Relay recorded Philadelphia's witting as well as 
upon a clear wire. From the various tests I have submitted it 
to, I have no doubt that it is a Self-Adjuster, and as such will 
work where any ordinary Reiay can be adjusted to work. 
Very respectfully, yours &c, 

A. S. Downer, 
First Chief Operator, W. U. Tel. Co., 
845 Broadway, N. Y. 

#g- For a full description of the construction and advantages 
of this Instrument, see The Telegrapher of Nov. 14, 1868. 
Address all orders to 

CHARLES DURANT, 

Office and Factory 66 SOUTH STREET, 
New York City. 

WOEL & CO., 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS, 

No. 225 DOCK STREET, 
(Opposite Merchants' Exchange) 

PHILADELPHIA. 



To 



TELEGRAPH, 

RAILROAD, 

MINING COMPANIES, 
MERCHANTS 

MANUFACTURER S, 
and others. 
We are prepared to construct First-Class TELE- 
GRAPH LINES (Public or Private) in any part of 
the United States or Europe, at the shortest notice, 
and the least possible expense. 



CHESTER, PARTRICK & CO., 

TELEGEAPHIO & ELEOTEIOAL ENGINEEES, 

00NTRA0T0ES, etc., 

38 SOUTH FOURTH STREET 

PHILADELPHIA, 

Manufacturers of, and Dealers in every variety of 
TELEGRAPHIC, 

ELECTRIC, AND 

PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS, 

BATTERIES, WIRE, ACIDS, 

INSULATORS, MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
AND OTHER SUPPLIES, 

RESPECTFULLY ANNOUNCE 
that they have increased their facilities for the Prompt Execu- 
tion of all orders with which they may be entrusted. They are 
prepared to Contract for the Construction and Equipment of 

NEW LINES OF TELEGRAPH, 
for the Re-Construction or Repair of 

EXISTING LINES, 
or for the supply of TELEGRAPH MATERLAL of all descriptions. 
Among other improvements for which they have secured the 
sole or joint agency, attention is called to the following valuable 
and useful novelties: 




PATENT ANTI-TRUNNION KEY, 
with eccentric circuit closer. 

They above KEY has recently been patented, and is believed to 
be the best form of Key yet presented for adoption and use by 
Telegraph Companies or Operators. 




Orders by Mail receive the same Careful and 
Prompt Attenton as if in person. 



PATENT ANTI-TRUNNION KEY, 
with automatic circuit closer. 
This cut represents the Anti-Trunnion Key, with an Automatic 
Circuit Closer. By the use of this Key an absolute certainty of 
exemption from accidental opening of circuit, either through 
carelessness or otherwise, at the Key, is secured. 

We would also call attention to the following articles and sup- 
plies, which we are prepared to furnish promptly, and guarantee 
every article to prove as represented at the time of purchase. 
Kerite (or horn covered) Copper or Compound Wire or Cables. 

COVERED COMPOUND AIR LINE WIRE. 

BLASTING APPARATUS, CARTRIDGES, BATTERIES, &c, &c. 

CALCIUM LIGHTING APPARATUS, 

MEDICAL BATTERIES, 

INDUCED AND DIRECT CVRRESTS. 

ELECTRO-PLATERS' BATTERIES & MATERIALS, 

ELECTRO GONGS, 

of any desired size or weight. 

ALARM APPARATUS, 

ETC., etc. 

ELECTRICAL CLOCK-WORK. 
The success of the past year, with our increased resources aud 
facilities, warrants us in promising prompt dispatch in the 
execution of all orders. Our terms will also be found satisfactory 
and liberal by our customers. 



98 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November 14, 1868. 



CHAELES T. & J. N. CHESTER, 

104 Centre Street, 2T. Y., 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS, 

AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 
BATTERIES, 

AND EVEBY. DESCRIPTION OV 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 

°H9° 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 

FOB 

BROOKS' PATENT PARAFFLXE INSULATOR, 

FOB 

BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

The simplest and most efficient instrument ever devised for 
the purpose, for 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD, 




The most compact and reliable method of Switch, forming a 
clean spring-locked connection between any number of wires, in 
the space ot a square inch for each connection, by the aid of 
plugs, g.ving every connection de ired in any office for changes 
and test 

Also, Agents for 
PBESCOTT-S HISTORY, THEORY AND PRACTICE 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPH, 

AND 

WOOD'S PLAN OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUCTION. 

Manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, with 
Patent Platina Connections, introduced by them eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DL\L TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines! 
Tbey offer for sale, among other novelties, a "SOUNDER " that 
wOl work practically with a single cell, and a BATTERY that 
does not require to be taken down but once a vear; and the verv 
best MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made. 

Their CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



RUSSELLS' 

American Steam Printing House 

28, 30 & 32 CENTRE STREET, N. Y., 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Bool, Jot and Commercial PriHiit 

TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 

L. C. SPRINGER, 

MANUFACTURES OF AND DEALER IS 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 
AND SUPPLIES. 

REPAIRING DONE PKOMPTLY. 

No. 162 SOUTH WATER STREET, 

(Boom No. 7.) Chicago, III. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(Successor to Hinds k Williams,) 

109 COURT STREET (MINOT BUILDINGS), 

Boston, Mass., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Galvanic Batteries of all kinds. 

Wliolesale and Betail Dealer in Telegraph Supplies, etc. 

JAMES J. CLARK, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELECRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES AND MATERIALS, 

HARRISBURC, Pa. 

Having had over twenty years' experience in the business, and 
having made many improvements, I am prepared to furnish 

INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS 
of the most approved construction. 

mwtj BROOKS 

PATENT PUUFFIXE INSULATOR 

WORKS, 

No. 22 South Twenty-first Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



THE 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN MANUFACTUBEBS 



OF 



PURE GUTTA-PERCHA 



Insulated Telegraph Wire 



FOB 




All varieties of Insulators 
manufactured at these Works 
are warranted to excel the 
usual style of Glass and Rub- 
ber more than one hundred 
fold. In view of the error 
and delay in transmission, 
waste and consumption of 
battery material, the results 
of defective insulation, its fra- 
gile nature and expense of renewal, nothing is more 
manifest than its economy. 

To RAILROAD COMPANIES relying upon the effi- 
ciency of their telegraph departments it is of great value. 

OLD WIRE! OLD WIRE! 

Parties having OLD TELEGRAPH WIRE on hand, can dispose 
of the same at a fair price to 



Box 1714. 



L. G. TILLOTSON & Co., 

11 Bey Street, New York. 



SUBMARINE CABLES, 

Office Wire, Electric Cordage, and for Mining and 
Blasting Uses, etc., etc., 

Respectfully inform their American friends and their Customers, 
the Telegraphic Community of the United States, that they are 
fully prepared with ample means and materials to furnish all the 

SUBMARINE 

AND OTHEB 

TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

INSULATED WITH 

Pure Cu tta-Perch a, 

That may be required for use in this country, and on terms as 
reasonable as any foreign manufacturers. 

N. B We are prepared to lay down and warrant Submarine 

Cables. 



Apply to 



SAMUEL C. BISHOP. 



General Agent of the Bishop Gutta-I'ercba Co. 



Office, 113 LIBEBTY STREET. 



Nrw York. 



November 14, 1868.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



99 



REMOVAL OF 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 



To No. 11 DEY STREET, N. Y. 



Manufacturers of 



Celegrapjj Instruments mth Supplies 



OP EVERT DESCRIPTION. 



Glass Insulators, Brackets, Ac. ' 9 

Zincs, Tumblers, Porous Cups, and all kinds of Battery 
Material. 

Hill's Patent Galvanic Battery. 

Ogden's Improved Carbons, with the Immersed Platina 
Connection. 

Agents for pure Nitric and Sulphuric Acids, manufactured 

by the Lodi Chemical "Works. 
" C. F. Varley's Patent Paraffine Insulator. 
" Gutta-Percha covered "Wire and Cables, American 

Manufacture. 

" the best Manufacture of Plain and Galvanized Iron 

"Wire. 
" of American Compound Telegraph "Wire Co. 

Publishers of Prof. J. E. Smith's Manual of Telegraphy. 



BLISS, TILLOTSON & CO., 

171 South Clark St., 
CHICAGO, ILL., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

foltgrapjj HJatjmterg gift Supplies* 

Instruments repaired at short notice. 

L. G. Tillotson & Co., Geo. H. Bliss, 

New Tork. Chicago. 



NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 
Life Insurance Bureau. 



The National Telegraphic Union, by authority of its special 
charter, granted by the State of New York, proposes to insure the 
ives of all persons connected with the Telegraphic business, un- 
der the following rules and regulations : 

Applicants for insurance must be connected in some capacity 
with the Telegraphic business, must be not less than eighteen 
years of age, in good health, and able to earn a livelihood. Every 
applicant shall pay an entrance fee of two dollais. one dollar of 
which shall be reserved for creating a permanent fund, and one 
dollar towards the amount to be paid the heirs of the first insured 
person deceased, who will receive as many dollars as there are 
persons insured. ■ 

Whenever a death occurs among those insured, an assessment 
of one dollar and ten cents will be levied upon all. This dollar 
goes to the widow, orphans, or heirs of the next insured party 
deceased, and the ten cents to be applied to the payment of cur- 
rent and necessary expenditures. 

Applications must be made to the Actuary, in writing, accom- 
panied by a certificate, signed by not less than two persons in 
the Telegraphic business, of good character, that they know the 
applicant is fully qualified under the preceding rules. 

A small annual assessment, not to exceed one dollar, may be 
necessary to cover working expenses after the first year. 

This plan of insurance will be conducted under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the N. T. U., and it will be their 
aim to make it as inexpensive as reliability and security will 
allow. It is unnecessary to make any extended remarks, or any 
comparisons of the great advantages this plan affords for the pay- 
ment of ready money, at the event, of death, over Life Insurance 
Companies. 

Parties wishing to insure should write out thfNbllowing ques- 
tions with their answers thereto: 

What is your name ? 

What is your age ? 

Where is your residence ? 

What is your occupation ? 

Have you any constitutional disease or debility ? 

Sign the above statement, and forward it to the Actuary, with 
a certificate signed by two persons connected with the Telegra- 
phic business, that the applicant is well known to them, and that 
the answers given by him to the above questions are correct? 

Applications may be sent to 

A. L. Whipple, Actuary, 

Box 39, P. O., Albany. 



Established 1842. Established 1842. 

COVERED WIRES, 

made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or 
other material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-mag- 
netic Machines, Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of 

Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, BRAIDED, ENAMELED 

SHELLACED, and all colors and kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, "Woven and Braided. Parties being 
partial to any particular kind need only enclose a small 
specimen in letter, and it can be imitated in every parti- 
cular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 
JOSIAH B. THOMPSON, 
29 North 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALLSTON SPA TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 
MANUFACTORY. 

S. F. DAY & CO., 

manufacturers and dealers in all kinds op 
MAIN-LINE 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

We would call the attention of all Telegraphers and Telegraph 
Companies to the fact that we are manufacturing 

THE BEST 

Telegraph Instruments in the country. 

We are working all Instruments with an entire new magnet, 
excluding thereby all use of Local Batteries. Our Main-Line 
Registers and Sounders have been put to the severest tests, 
and are pronounced by competent judges 

" The Best Now in Use." 

We claim to gain more power or effective working force in our 
Instruments, with ten ounces of wire, than has heretofore been 
gained by using one pound, as we get rid of the residual magnet- 
ism. 

We also manufacture a Relay with only ten ounces of wire, 
thereby putting very little resistance in the line, and doing the 
work as well, if not better, than those that contain one pound 

wire, and put a great resistance in the line. 

HENRY A. MANN. 

SAMUEL F. DAT. 



EDMANDS & HAMBLET, 

Electro-Magnetic and Magneto-Electric 
Inventors and Mechanicians. 

Office and Factory in CODMAN'S BUILDINGS, 

Nos. 30 — 40 HANOVER ST., Boston, 

(Adjoining the American House.) 



They manufacture Electric and other Fine Machinery 
to order. Their Special Inventions are : 

The Electro-Magnetic Watch Clock, 

which is the best Watchman's time recorder in the world . 



The Telegraphic Cas-Holder Cauge, 

which constantly shows at the works the quantity of 
Gas in the Holders. 



A System of Many Clock Dials, 

controlled electrically by one Standard Timepiece. 



An Electric Vane and Register, 

which shows within doors the direction of the wind at 
all times. 



A Magneto-Electric Alphabetical Dial- 
Telegraph. 

The Best and most Economical for Private Business 

and Railroad purposes, requiring no voltaic battery. 



THEY SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 

Chronographs, and Astronomical Clocks, 
Regulators, &c, &c. 

DR. L. BRADLEY, 

At No. 1 Exchange Place, 

Jersey City, N. J 1 "., 

Keeps constantly on hand and for sale his 

Improved Telegraph Instruments. 



Having adopted the use of 

OREIDE 1YIETAL, 

which is much richer and finer than brass, he now presents 
his work in a style and of a quality that are unsurpassed. 
His relays were awarded the 

FIRST PREMIUM 

at the late Great Fair of the American Institute, New York, and 
their superiority is generally acknowledged by operators who 
use them. 

Aside from the advantages apparent upon inspection of these 
magnets, their acknowledged merits consist in the construction 
of the helix, which was patented Aug. 15, 1865. This being of 
naked copper wire, so wound that the convolutions are separated 
from each other by a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of 
an inch, the layers separated by thin paper. In helices of silk 
insulated wire, the space occupied by the silk is the l-15uth to 
the l-300th of an inch; therefore a spool made of a given length 
and size of naked wire will be smaller and will contain many 
more convolutions around the core than one of silk insulated 
wire, and will make a proportionably stronger magnet, while the 
resistance will be the same. 

He is also manufacturing the 

IMPROVED BUTTON REPEATER, 

the cheapest, most reliable and simple repeater as yet invented. 

PRICES. 

Button Repeaters $6 00 

Relays, with helices in bone rubber cylinders 

(very fine) 19 50 

Small Box Belays 16 00 

Same in Bosewood 17 00 

Medium Box Belays 17 00 

Same in Bosewood 18 00 

Large Box Belay 18 00 

Main Sounders, some as the above, with heavy 
armature levers without local connections, 75 
cents less. 
Pocket Belays, with all the adjustments of the 

above, and good Lever Keys 22 00 

Excellent Begisters 40 00 

Pony Sounders 6 75 

Keys 6 50 

All other appliances made to order. Extra spools for replacing 
such as may be spoiled by lightning, furnished at $1 25 each. 
Old spools taken at the price of new wire by the pound. Goods 
sent to all parts of the continent, with bill C. O. D. Or, to save 
expense of returning funds by express, remittances may be made 
in advance by certified check, payable in New York, or by Post 
office order, in which case he will make no charge for package. 

He has ample facilities for furnishiDg all other kinds oi Tele- 
graph Supplies at lowest manufacturers' prices. 



100 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November 14, 18G8 



W. E. PACER, 

No. 48 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, 
General Manufacturing - Electrician, 

AND DEALER IN ALL KINDS OP 

Telegraphic Instruments and Supplies, 

now offers for Sale, and will Manufacture to order, as will be 
seen by the following Schedule of Prices, 

Telegraph Instruments of all Descriptions, 

of most Superior Pattern and Finish, and WARRANTED PER- 
FECT in all respects: 

Register No. 1, of Red Metal, with Weights $45 00 

" No. 2, " Brass, " " 40 00 

No. 1, Superior Adjustable Relay 22 00 

"2, " " " 19 00 

" 3, Relay, with Stationary Coils 18 00 

•' 1, Local Sounders 9 00 

" " PonySize 7 00 

Tumbler Circuit Closer Key 6 50 

Straight Lever Key, oval pattern 6 00 

Improved Plug Switch (complete) 2 75 

Lightning Arresters, per pair 2 00 



A NEW AUTOMATIC REPEATER, 

warranted equal in every respect to any Repeater hitherto manu- 
factured or used in this country, $110.00. Two Cells of Local 
Battery only are required to work this Instrument. 

Is permitted to refer to practical Telegraphers and Electricians 
of acknowledged standing and ability, as to its merits. 

All descriptions of Battery Material will be furnished at the 
lowest prices. 

The above prices are given as an indication of the very reason- 
able rates at which all other Telegraph Instruments, Materials 
and Supplies will be furnished. 

Complete Lists will be forwarded upon application. 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE. 

SUPERIOR CONDUCTIVITY, 
LIGHTNESS AND DURABILITY. 

A MOST IMPORTANT INVENTION. 

We would call the attention of Officers of Telegraph Companies, 
Telegraph Builders and Contractors, and the Public, to the new 

PATENT 

COMPOUND TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE, 

Manufactured by the 

AMERICAN COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE COMPANY, 

OF NEW YORK. 

This Wire has already been put up on sections of several Tele- 
graph Lines, and its merits fully tested, and the results show 
that it combines all the good qualities which are claimed for it, 
viz. : Economy, Superior Conductivity, and Increased Strength, with 
Decreased Weight of Metal. 

In its composition are used three metals, either of which is a 
good conductor, Steel, Copper and Tin ; and the superiority of 
Copper as a conductor over other metals is well known, and but 
for its ductility rendering its permanent suspension in a pure 
state intact impracticable, it would have always been used ex- 
clusively as a Conductor on Telegraph Lines. By combining it 
with Steel the desired strength and permanence is attained, 
and the necessary weight of the line wires reduced two 
thirds, thus obviating the necessity for using a large number of 
poles to the mile, and by reducing the points of contact, lessen- 
ing the chances for trouble and escape of the electric fluid. 

All other Line Wires must inevitably be superseded by this, 
and such Telegraph Companies as now adopt it will the sooner 
realize the advantages to be derived from its use over those 
whose lines are of the old rotten and rusty iron wire pattern. 

For further information, call on or address 

L. 6. TILLOTSON & Co., Sole Agents, 

No. 11 Dey Street, New York. 

BLISS, TILLOTSON, & Co., Agents, 

Chicago, III. 



Bound Volumes of The Telegrapher. 

We have a few copies of Volume III. of The Telegrapher, 
handsomely bound in half Turkey binding, for sale at $5.75. We 
have also a few sets of Volume II., which we will bind to ordei 
at reasonable rates, according to the quality of the binding. 

Address the Editor, Box 6077, or apply at the office, Nos. 16 
and 18 New Street, over the Gold Exchange. 



A. S. CHUBBUCK, 

UTICA, N. Y., 

Inventor of the " Pony Sounder," Register and Key, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF 

TELEGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS. 

Batteries, and all kinds of Telegraphic Supplies, constantly on 
hand. 

j8®"S witches made to order. All articles used by Telegraphers 
furnished on most reasonable terms. 

PROSPECTUS OP 

VAN NOSTRAO'S 

ECLECTIC ENGINEEEING MAGAZINE 

80 TO 9G PAGES, LARGE 8VO., MONTHLY. 

FIRST NUMBER to be ISSUED JAN'Y 1, 1869. 

Price $5 a year , in advance. Single Copies, 50 cents. 

VAN NOSTRAND'S MAGAZINE will consist of Articles Se- 
lected and Matter Condensed from all the Engineering Serial 
Publications of Europe and America. 

This will be done under the direction of Mr. A. L. HOLLEY, 
the well-known Author and Constructor in various branches of 
Engineering. 

Few active engineers or artisans can take all or most of the 
professional newspapers ; none can afford the time to wade 
through the columns of the whole scientific press, to get at the 
really important news, information and opinion. 

The object of the Magazine is to present, within limits of space 
and cost that all can afford, the cream of not less than fifty en- 
gineering, mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical publications. 
The French and German Magazines will be largely translated. 
Papers and discussions before Societies will be condensed. Pro- 
fessional news from all sources will be compiled at length. 



Address 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 

Puhlithtr and Imforter, 

192 BROADWAY, 

NEW YORK. 

VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

To be given to Agents! 

In order to afford inducements to Telegraph Operators and 
others to make special efforts to extend and increase the circula- 
tion of The Telegrapher, we have concluded to offer the fol- 
lowing 

HANDSOME AND VALUABLE PREMIUMS 

to those who may exert themselves for that purpose. 

This offer will hold good until the first of December, 1868. 

To establish a claim to either of the premiums, the subscrip- 
tions must be from parties whose names are not now upon our 
books, and must be at the regular rate of Two Dollars per year. 
Two six-mouths' subscriptions will count as one in calculating 
for a premium. 

We have already distributed a number of valuable Telegraphic 
and Scientific Works among Telegraphers, who have availed 
themselves of an offer of Premiums during the last few months 
of the preceding volume, and hope and expect yet to distribute 
many more in return for accessions to our subscription list. 

The subscription price of two dollars per year must, in all 
cases, be remitted with the names of the subscribers by parties 
desiring to avail themselves of our offer. 

For five subscribers, new, we will give to the party forwarding 
the names and money, "Highton's History of the Electric 
Telegraph," and "Bond's Handbook of the Telegraph," or 
" Ferguson's Electricity." 

For eight subscribers, " Dr. Lardner's Electric Telegraph," or 
" Prescott's History Theory and Practice of the Electric Tele- 
graph," or "Turnbull's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," or any 
other books on the list of equal value. 

For twelve subscribers, " Shaffner's Telegraph Manual," or 
"Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy," or "Sabine's 
Electric Telegraph," or " Noad's Student's Text-Book of Elec- 
tricity." Or, instead of these, any other book or books on the 
list, of equal value. 

W e have, also, a few copies of Vol. 3 of The Telegrapher, 
very handsomely bound, which, if preferred, we will give in- 
stead of the books above named in this class. 

For twenty subscribers we will give " Noad's Manual of Elec- 
tricity," or any other books of equal value on the list, as may be 
preferred. 

To the person who shall, before the first of December 
next, obtain the largest number of subscribers, not less than 
fifty, we will present a splendid copy of " A Treatise on Elec- 
tricity," by A. De La Rive, in three volumes, 8vo., the lowest 
price of which is $36.50. 

Persons who desire to avail themselves of the above offer, are 
requested to notify us of the fact, and they will be credited with 
the subscriptions forwarded, until they decide which of the above 
premiums they desire to receive. 

It is understood that the last premium is to be in addition to 
any others that may be received. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

A Journal of Electrical Progress. 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

BY THE 

NATIONAL TELEGRAPHIC UNION 

AT 

Nos. 16 & 18 NEW STREET, NEW YORK. 

[OVER THE GOLD EXCHANGE.] 

VOLUME FIVE. 



On Saturday, August 29tb, the publication of the Fifth 
Volume of The Telegrapher will commence. It has been sus- 
tained against all the adverse interests with which it has had to 
contend, and triumphing over them all, the Fourth Volume has 
proved more successful than either of those which preceded it, 
and the Fifth opens with the most flattering prospects. 

It has always been the aim of those to whom its conduct has 
been committed in the past, as it will be in the future, to make 
it in every respect 

A FIRST-CLASS TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER. 

In the future, as in the past, thorougly independent of all 
Telegraph Companies or combinations, it will advocate, fearlessly 
and persistently, the just rights of the Telegraphic Fraternity, 
by whom, and in whose interests it has been established and 
supported. All matters relating to Telegraphy will be discussed 
in a progressive, independent and liberal spirit, and it will seek 
to elevate not only the scientific but the moral and social 
standard of the Telegraphic profession. 

The Telegrapher will contain numerous original and valu- 
able contributions upon Electrical and Telegraphic science; 
Correspondence from various parts of the world; Notices ot 
changes of Telegraphic offices ; and other incidents and items of 
personal interest, together with a large and varied selection of 
Telegraphic News-items, Notes, and Memoranda of every de- 
scription. 

It will continue, as heretofore, to be illustrated with a large 
number of 

ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS 

of new and interesting inventions, and other subjects pertaining 
to Telegraphy, prepared expressly for its columns by able and 
competent artists. This is a feature possessed by no other 
Telegraphic journal in the world. 

Through its peculiar facilities, and its exchanges with all the 
Telegraphic publications in foreign countries, its readers will be 
fully and promptly informed of all matters of Telegraphic interest 
transpiring throughout the world. In short, its pages will contain 
a complete record of the progress of Electrical Science, and 
especially of the Electric Telegraph in all parts of the earth. 

Experience, energy, industry and capital will all be combined 
to make The Telegrapher what it purports to be — a journal 
or electrical progress, and tq. rend- it wo thy of the con- 
tinuance of the liberal support which it has received from the 
profession and others interested in Electrical Science and Tele- 
graphic Art, and to make it a creditable respresentative of the 
practical Telegraphic talent of the United States. 

Correspondence, items of news or personal interest, and news- 
paper extracts relating to Telegraphic matter, are solicited. The 
co-operation of every person interested in sustaining a first class 
Telegraphic newspaper is cordially invited. 

The Telegrapher is the only journal in this country devoted 
strictly and exclusively to Telegraphic interests. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

One copy, one year $2 00 

Six copies, one year, to one address 10 00 

Twelve " " " " 17 00 

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Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, $1.04, Russia 
Prussia and the west coast of South America, $3.12 per annum, in 
addition to the subscription price, for prepayment of American 
postage. 

The Paper will always be discontinued when the paid 
subscription expires. 

S^~ Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, in 
National currency, at our risk — the attention of the Postmaster 
being called to the mailing of the letters; but Post-office orders 
or drafts on New York, being safer, are preferable. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Terms, Cash. 
One insertion, per line 15 cents. 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 10 " 

JiSf No advertisement inserted for less than one dollar. 
Displayed advertisements are charged for the actual space oc- 
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A. L. Whipple, Fire Alarm Telg., Albany, N. Y. 
S. C. Rice, Western Uuion Office, " " 

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J. A. Elms, Parker House, Boston. 
B Frank Ashley, Standard Office, Bridgeport, Conn. 
W. H. Weed, W. U. Telg. Office, Oswego, N. Y. 
Jab. M. Warner, " *■ Aurora, N. Y. 

K.McKenzie, - " " St. Louis, Mo. 

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All Communications and Letters relating to, or intended for 
The Telegrapher, must be addressed to the Editor, 

P. O. Box 6077, New York. 




Vol. V. No. 13. 



New York, Saturday, November 21, 1868. 



Whole No. 123. 



[Written for The Telegrapher. ] 

Reorganization of Boston District.— The Past and 

Future of the Union. 

Perhaps it may be of some interest to the Fraternity 
at large to know what the Boston District, which has 
hitherto claimed a prominent position in the Union, but 
which has of late fallen somewhat behind the times, is 
now doing for the interest of the Society, under the new 
order of things. I shall, therefore, give you an account 
of what has been done here since the Convention. In 
doing this, however, I have no intention to present our 
organization as a pattern for other Districts to copv : I 
merely wish to show what a little patience and energy 
can sometimes accomplish, and that "some things can be 
done as well as others,'' as Sam Patch would say. 

It has often been asserted that the Union is dead, be- 
yond all hopes of revival — indeed, some members ex- 
pected that the Union would be permanently dissolved 
at the last Convention. This anticipation, however, was 
not realized, and the prospect, though at times some- 
what discouraging, is now full of promise. The new 
constitution of the Union, though perhaps not perfect, 
forms a very good foundation upon which to rebuild the 
Union, and it now only remains for the different Districts 
to go to,work and begin anew. 

On the 7th of October last a meeting of this District 
was held at the Hancock House, for the purpose of re- 
organizing our Society and adopting a District Constitu- 
tion. Fifteen members were present at this meeting. 
After examining and discussing the official report of the 
condition of the District, it was decided to strike from 
the rolls the names of all members who, under the old 
laws, woqld be liable to expulsion. People who are not 
willing to join heartily in the work are not wanted in 
any society : and, besides, we were forming a new Dis- 
trict, and these lukewarm members would have been a 
source of perpetual weakness, and only be so much dead 
weight upon the Society. Many operators had lost con- 
fidence in the Union because so many members showed 
themselves perfectly indifferent to its welfare. To restore 
confidence in the Union by a strong show of vitality was 
our first consideration, and this could be done only by 
cutting away all that was unsound, and forming the rest 
into as compact a body as possible. Numbers do not 
always make strength. A District of ten or twelve ac- 
tive members can do more to establish the District on a 
sound basis than one of forty lukewarm members. "We 
now have a well organized District here, and the pros- 
pects are that it will soon be stronger than ever. 

Under our new Constitution the officers of the District 
are a President, Mr. T. A. Davix; a Vice-President, Mr. 
P>. G. Winter ; a Treasurer, Mr. J. A. Elms ; a Record- 
ing Secretary, Mr. C. G. L. Pope ; and a Corresponding 
Secretary. This office is at present vacant, and the du- 
ties thereof devolve upon the Treasurer until a separate 
appointment shall be deemed necessary. These officers 
constitute an Executive Committee for the government of 
the District. 

The revenue is derived from an annual tax of three 
dollars upon each member, payable monthly. No initia- 



tion fee is required. Provision is also made for sick re- 
lief and members out of employment. 

Whether this plan will stand the test of experience or 
not remains of course to be seen ; but to me it seems a 
very fair beginning, and likely to meet with success. 

And now a word or two with those members who be- 
lieve that the Union, properly managed, can be made a 
success. First, we must make up our minds to commence 
the work all over again from the beginning. Every mem- 
ber who is not willing to go to work heartily with the 
rest should be dropped from the rolls. There is no 
"magic in numbers," and better have a small and strong 
District to begin with than a large and weak one. 

The first consideration, then, in re-forming the District, 
is to make it strong at any cost at the start. Each new 
member admitted afterwards will add to the strength of 
the Union. If this is not done the Union will go to the 
dogs. In framing the District Constitution, work slowly, 
if necessary, but carefully by all means, for it is the most 
important part of the work. Nothing that can well be 
put into the By-Laws should be entered in the Constitu- 
tion. This is to avoid the necessity of "tinkering" the 
Constitution hereafter, which would destroy all respect 
for it. All rules and regulations should go into the By- 
Laws, which can be changed at any time without touch- 
ing the Constitution. Do not promise too much to in- 
duce operators to join. The old Union suffered a great 
deal on this account. If we promise more than we can 
do we run the risk of passing for humbugs, and people 
do not want to be humbugged, Mr. Barxcm to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. It is impossible to please everv- 
body. Some want a protective Union, and will not join 
unless it is such ; others take a directly opposite view of 
the case. Whatever we do let us be earnest about it. 
When operators see that we mean business they will 
join us fast enough. Meantime, in order to convince 
them, we must act for ourselves. Let us be patient, and 
above all, not aim at sudden results. The more haste the 
less speed always. It takes longer to build a stone 
house than it does to make a wooden shanty, it is true ■ 
but though the shanty will for a time exclude the rain 
perhaps equally as well as the house, still the house will 
last much longer than the shanty. 

But by far the best plan to secure a good strong Union 
in the future, is to secure a large circulation to The 
Telegrapher. To tell the truth, operators, though in- 
dividually generous to a fault, are as a class rather sel- 
fish, and prefer to act individually for their own interests 
rather than in concert for the general good ; and they 
must be schooled to better feelings before a Union that 
shall embrace nearly the entire craft can be thought of, 
and The Telegrapher is the very best agent we can em- J 
ploy to do this work. 

The Union may have been conducted wrong at the 
start, it may have been mismanaged afterwards, and it 
may not have brought about all the results its founders 
had in view ; but no one will deny that it has brought 
about a better understanding between Telegraphers of 
the different sections of the country ; that it has inspired 
us with mutual feelings of kindness and respect towards 



each other, and that it has established a Telegraphic 
newspaper in this country which has already taken a 
prominent place among our literary and scientific peri- 
odicals. Is not this something to be proud of? Is not 
this enough to inspire us with new hope, and cheer us on 
to new efforts to complete the work so well begun ? 

Bostoniax. 

LITERATURE. 

A Treatise on Frictimal Electricity, in Theory and Practice, by Sir 
William Ssow Harris, F. R. S. Rlited, with a Memoir of the 
Author, by Charles Tomlinsos, F. R. S. 

A good treatise on electricity, a work in which obsolete theories 
are not repeated, with old wood cuts reproduced to iUustrate 
them, a work which shall impart the views of electricians of the 
present day, is sadly wanted, but it appears that we can scarcely 
hope to obtain them at present; for, although several works on 
electricity have appeared within the last few years, they have all 
been unsatisfactory. 

Sir W. S. Harris's posthumous work on Frictional Electricity 
forms no exception, although there are certainly some good points 
about the book. There can be no doubt that Sir William ex- 
perimented with frictional electricity as much as, perhaps more 
than any other electrician of his time — a time, too, during which 
frictional electricity was more experimented with than it has been 
since voltaic and magneto-electricity have become of so much 
greater interest and importance than electricity produced by the 
more ancient method of rubbing. Still, experimenting and phil- 
osophizing are two widely diflerent things. Sir William made 
a happy hit in his time in introducing lightning conductors, and 
was well rewarded. His success naturally made him turn his 
attention almost entirely to the study of electricity ; but we never 
could discover anything of great interest, still less, of great im- 
portance, in any of the experiments performed and published by 
Sir Willl\m. 

Some of his deductions from experiments have been proved to 
be positively incorrect, whilst his ideas of quantity, tension and 
density, have always appeared to us unnecessarily confused, when 
not entirely unintelligible. 

The first part of the work under review, however, appears to be 
confined principally to descriptions of apparatus and experiments, 
and contains very little theory. Thus, in describing the ordinary 
electrical machinery, no attempt is made to explain the action that 
takes place as regards the appearance of one kind of electricity, 
only when the rubber is connected to the surrounding con- 
ductors, or " to earth," or dux versa. It is true that the old mode 
of explaining the phenomena, by supposing the negative elec- 
tricity, when the rubber is connected to earth, to be distributed 
over the earth, and thus become "virtually annihUated," is 
wisely suppressed, and so far we see, some regard for tae ex- 
posures and condemnation of the old theories which have been 
made within the last six or seven years. 

There is no attempt made to deal with the question of the 
production of electricity when the rubber and the conductor are 
both insulated from the earth, and connected to insulated con- 
ductors, or to Leyden jars. The whole series of problems which 
can thus be prepared, and which illustrate some of the most im- 
portant laws of electricity, are entirely ignored. 

As a statement of facts relating to electrical phenomena, chap- 
ters I and II are good, although perhaps the latter portion of the 
last chapter is liable to lead the student into the author's con- 
fused ideas as regards "intensity," (? tension), quantity, and 
density. 

Chapter ILT is principally devoted to the description of the 
instruments, and seems to contain very complete descriptions of 
the instruments used by Sir William. 

The fifth chapter, on "electrical manipulation," we have but 
little doubt, must contain many valuable practical hints and re- 
ceipes as regards the construction of electrical apparatus, insula- 
ting varnishes, amalgams, &c. ; for so careful and earnest an 
experimenter as Sir William must, during his long devotion to 
the experimental study of frictional electricity, have gained im- 
mense experience in such matters. 

The second portion of the work consists of Sir William's 
theories as regards electrical force. Some of them have appeared 
before in the Philosophical Magazine. 

We cannot agree with all that is set forth in t'ifni; but to 
argue th se questions won d be beyond the limit of a review. 
The biographical notices of the author by Mr. Tomlissox is very 
interesting, and whoever differs from Sir William's views will 
certainly, after reading Mr. Tomlinson-'s notice, hold in esteem 
the memory of a man of such amiable disposition and honesty of 
purpose, even in spite of the author's bitter invective in his 
preface against ttiose who place faith in mathematical laws rather 
than in Sir William's interpretations of the result of his experi- 
ments. The work is well illustrated, or at least as well as most 
English works on the subject — and altogether containing, as it 
does, so much original writing from the pen of such a veteran in 
electrical manipulation and experiment, should be possessed by 
every electrician, although, we repeat, that the views set forth 
should not all be received without due caution, — Engineering. 



102 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[November 21, 1868. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions on 
all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Telegraphing on the U. P. R. R. 

Laramie, D. T., Oct. 20ili. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The Telegraphic interests in the "West have greatly in- 
creased within the past year. New lines have been put 
up, and the Pacific R